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1.  Adoption of Electronic Medical Record-Based Decision Support for Otitis Media in Children 
Health Services Research  2014;50(2):489-513.
Objective
Substantial investment in electronic health records (EHRs) has provided an unprecedented opportunity to use clinical decision support (CDS) to increase guideline adherence. To inform efforts to maximize adoption, we characterized the adoption of an otitis media (OM) CDS system, the impact of performance feedback on adoption, and the effects of adoption on guideline adherence.
Study Setting
A total of 41,391 OM visits with 108 clinicians at 16 pediatric practices between February 2009 and August 2010.
Study Design
Prospective cohort study of EHR-based CDS adoption during OM visits, comparing clinicians receiving performance feedback to none. CDS was available to all physicians; use was voluntary.
Data Collection
Extraction from a common EHR.
Principal Findings
Clinicians and practices used the CDS system for a mean of 21 percent (range: 0–85 percent) and 17 percent (0–51 percent) of eligible OM visits, respectively. Clinicians who received performance feedback reports summarizing CDS use and guideline adherence had a relative increase in CDS use of 9.0 percentage points compared to others (p = .001). CDS adoption was associated with increased OM guideline adherence. Effects were greatest among clinicians with the lowest adherence prior to the study.
Conclusions
Performance feedback increased CDS adoption, but additional strategies are needed to integrate CDS into primary care workflows.
doi:10.1111/1475-6773.12240
PMCID: PMC4369219  PMID: 25287670
Decision support; feedback; electronic medical record; otitis media; quality of care
2.  Parent-Reported Outcomes of a Shared Decision-Making Portal in Asthma: A Practice-Based RCT 
Pediatrics  2015;135(4):e965-e973.
BACKGROUND:
Electronic health record (EHR)-linked patient portals are a promising approach to facilitate shared decision-making between families of children with chronic conditions and pediatricians. This study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of MyAsthma, an EHR-linked patient portal supporting shared decision-making for pediatric asthma.
METHODS:
We conducted a 6-month randomized controlled trial of MyAsthma at 3 primary care practices. Families were randomized to MyAsthma, which tracks families’ asthma treatment concerns and goals, children’s asthma symptoms, medication side effects and adherence, and provides decision support, or to standard care. Outcomes included the feasibility and acceptability of MyAsthma for families, child health care utilization and asthma control, and the number of days of missed school (child) and work (parent). Descriptive statistics and longitudinal regression models assessed differences in outcomes between study arms.
RESULTS:
We enrolled 60 families, 30 in each study arm (mean age 8.3 years); 57% of parents in the intervention group used MyAsthma during at least 5 of the 6 study months. Parents of children with moderate to severe persistent asthma used the portal more than others; 92% were satisfied with MyAsthma. Parents reported that use improved their communication with the office, ability to manage asthma, and awareness of the importance of ongoing attention to treatment. Parents in the intervention group reported that children had a lower frequency of asthma flares and intervention parents missed fewer days of work due to asthma.
CONCLUSIONS:
Use of an EHR-linked asthma portal was feasible and acceptable to families and improved clinically meaningful outcomes.
doi:10.1542/peds.2014-3167
PMCID: PMC4379463  PMID: 25755233
asthma; patient portal; shared decision-making
3.  Effect of Decision Support on Missed Opportunities for Human Papillomavirus Vaccination 
Background
Missed opportunities for human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination are common, presenting a barrier to achieving widespread vaccine coverage and preventing infection.
Purpose
To compare the impact of clinician- versus family-focused decision support, none, or both on captured opportunities for HPV vaccination.
Design
Twelve-month cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in 2010–2011.
Setting/participants
Adolescent girls aged 11–17 years due for HPV Dose #1, #2, or #3 receiving care at primary care practices.
Intervention
Twenty-two primary care practices were cluster randomized to receive a three-part clinician-focused intervention (educational sessions, electronic health record–based alerts, and performance feedback) or none. Within each practice, girls were randomized at the patient level to receive family-focused, automated, educational phone calls or none. Randomization resulted in four groups: clinician-focused, family-focused, combined, or no intervention.
Main outcome measures
Standardized proportions of captured opportunities (due vaccine received at clinician visit) were calculated among girls in each study arm. Analyses were conducted in 2013.
