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1.  Kangaroo Care in a Neonatal Context: Parents’ Experiences of Information and Communication of Nurse-Parents 
The Open Nursing Journal  2013;7:41-48.
Objective:
Kangaroo Care (KC) is an evidence-based nursing practice with many benefits for infants and parents. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experience of information and communication mediated by staff nurses before and during KC at neonatal wards.
Methodology and Participants:
A qualitative study with semi-structured interviews was performed. The sample consisted of 20 parents.
Results:
The results show that the information and communication were experienced as both optimal and suboptimal including following categories: initially conflicting emotions in relation to KC, participation and confidence in KC is evolving, strengthening preparation and context is decisive as well as parental sense and caution. The overall theme was that good preparation will contribute to a positive experience of KC.
Conclusion:
The conclusion is that most of the parents had positive experiences of KC. The information and communication from the staff nurses encouraged and motivated the parents to practice KC, in a sense that it was a natural way to get to know the infant, when the staff nurses were well versed in the method and coherent and supportive. Conflicting emotions emerged when staff nurses practised KC as a routine without deeper knowledge and skills of the method and its advantages as well as without sensitivity to parents’ vulnerable situation.
doi:10.2174/1874434601307010041
PMCID: PMC3680980  PMID: 23802029
Communication; information; Kangaroo Care (KC); neonatal; parents experience.
2.  “The Logic of Care” – Parents’ perceptions of the educational process when a child is newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes 
BMC Pediatrics  2012;12:165.
Background
The number of new cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has increased substantially in recent years and it is now one of the most common long-term endocrine disorders in childhood. In Sweden the child and family are hospitalised in accordance with the national guidelines for one to two weeks at diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ perceptions of the educational process when their child is newly diagnosed with T1DM.
Methods
Qualitative interviews were performed in the south western part of Sweden with ten mothers and eight fathers of children, diagnosed with T1DM, at three to six months after they had received the diagnosis. The interviews were analysed using deductive content analysis and Mol’s philosophical theory.
Results
The results show that almost all parents had experienced the educational process as being satisfactory. However, most parents felt that the teaching needed to be adapted to the individual families and to help them to learn to live with diabetes in their everyday lives. Rather than merely teaching according to a fixed schedule and cramming knowledge, the education should be parent-centered and provide time for grief and shock. There should also be a greater emphasis on why certain things should be done rather than on what should be done. The routines learned at the hospital made the efforts to be good parents managing the child’s disease, and continuing to lead a normal family life, a difficult task.
Conclusions
In order to optimize the educational process for families with children newly diagnosed with T1DM an increased focus on the families’ perceptions might be helpful in that this could lead to further revelations of the educational process thus making it more understandable for the family members involved.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-165
PMCID: PMC3489565  PMID: 23083125
Diabetes education; Children; Parents; Qualitative research; Type 1 diabetes
3.  Remembering the Chaos - But Life Went on and the Wound Healed. A Four Year Follow Up with Parents having had a Baby with Infantile Colic 
The Open Nursing Journal  2012;6:53-61.
Objective:
To elucidate parent´s experience of having had a baby with colic four years previously and of how the colic and care influenced the family in a long-term perspective.
Methodology and Participants:
A qualitative inductive follow-up study with 13 individual and one focus group interview including four parents. Altogether ten mothers and seven fathers representing 12 families, who had been interviewed when they were in the midst of the colicky period four years ago, were in the present study interviewed between December 2010 and May 2011. Parents’ narratives were analysed using content analysis.
Results:
Parent´s memories of the exhausting colic period were vivid, but when the colic had healed the family relationships also healed. Although it had taken longer time for some parents to attach to their child they now experienced a close relationship with their four year old child and felt confident in their role as parent. The colic scream was still unbearable and evoked negative feelings in the parents. Parents had decreased confidence in Child Health services and made suggestions for improvements in the health care approach. Most of all they wished for an effective treatment of infantile colic.
Conclusion:
The family relationships were healed and the colic left only few residual symptoms but parents still had decreased confidence in the Child Health Center. Consequently, there is a need to raise awareness to parents’ situation when having a child with infantile colic.
doi:10.2174/1874434601206010053
PMCID: PMC3362860  PMID: 22655001
Baby; content analysis; crying; infantile colic; interviews; long term effects; parents’ experiences.
4.  Parents' experiences of an abnormal ultrasound examination - vacillating between emotional confusion and sense of reality 
Reproductive Health  2010;7:10.
Background
An ultrasound examination is an important confirmation of the pregnancy and is accepted without reflection to any prenatal diagnostic aspects. An abnormal finding often comes unexpectedly and is a shock for the parents. The aim was to generate a theoretical understanding of parents' experiences of the situation when their fetus is found to have an abnormality at a routine ultrasound examination.
Methods
Sixteen parents, mothers and fathers, whose fetus had been diagnosed with an abnormality during an ultrasound scan in the second or third trimester, were interviewed. The study employed a grounded theory approach.
Results
The core category vacillating between the emotional confusion and sense of reality is related to the main concern assessment of the diagnosis impact on the well-being of the fetus. Two other categories Entering uncertainty and Involved in an ongoing change and adaptation have each five sub-categories.
Conclusions
Parents are aware of that ultrasound examination is a tool for identifying abnormalities prenatally. The information about the abnormality initially results in broken expectations and anxiety. Parents become involved in ongoing change and adaptation. They need information about the ultrasound findings and the treatment without prolonged delay and in a suitable environment. The examiner who performs the ultrasound examination must be aware of how anxiety can be intensified by environmental factors. All parents should to be offered a professional person to give them support as a part of the routine management of this situation.
doi:10.1186/1742-4755-7-10
PMCID: PMC2904723  PMID: 20546610
5.  A multi-disciplinary education process related to the discharging of children from hospital when the child has been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes - a qualitative study 
BMC Pediatrics  2010;10:36.
Background
Worldwide, insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes is one of the most frequently diagnosed long-term endocrine disorders found in children and the incidences of this diseased is still increasing. In Sweden the routines are, according to national guidelines, when the child is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, the child and its family remains at the hospital for about two weeks. There is limited knowledge about how a diabetes team handles a child and its family from admission to discharge, therefore the purpose of this study was to seek a deeper understanding of how the diabetes team's parent/child education process works, from admission to discharge, among families with a child newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.
Methods
Qualitative data collection was used. Four focus-group interviews, with a sample of three diabetes teams from different paediatric hospitals in the south western part of Sweden, were conducted and the data recorded on tape and then analysed using qualitative content analysis.
Results
The results indicate that achieving a status of self-care on the part of the patient is the goal of the diabetes education programme. Part of the programme is aimed at guiding the child and its parents towards self-help through the means of providing them with knowledge of the disease and its treatment to enable the whole family to understand the need for cooperation in the process. To do this requires an understanding, by the diabetes team, of the individualities of the family in order to gain an overall picture.
Conclusion
The results of this study show that the diabetes education programme is specifically designed for each family using the internationally recommended clinical practice guidelines with its specific aims and objectives. Achieving the families' willingness to assist in the self-care of the child care is the goal of the parent education process. To achieve this, the paediatric diabetes specialist nurse and the diabetes specialist paediatrician immediately and deliberately start the process of educating the family using a programme designed to give them the necessary knowledge and skills they will need to manage their child's type 1 diabetes at home.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-10-36
PMCID: PMC2889941  PMID: 20507611

Results 1-5 (5)