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1.  Teaching pediatric communication skills to medical students 
Delivering effective clinical pediatric communication skills training to undergraduate medical students is a distinct and important challenge. Pediatric-specific communication skills teaching is complex and under-researched. We report on the development of a scenario-based pediatric clinical communication skills program as well as students’ assessment of this module.
We designed a pediatric clinical communication skills program and delivered it five times during one academic year via small-group teaching. Students were asked to score the workshop in eight domains (learning objectives, complexity, interest, competencies, confidence, tutors, feedback, and discussion) using 5-point Likert scales, along with free text comments that were grouped and analyzed thematically, identifying both the strengths of the workshop and changes suggested to improve future delivery.
Two hundred and twenty-one of 275 (80%) student feedback forms were returned. Ninety-six percent of students’ comments were positive or very positive, highlighting themes such as the timing of teaching, relevance, group sizes, and the use of actors, tutors, and clinical scenarios.
Scenario-based teaching of clinical communication skills is positively received by students. Studies need to demonstrate an impact on practice, performance, development, and sustainability of communications training.
PMCID: PMC4303365  PMID: 25653569
communication training; undergraduates; pediatrics; actors
2.  Calling time on the 10-minute consultation 
PMCID: PMC3289798  PMID: 22429410
3.  Counselling patients about behaviour change: the challenge of talking about diet 
As obesity levels increase, opportunistic behaviour change counselling from primary care clinicians in consultations about healthy eating is ever more important. However, little is known about the approaches clinicians take with patients.
To describe the content of simulated consultations on healthy eating in primary care, and compare this with the content of smoking cessation consultations.
Design and setting
Qualitative study of 23 audiotaped simulated healthy eating and smoking cessation consultations between an actor and primary care clinicians (GPs and nurses) within a randomised controlled trial looking at behaviour change counselling.
Consultations were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, then analysed inductively using thematic analysis. A thematic framework was developed by all authors and applied to the data. The content of healthy eating consultations was contrasted with that given for smoking cessation.
There was a lack of consistency and clarity when clinicians discussed healthy eating compared with smoking; in smoking cessation consultations, the content was clearer to both the clinician and patient. There was a lack of specificity about what dietary changes should be made, how changes could be achieved, and how progress could be monitored. Barriers to change were addressed in more depth within the smoking cessation consultations than within the healthy eating encounters.
At present, dietary counselling by clinicians in primary care does not typically contain consistent, clear suggestions for specific change, how these could be achieved, and how progress would be monitored. This may contribute to limited uptake and efficacy of dietary counselling in primary care.
PMCID: PMC3252535  PMID: 22520664
communication, behaviour change counselling; commnication; healthy eating; primary care
4.  Communicating with parents about vaccination: a framework for health professionals 
BMC Pediatrics  2012;12:154.
A critical factor shaping parental attitudes to vaccination is the parent’s interactions with health professionals. An effective interaction can address the concerns of vaccine supportive parents and motivate a hesitant parent towards vaccine acceptance. Poor communication can contribute to rejection of vaccinations or dissatisfaction with care. We sought to provide a framework for health professionals when communicating with parents about vaccination.
Literature review to identify a spectrum of parent attitudes or ‘positions’ on childhood vaccination with estimates of the proportion of each group based on population studies. Development of a framework related to each parental position with determination of key indicators, goals and strategies based on communication science, motivational interviewing and valid consent principles.
Five distinct parental groups were identified: the ‘unquestioning acceptor’ (30–40%), the ‘cautious acceptor’ (25–35%); the ‘hesitant’ (20–30%); the ‘late or selective vaccinator’ (2–27%); and the ‘refuser’ of all vaccines (<2%). The goals of the encounter with each group will vary, depending on the parents’ readiness to vaccinate. In all encounters, health professionals should build rapport, accept questions and concerns, and facilitate valid consent. For the hesitant, late or selective vaccinators, or refusers, strategies should include use of a guiding style and eliciting the parent’s own motivations to vaccinate while, avoiding excessive persuasion and adversarial debates. It may be necessary to book another appointment or offer attendance at a specialised adverse events clinic. Good information resources should also be used.
Health professionals have a central role in maintaining public trust in vaccination, including addressing parents’ concerns. These recommendations are tailored to specific parental positions on vaccination and provide a structured approach to assist professionals. They advocate respectful interactions that aim to guide parents towards quality decisions.
