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1.  An fMRI study of the brain responses of traumatized mothers to viewing their toddlers during separation and play 
This study tested whether mothers with interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (IPV-PTSD) vs healthy controls (HC) would show greater limbic and less frontocortical activity when viewing young children during separation compared to quiet play. Mothers of 20 children (12–42 months) participated: 11 IPV-PTSD mothers and 9 HC with no PTSD. During fMRI, mothers watched epochs of play and separation from their own and unfamiliar children. The study focused on comparison of PTSD mothers vs HC viewing children in separation vs play, and viewing own vs unfamiliar children in separation. Both groups showed distinct patterns of brain activation in response to viewing children in separation vs play. PTSD mothers showed greater limbic and less frontocortical activity (BA10) than HC. PTSD mothers also reported feeling more stressed than HC when watching own and unfamiliar children during separation. Their self-reported stress was associated with greater limbic and less frontocortical activity. Both groups also showed distinct patterns of brain activation in response to viewing their own vs unfamiliar children during separation. PTSD mothers’ may not have access to frontocortical regulation of limbic response upon seeing own and unfamiliar children in separation. This converges with previously reported associations of maternal IPV-PTSD and atypical caregiving behavior following separation.
doi:10.1093/scan/nsr069
PMCID: PMC3501701  PMID: 22021653
maternal PTSD; early childhood; functional neuroimaging; emotion regulation; corticolimbic pathways; interpersonal violence
2.  Randomized controlled trial of Family Nurture Intervention in the NICU: assessments of length of stay, feasibility and safety 
BMC Pediatrics  2013;13:148.
Background
While survival rates for preterm infants have increased, the risk for adverse long-term neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes remains very high. In response to the need for novel, evidence-based interventions that prevent such outcomes, we have assessed Family Nurture Intervention (FNI), a novel dual mother-infant intervention implemented while the infant is in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Here, we report the first trial results, including the primary outcome measure, length of stay in the NICU and, the feasibility and safety of its implementation in a high acuity level IV NICU.
Methods
The FNI trial is a single center, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial at Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital for mothers and their singleton or twin infants of 26–34 weeks gestation. Families were randomized to standard care (SC) or (FNI). FNI was implemented by nurture specialists trained to facilitate affective communication between mother and infant during specified calming interactions. These interactions included scent cloth exchange, sustained touch, vocal soothing and eye contact, wrapped or skin-to-skin holding, plus family-based support interactions.
Results
A total of 826 infants born between 26 and 34 weeks during the 3.5 year study period were admitted to the NICU. After infant and mother screening plus exclusion due to circumstances that prevented the family from participating, 373 infants were eligible for the study. Of these, we were unable to schedule a consent meeting with 56, and consent was withheld by 165. Consent was obtained for 150 infants from 115 families. The infants were block randomized to groups of N = 78, FNI and N = 72, SC. Sixteen (9.6%) of the randomized infants did not complete the study to home discharge, 7% of those randomized to SC and 12% of FNI infants. Mothers in the intervention group engaged in 3 to 4 facilitated one- to two-hour sessions/week. Intent to treat analyses revealed no significant difference between groups in medical complications. The mean length of stay was not significantly affected by the intervention.
Conclusion
There was no significant effect demonstrated with this intervention amount on the primary short-term outcome, length of stay. FNI can be safely and feasibly implemented within a level IV NICU.
Trial registration
Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01439269
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-148
PMCID: PMC3851000  PMID: 24063360
Premature infant; NICU; Nurture; Safety; Feasibility; Length of stay
4.  Family nurture intervention (FNI): methods and treatment protocol of a randomized controlled trial in the NICU 
BMC Pediatrics  2012;12:14.
Background
The stress that results from preterm birth, requisite acute care and prolonged physical separation in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) can have adverse physiological/psychological effects on both the infant and the mother. In particular, the experience compromises the establishment and maintenance of optimal mother-infant relationship, the subsequent development of the infant, and the mother's emotional well-being. These findings highlight the importance of investigating early interventions that are designed to overcome or reduce the effects of these environmental insults and challenges.
Methods
This study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with blinded assessment comparing Standard Care (SC) with a novel Family Nurture Intervention (FNI). FNI targets preterm infants born 26-34 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) and their mothers in the NICU. The intervention incorporates elements of mother-infant interventions with known efficacy and organizes them under a new theoretical context referred to collectively as calming activities. This intervention is facilitated by specially trained Nurture Specialists in three ways: 1) In the isolette through calming interactions between mother and infant via odor exchange, firm sustained touch and vocal soothing, and eye contact; 2) Outside the isolette during holding and feeding via the Calming Cycle; and 3) through family sessions designed to engage help and support the mother. In concert with infant neurobehavioral and physiological assessments from birth through 24 months corrected age (CA), maternal assessments are made using standard tools including anxiety, depression, attachment, support systems, temperament as well as physiological stress parameters. Quality of mother-infant interaction is also assessed. Our projected enrolment is 260 families (130 per group).
Discussion
The FNI is designed to increase biologically important activities and behaviors that enhance maternally-mediated sensory experiences of preterm infants, as well as infant-mediated sensory experiences of the mother. Consequently, we are enlarging the testing of preterm infant neurodevelopment beyond that of previous research to include outcomes related to mother-infant interactions and mother-infant co-regulation. Our primary objective is to determine whether repeated engagement of the mother and her infant in the intervention's calming activities will improve the infant's developmental trajectory with respect to multiple outcomes. Our secondary objective is to assess the effectiveness of FNI in the physiological and psychological co-regulation of the mother and infant. We include aspects of neurodevelopment that have not been comprehensively measured in previous NICU interventions.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01439269
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-14
PMCID: PMC3394087  PMID: 22314029
5.  Selective Breeding for Infant Rat Separation-Induced Ultrasonic Vocalizations: Developmental Precursors of Passive and Active Coping Styles 
Behavioural brain research  2007;182(2):193-207.
Human depression and anxiety disorders show inherited biases across generations, as do antisocial disorders characterized by aggression. Each condition is preceded in children by behavioral inhibition or aggressive behavior, respectively, and both are characterized by separation anxiety disorders. In affected families, adults and children exhibit different forms of altered autonomic nervous system regulation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in response to stress. Because it is difficult to determine mechanisms accounting for these associations, animal studies are useful for studying the fundamental relationships between biological and behavioral traits. Pharmacologic and behavioral studies suggest that infant rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) are a measure of an early anxiety-like state related to separation anxiety. However, it was not known whether or not early ultrasound emissions in infant rats are markers for genetic risk for anxiety states later in life. To address these questions, we selectively bred two lines of rats based on high and low rates of USV to isolation at postnatal (P) 10 days of age. To our knowledge, ours is the only laboratory that has ever selectively bred on the basis of an infantile trait related to anxiety. The High and Low USV lines show two distinct sets of patterns of behavior, physiology and neurochemistry from infancy through adulthood. As adults High line rats demonstrate “anxious”/“depressed” phenotypes in behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation to standard laboratory tests. In Lows, on the other hand, behavior and autonomic regulation are consistent with an “aggressive” phenotype. The High and Low USV lines are the first genetic animal models implicating long-term associations of contrasting “coping styles” with early attachment responses. They thus present a potentially powerful model for examining gene-environment interactions in the development of life-long affective regulation.
doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2007.04.014
PMCID: PMC2759113  PMID: 17543397

Results 1-6 (6)