Results
Among 17,016 adolescent girls and their 32,472 visits (14,247 preventive, 18,225 acute), more HPV opportunities were captured at preventive than acute visits (36% vs 4%, p<0.001). At preventive visits, the clinician intervention increased captured opportunities by 9 percentage points for HPV#1 and 6 percentage points for HPV#3 (p≤0.01), but not HPV#2. At acute visits, the clinician and combined interventions significantly improved captured opportunities for all three doses (p≤0.01). The family intervention was similar to none. Results differed by practice setting; at preventive visits, the clinician intervention was more effective for HPV#1 in suburban than urban settings, while at acute visits, the clinician intervention was more effective for all doses at urban practices.
Conclusions
Clinician-focused decision support is a more effective strategy than family-focused to prevent missed HPV vaccination opportunities. Given the persistence of missed opportunities even in intervention groups, complementary strategies are needed.
doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2014.08.010
PMCID: PMC4254426  PMID: 25455116
4.  Elucidating Challenges and Opportunities in the Transition to ICD-10-CM 
Pediatrics  2014;134(1):169-170.
doi:10.1542/peds.2014-0726
PMCID: PMC4067645  PMID: 24918216
ICD-10; informatics; diagnostic codes; medical billing; electronic health records
5.  An Emerging Field of Research: Challenges in Pediatric Decision Making 
There is growing interest in pediatric decision science, spurred by policies advocating for children’s involvement in medical decision making. Challenges specific to pediatric decision research include: the dynamic nature of child participation in decisions due to the growth and development of children, the family context of all pediatric decisions, and the measurement of preferences and outcomes that may inform decision making in the pediatric setting. The objectives of this manuscript are to describe each of these challenges, to provide decision researchers with insight into pediatric decision making, and establish a blueprint for future research that will contribute to high quality pediatric medical decision making. Much work has been done toward addressing gaps in pediatric decision science, but substantial work remains. Understanding and addressing the challenges that exist in pediatric decision making may foster medical decision-making science across the age spectrum.
doi:10.1177/0272989X14546901
PMCID: PMC4336633  PMID: 25145576
6.  A Shared e-Decision Support Portal for Pediatric Asthma 
We describe the user-centered development of an electronic medical record-based portal, “MyAsthma,” designed to facilitate shared decision making (SDM) in pediatric asthma. Interviews and focus groups with 7 parents of children with asthma and 51 clinical team members elicited two overarching requirements: that the portal should support sustained communication and ensure patient safety. Parents and clinicians prioritized features including collecting parent and child concerns and goals; symptom, side effect, and medication adherence tracking with decision support; and accessible educational materials. Iterative usability testing refined the system. MyAsthma provides a model for using technology to foster SDM in ambulatory care settings.
doi:10.1097/JAC.0000000000000025
PMCID: PMC4189083  PMID: 24594560
Patient Portals; Shared Decision Making; Asthma
7.  Parental Preferences and Goals Regarding ADHD Treatment 
Pediatrics  2013;132(4):692-702.
OBJECTIVES:
To describe the association between parents’ attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment preferences and goals and treatment initiation.
METHODS:
Parents/guardians of children aged 6 to 12 years diagnosed with ADHD in the past 18 months and not currently receiving combined treatment (both medication and behavior therapy [BT]) were recruited from 8 primary care sites and an ADHD treatment center. Parents completed the ADHD Preference and Goal Instrument, a validated measure, and reported treatment receipt at 6 months. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association of baseline preferences and goals with treatment initiation. Using linear regression, we compared the change in preferences and goals over 6 months for children who initiated treatment versus others.
RESULTS:
The study included 148 parents/guardians. Baseline medication and BT preference were associated with treatment initiation (odds ratio [OR]: 2.6 [95% confidence interval (CI):1.2–5.5] and 2.2 [95% CI: 1.0–5.1], respectively). The goal of academic achievement was associated with medication initiation (OR: 2.1 [95% CI: 1.3–3.4]) and the goal of behavioral compliance with initiation of BT (OR: 1.6 [95% CI: 1.1–2.4]). At 6 months, parents whose children initiated medication or BT compared with others had decreased academic and behavioral goals, suggesting their goals were attained. However, only those initiating BT had diminished interpersonal relationship goals.