PMCID: PMC3480952  PMID: 22998654
5.  Shared Decision Making: A Model for Clinical Practice 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2012;27(10):1361-1367.
The principles of shared decision making are well documented but there is a lack of guidance about how to accomplish the approach in routine clinical practice. Our aim here is to translate existing conceptual descriptions into a three-step model that is practical, easy to remember, and can act as a guide to skill development. Achieving shared decision making depends on building a good relationship in the clinical encounter so that information is shared and patients are supported to deliberate and express their preferences and views during the decision making process. To accomplish these tasks, we propose a model of how to do shared decision making that is based on choice, option and decision talk. The model has three steps: a) introducing choice, b) describing options, often by integrating the use of patient decision support, and c) helping patients explore preferences and make decisions. This model rests on supporting a process of deliberation, and on understanding that decisions should be influenced by exploring and respecting “what matters most” to patients as individuals, and that this exploration in turn depends on them developing informed preferences.
PMCID: PMC3445676  PMID: 22618581
shared decision making; patient centered care
6.  Learning contexts at Two UK medical schools: A comparative study using mixed methods 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:153.
The context in which learning takes place exerts a powerful effect on the approach learners take to their work. In some instances learners will be forced by the nature of a task to adopt a less-favoured approach.
In this study, we used a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to compare the effect of context on learning at different UK medical schools. We compared schools with conventional, and problem-based curricula.
We had collected data from 30 interviews with third year medical students in one UK medical school with a conventional, lecture-based curriculum in relation to a previous study. The interview guide had explored effects of context and approach to learning. We used the same guide to interview 6 students in another UK medical school with a problem-based curriculum.
We then put together a pack of validated questionnaires, which measured the phenomena that had emerged in the interviews. In particular we selected questionnaires which measured the criteria on which students from the different schools appeared to demonstrate greatest variance.
There were two areas where students from schools with differing curricula differed - basic learning activity and assessment. Students at the lecture-based school attended lectures where they received information while students at the Problem-based school attended tutorials where they stimulated prior knowledge and identified new learning objectives. Progress -testing at the problem-based school helped students gain a sense of accumulating a body of knowledge needed for their life in medicine while students' at the lecture-based school directed their learning towards passing the next set of exams.
The findings from quantitative, questionnaire data correlated with the interview findings. They showed that students at a school with a PBL curriculum scored significantly higher for reflection in learning, self-efficacy in self-directed learning and for deep approach to learning.
We set out to determine whether students at different medical schools approach their learning differently. We have succeeded in demonstrating that this is the case.
The differences that we detected in learning context and approaches to learning in medical students at the two schools predict that learning at the non PBL school is likely to be via a surface approach and not integrated. These differences have major implications for the outcomes of medical student learning at the two schools in terms of accessibility and sustainability of learning.
PMCID: PMC3327637  PMID: 22429681
7.  Non-verbal behaviour 
PMCID: PMC2858538
8.  Complaints against doctors 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2008;336(7649):841-842.
Could be reduced by identifying and remedying poor communication skills early on
PMCID: PMC2323071  PMID: 18420664
9.  Streamline triage and manage user expectations: lessons from a qualitative study of GP out-of-hours services 
Several models of GP out-of-hours provision exist in the UK but there is little detail about their effectiveness to meet users' needs and expectations.
To explore users' needs, expectations, and experiences of out-of-hours care, and to identify proposals for service redesign.
Service providers in urban (GP cooperative), mixed (hospital based), rural (private) locations in Wales.
Sixty recent service users or carers (20 in each location).
Semi-structured telephone interviews; thematic analysis.
Users' concerns were generally consistent across the three different services. Efficiency was a major concern, with repetitive triage procedures and long time delays at various stages in the process being problematic. Access to a doctor when required was also important to users, who perceived an obstructive gatekeeping function of preliminary contacts. Expectations moderated the relationship between user concerns and satisfaction. Where expectations of outcome were unfulfilled, participants reported greater likelihood of reconsulting with the same or alternative services for the same illness episode. Accurate expectations concerning contacts with the next administrative, nursing, or medical staff professional were managed by appropriate information provision.
Users require more streamlined and flexible triage systems. Their expectations need to be understood and incorporated into how services advise and provide services for users, and actively managed to meet the aims of both enhancing satisfaction and enabling users to cope with their condition. Better information and education about services are needed if users are to derive the greatest benefit and satisfaction. This may influence choices about using the most appropriate forms of care.
PMCID: PMC2828862  PMID: 20202350
out-of-hours medical care; family medicine; qualitative evaluation
11.  Supporting Informed Decision Making for Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Testing on the Web: An Online Randomized Controlled Trial 
Men considering the prostate specific antigen (PSA) test for prostate cancer, an increasingly common male cancer, are encouraged to make informed decisions, as the test is limited in its accuracy and the natural history of the condition is poorly understood. The Web-based PSA decision aid, Prosdex, was developed as part of the UK Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme in order to help men make such informed decisions.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Web-based PSA decision aid, Prosdex, on informed decision making.
A Web-based randomized controlled trial was conducted in South Wales, United Kingdom. Men aged 50 to 75 who had not previously had a PSA test were randomly allocated to two intervention and two control groups. Participants in the intervention groups either viewed Prosdex or were given a paper version of the text. The main outcome measures were the three components of informed decision making: (1) knowledge of prostate cancer and PSA, (2) attitude toward PSA testing, (3) behavior using a proxy measure, intention to undergo PSA testing. Decisional conflict and anxiety were also measured as was uptake of the PSA test. Outcomes were measured by means of an online questionnaire for the Prosdex group, the paper version group, and one of two control groups. Six months later, PSA test uptake was ascertained from general practitioners’ records, and the online questionnaire was repeated. Results are reported in terms of the Mann-Whitney U-statistic divided by the product of the two sample sizes (U/mm), line of no effect 0.50.
Participants were 514 men. Compared with the control group that completed the initial online questionnaire, men in the Prosdex group had increased knowledge about the PSA test and prostate cancer (U/mn 0.70; 95% CI 0.62 - 0.76); less favourable attitudes to PSA testing (U/mn 0.39, 95% CI 0.31 - 0.47); were less likely to undergo PSA testing (U/mn 0.40, 95% CI 0.32 - 0.48); and had less decisional conflict (U/mn 0.32, 95% CI 0.25 - 0.40); while anxiety level did not differ (U/mn 0.50, 95% CI 0.42 - 0.58). For these outcomes there were no significant differences between men in the Prosdex group and the paper version group. However, in the Prosdex group, increased knowledge was associated with a less favourable attitude toward testing (Spearman rank correlation [ρ] = -0.49, P < .001) and lower intention to undergo testing (ρ = -0.27, P = .02). After six months, PSA test uptake was lower in the Prosdex group than in the paper version and the questionnaire control group (P = .014). Test uptake was also lower in the control group that did not complete a questionnaire than in the control group that did, suggesting a possible Hawthorne effect of the questionnaire in favour of PSA testing.
Exposure to Prosdex was associated with improved knowledge about the PSA test and prostate cancer. Men who had a high level of knowledge had a less favourable attitude toward and were less likely to undergo PSA testing. Prosdex appears to promote informed decision making regarding the PSA test.
Trial Registration
ISRCTN48473735; (Archived by WebCite at
PMCID: PMC2956331  PMID: 20693148
Decision aid; Informed decision making; Internet; Prostate cancer; Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) test
12.  Interventions before consultations to help patients address their information needs by encouraging question asking: systematic review 
Objective To assess the effects on patients, clinicians, and the healthcare system of interventions before consultations to help patients or their representatives gather information in consultations by question asking.
Design Systematic review with meta-analysis.
Data sources Electronic literature searches of seven databases and hand searching of one journal and bibliographies of relevant articles.
Review methods Inclusion criteria included randomised controlled trials.
Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were question asking; patients’ anxiety, knowledge, and satisfaction; and length of consultation.
Results 33 randomised trials of variable quality involving 8244 patients were identified. A few studies showed positive effects. Meta-analyses showed small and statistically significantly increases in question asking (standardised mean difference 0.27, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 0.36) and patients’ satisfaction (0.09, 0.03 to 0.16). Non-statistically significant changes occurred in patients’ anxiety before consultations (weighted mean difference −1.56, −7.10 to 3.97), patients’ anxiety after consultations (standardised mean difference −0.08, −0.22 to 0.06), patients’ knowledge (−0.34, −0.94 to 0.25), and length of consultation (0.10, −0.05 to 0.25). Interventions comprising written materials had similar effects on question asking, consultation length, and patients’ satisfaction as those comprising the coaching of patients. Interventions with additional training of clinicians had little further effect than those targeted at patients alone for patients’ satisfaction and consultation length.
Conclusions Interventions for patients before consultations produce small benefits for patients. This may be because patients and clinicians have established behaviours in consultations that are difficult to change. Alternatively small increases in question asking may not be sufficient to make notable changes to other outcomes.
PMCID: PMC2500196  PMID: 18632672
13.  A randomised controlled trial of the effects of a web-based PSA decision aid, Prosdex. Protocol 
BMC Family Practice  2007;8:58.
Informed decision making is the theoretical basis in the UK for men's decisions about Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing for prostate cancer testing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a web-based PSA decision-aid, Prosdex, on informed decision making in men. The objective is to assess the effect of Prosdex on six specific outcomes: (i) knowledge of PSA and prostate cancer-related issues – the principal outcome of the study; (ii) attitudes to testing; (iii) decision conflict; (iv) anxiety; (v) intention to undergo PSA testing; (vi) uptake of PSA testing. In addition, a mathematical simulation model of the effects of Prosdex will be developed.
A randomised controlled trial with four groups: two intervention groups, one viewing Prosdex and the other receiving a paper version of the site; two control groups, the second controlling for the potential Hawthorn effect of the questionnaire used with the first control group. Men between the ages of 50 and 75, who have not previously had a PSA test, will be recruited from General Practitioners (GPs) in Wales, UK. The principal outcome, knowledge, and four other outcome measures – attitudes to testing, decision conflict, anxiety and intention to undergo testing – will be measured with an online questionnaire, used by men in three of the study groups. Six months later, PSA test uptake will be ascertained from GP records; the online questionnaire will then be repeated. These outcomes, and particularly PSA test uptake, will be used to develop a mathematical simulation model, specifically to consider the impact on health service resources.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trial: ISRCTN48473735.
PMCID: PMC2075498  PMID: 17916259
14.  Exploring students' perceptions on the use of significant event analysis, as part of a portfolio assessment process in general practice, as a tool for learning how to use reflection in learning 
Portfolio learning enables students to collect evidence of their learning. Component tasks making up a portfolio can be devised that relate directly to intended learning outcomes. Reflective tasks can stimulate students to recognise their own learning needs.
Assessment of portfolios using a rating scale relating to intended learning outcomes offers high content validity.
This study evaluated a reflective portfolio used during a final-year attachment in general practice (family medicine). Students were asked to evaluate the portfolio (which used significant event analysis as a basis for reflection) as a learning tool. The validity and reliability of the portfolio as an assessment tool were also measured.
81 final-year medical students completed reflective significant event analyses as part of a portfolio created during a three-week attachment (clerkship) in general practice (family medicine). As well as two reflective significant event analyses each portfolio contained an audit and a health needs assessment.
Portfolios were marked three times; by the student's GP teacher, the course organiser and by another teacher in the university department of general practice. Inter-rater reliability between pairs of markers was calculated. A questionnaire enabled the students' experience of portfolio learning to be determined.
Benefits to learning from reflective learning were limited. Students said that they thought more about the patients they wrote up in significant event analyses but information as to the nature and effect of this was not forthcoming.
Moderate inter-rater reliability (Spearman's Rho .65) was found between pairs of departmental raters dealing with larger numbers (20 – 60) of portfolios. Inter-rater reliability of marking involving GP tutors who only marked 1 – 3 portfolios was very low.
Students rated highly their mentoring relationship with their GP teacher but found the portfolio tasks time-consuming.
The inter-rater reliability observed in this study should be viewed alongside the high validity afforded by the authenticity of the learning tasks (compared with a sample of a student's learning taken by an exam question). Validity is enhanced by the rating scale which directly connects the grade given with intended learning outcomes.
The moderate inter-rater reliability may be increased if a portfolio is completed over a longer period of time and contains more component pieces of work.
The questionnaire used in this study only accessed limited information about the effect of reflection on students' learning. Qualitative methods of evaluation would determine the students experience in greater depth. It would be useful to evaluate the effects of reflective learning after students have had more time to get used to this unfamiliar method of learning and to overcome any problems in understanding the task.
PMCID: PMC1852102  PMID: 17397544
15.  Comparison of GP and nurse practitioner consultations: an observational study 
Studies show that satisfaction with nurse practitioner care is high when compared with GPs. Clinical outcomes are similar. Nurse practitioners spend significantly longer on consultations.
We aimed to discover what nurse practitioners do with the extra time, and how their consultations differ from those of GPs.
Design of study
Comparative content analysis of audiotape transcriptions of 18 matched pairs of nurse practitioner and GP consultations.
Nine general practices in south Wales and south west England.
Consultations were taped and clinicians' utterances coded into categories developed inductively from the data, and deductively from the literature review.
Nurse practitioners spent twice as long with their patients and both patients and clinicians spoke more in nurse consultations. Nurses talked significantly more than GPs about treatments and, within this, talked significantly more about how to apply or carry out treatments. Weaker evidence was found for differences in the direction of nurses being more likely to: discuss social and emotional aspects of patients' lives; discuss the likely course of the patient's condition and side effects of treatments; and to use humour. Some of the extra time was also spent in getting doctors to approve treatment plans and sign prescriptions.
The provision of more information in the longer nurse consultations may explain differences in patient satisfaction found in other studies. Clinicians need to consider how much information it is appropriate to provide to particular patients.
PMCID: PMC1570503  PMID: 16378563
communication; consulting styles; nurse practitioners
16.  Consultations about changing behaviour 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2005;331(7522):961-963.
Persuading patients to change behaviour that is damaging their health can be difficult. Changing the style of consultation could improve the experience for doctors and patients
PMCID: PMC1261200  PMID: 16239696
17.  Communicating about expected course and re-consultation for respiratory tract infections in children: an exploratory study 
Acute respiratory tract infection is the commonest reason for children consulting, and about one-fifth re-consult for the same illness episode. Fifty-nine audiotape recordings from nine general practitioners (GPs) consulting with children with acute respiratory tract infections were examined. Prognosis was mentioned in only 22 consultations, with GPs predicting a brief course in 11, a possibly longer than expected course in six, and with predicted duration not made explicit in five. Carers were invited to re-consult if they were ‘unhappy’ with the child's condition in 11 consultations, and specific triggers to re-consult were provided in 15. A patient information leaflet was given out only once. Providing carers with an evidence-based account of the likely clinical course and communicating specific triggers to re-consult may help them manage more of these illness episodes without re-consulting.
PMCID: PMC1324807  PMID: 15239917
children; infections, upper respiratory; physician–patient relations; prognosis; patient education
18.  A systematic review of the effect of primary care-based service innovations on quality and patterns of referral to specialist secondary care. 
BACKGROUND: Innovations are proliferating at the primary-secondary care interface, affecting referral to secondary care and resource use. Evidence about the range of effects and implications for the healthcare system of different types of innovation have not previously been summarised. AIM: To review the available evidence on initiatives affecting primary care referral to specialist secondary care. SETTING: Studies of primary-secondary care interface. METHOD: Systematic review of trials, using adapted Cochrane Collaboration (effective practice and organisation of care) criteria. Studies from 1980 to 2001 were identified from a wide range of sources. Strict inclusion criteria were applied, and relevant clinical, service and cost data extracted using an agreed protocol. The main outcome measures were referral rates to specialist secondary care. RESULTS: Of the 139 studies initially identified. 34 met the review criteria. An updated search added a further 10 studies. Two studies provided economic analysis only. Referral was not the primary outcome of interest in the majority of included studies. Professional interventions generally had an impact on referral rates consistent with the intended change in clinician behaviour. Similarly, specialist 'outreach' or other primary care-based specialist provider schemes had at least a small effect upon referral rates to secondary care with the direction of effect being that intended or rational from a clinical and sociological perspective. Of the financial interventions, one was aimed primarily at changing the numbers or proportion of referrals from primary to specialist secondary care, and the direction of change was as expected in all cases. The quality of the reporting of the economic components of the 14 studies giving economic data was poor in many cases. When grouped by intervention type, no overall pattern of change in referral costs or total costs emerged. CONCLUSION: The studies identified were extremely diverse in methodology, clinical subject, organisational form, and quality of evidence. The number of good quality evaluations of innovative schemes to enhance the existing capacity of primary care was small, but increasing. Well-evaluated service initiatives in this area should be supported. Organisational innovations in the structure of service provision need not increase total costs to the National Health Service (NHS), even though costs associated with referral may increase. This review provides limited, partial, and conditional support for current primary care-oriented NHS policy developments in the United Kingdom.
PMCID: PMC1314732  PMID: 14702909
21.  Randomised controlled trial of nurse practitioner versus general practitioner care for patients requesting “same day” consultations in primary care 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2000;320(7241):1043-1048.
To ascertain any differences between care from nurse practitioners and that from general practitioners for patients seeking “same day” consultations in primary care.
Randomised controlled trial with patients allocated by one of two randomisation schemes (by day or within day).
10 general practices in south Wales and south west England.
1368 patients requesting same day consultations.
Main outcome measures
Patient satisfaction, resolution of symptoms and concerns, care provided (prescriptions, investigations, referrals, recall, and length of consultation), information provided to patients, and patients' intentions for seeking care in the future.
Generally patients consulting nurse practitioners were significantly more satisfied with their care, although for adults this difference was not observed in all practices. For children, the mean difference between general and nurse practitioner in percentage satisfaction score was –4.8 (95% confidence interval –6.8 to –2.8), and for adults the differences ranged from –8.8 (–13.6 to –3.9) to 3.8 (–3.3 to 10.8) across the practices. Resolution of symptoms and concerns did not differ between the two groups (odds ratio 1.2 (95% confidence interval 0.8 to 1.8) for symptoms and 1.03 (0.8 to 1.4) for concerns). The number of prescriptions issued, investigations ordered, referrals to secondary care, and reattendances were similar between the two groups. However, patients managed by nurse practitioners reported receiving significantly more information about their illnesses and, in all but one practice, their consultations were significantly longer.
This study supports the wider acceptance of the role of nurse practitioners in providing care to patients requesting same day consultations.
PMCID: PMC27347  PMID: 10764366
25.  Training practitioners to deliver opportunistic multiple behaviour change counselling in primary care: a cluster randomised trial 
Objectives To evaluate the effect of training primary care health professionals in behaviour change counselling on the proportion of patients self reporting change in four risk behaviours (smoking, alcohol use, exercise, and healthy eating).
Design Cluster randomised trial with general practices as the unit of randomisation.
Setting General practices in Wales.
Participants 53 general practitioners and practice nurses from 27 general practices (one each at all but one practice) recruited 1827 patients who screened positive for at least one risky behaviour.
Intervention Behaviour change counselling was developed from motivational interviewing to enable clinicians to enhance patients’ motivation to change health related behaviour. Clinicians were trained using a blended learning programme called Talking Lifestyles.
Main outcome measures Proportion of patients who reported making beneficial changes in at least one of the four risky behaviours at three months.
Results 1308 patients from 13 intervention and 1496 from 14 control practices were approached: 76% and 72% respectively agreed to participate, with 831 (84%) and 996 (92%) respectively screening eligible for an intervention. There was no effect on the primary outcome (beneficial change in behaviour) at three months (362 (44%) v 404 (41%), odds ratio 1.12 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.39)) or on biochemical or biometric measures at 12 months. More patients who had consulted with trained clinicians recalled consultation discussion about a health behaviour (724/795 (91%) v 531/966 (55%), odds ratio 12.44 (5.85 to 26.46)) and intended to change (599/831 (72%) v 491/996 (49%), odds ratio 2.88 (2.05 to 4.05)). More intervention practice patients reported making an attempt to change (328 (39%) v 317 (32%), odds ratio 1.40 (1.15 to 1.70)), a sustained behaviour change at three months (288 (35%) v 280 (28%), odds ratio 1.36 (1.11 to 1.65)), and reported slightly greater improvements in healthy eating at three and 12 months, plus improved activity at 12 months. Training cost £1597 per practice.
Discussion Training primary care clinicians in behaviour change counselling using a brief blended learning programme did not increase patients reported beneficial behaviour change at three months or improve biometric and a biochemical measure at 12 months, but it did increase patients’ recollection of discussing behaviour change with their clinicians, intentions to change, attempts to change, and perceptions of having made a lasting change at three months. Enduring behaviour change and improvements in biometric measures are unlikely after a single routine consultation with a clinician trained in behaviour change counselling without additional intervention.
Trial registration ISRCTN 22495456
PMCID: PMC3601942  PMID: 23512758

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