CONCLUSIONS:
Parental treatment preferences were associated with treatment initiation, and those with distinct goals selected different treatments. Results support the formal measurement of preferences and goals in practice as prioritized in recent national guidelines for ADHD management.
doi:10.1542/peds.2013-0152
PMCID: PMC3784291  PMID: 23999959
ADHD; shared decision-making
8.  Barriers and facilitators for mental healthcare in pediatric lupus and mixed connective tissue disease: a qualitative study of youth and parent perspectives 
Background
Untreated mental health problems may result in poor outcomes for youth with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). We investigated perceptions, barriers and facilitators for mental healthcare of these youth.
Methods
We conducted 32 semi-structured interviews with 16 outpatient youth with SLE/MCTD, ages 11–22 years, and their parents. We used purposive sampling to deliberately obtain the experiences of youth screened during a previous study for depression and anxiety with the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 and the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Disorders, respectively. We recruited 6 youth with previous positive screens and 10 with negative screens. We assessed interim mental health history, and qualitatively examined perceptions, barriers and facilitators for mental healthcare.
Results
Youth with a mental health history increased from 6 (38 %) at initial screening to 9 (56 %) at interview (mean follow-up = 2.1 years). Youth receiving mental health treatment increased from 33 to 67 %. Youth and parents identified rheumatologists as primary physicians and found mental health screening in rheumatology acceptable. Barriers to mental healthcare included: stigma; fear; uncertainty about getting help; parental emotional burden; minimization by doctors; and limited mental healthcare access. Facilitators included: strong clinician relationships; clinician initiative, sincerity and normalization in discussing mental health; and increased patient/family awareness of mental health issues in SLE/MCTD.
Conclusion
Youth with SLE/MCTD and their parents perceive pediatric rheumatologists as a preferred source for mental health screening, guidance and referral. Interventions addressing barriers and enhancing facilitators may improve mental healthcare for youth with SLE/MCTD.
doi:10.1186/s12969-015-0049-1
PMCID: PMC4657343  PMID: 26597484
Pediatric rheumatology; Lupus; Mixed connective tissue disease; Depression; Anxiety
9.  Effectiveness of Decision Support for Families, Clinicians, or Both on HPV Vaccine Receipt 
Pediatrics  2013;131(6):1114-1124.
OBJECTIVE:
To improve human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates, we studied the effectiveness of targeting automated decision support to families, clinicians, or both.
METHODS:
Twenty-two primary care practices were cluster-randomized to receive a 3-part clinician-focused intervention (education, electronic health record-based alerts, and audit and feedback) or none. Overall, 22 486 girls aged 11 to 17 years due for HPV vaccine dose 1, 2, or 3 were randomly assigned within each practice to receive family-focused decision support with educational telephone calls. Randomization established 4 groups: family-focused, clinician-focused, combined, and no intervention. We measured decision support effectiveness by final vaccination rates and time to vaccine receipt, standardized for covariates and limited to those having received the previous dose for HPV #2 and 3. The 1-year study began in May 2010.
RESULTS:
Final vaccination rates for HPV #1, 2, and 3 were 16%, 65%, and 63% among controls. The combined intervention increased vaccination rates by 9, 8, and 13 percentage points, respectively. The control group achieved 15% vaccination for HPV #1 and 50% vaccination for HPV #2 and 3 after 318, 178, and 215 days. The combined intervention significantly accelerated vaccination by 151, 68, and 93 days. The clinician-focused intervention was more effective than the family-focused intervention for HPV #1, but less effective for HPV #2 and 3.
CONCLUSIONS:
A clinician-focused intervention was most effective for initiating the HPV vaccination series, whereas a family-focused intervention promoted completion. Decision support directed at both clinicians and families most effectively promotes HPV vaccine series receipt.
doi:10.1542/peds.2012-3122
PMCID: PMC3666111  PMID: 23650297
decision support systems; electronic records; immunizations
10.  Development of an Instrument to Measure Parents’ Preferences and Goals for the Treatment of Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder 
Academic pediatrics  2012;12(5):445-455.
Objectives
To describe the development and validation of an instrument to measure parents' attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment preferences and goals.
Methods
Parents of children 6–12 years diagnosed with ADHD in the past 18 months were recruited from 8 primary care sites and an ADHD treatment center (autism excluded). A 16-item medication and 15-item behavior therapy preference scale and a 23-item goal scale, developed following literature review, 90 parent and clinician semi-structured interviews, and input from parent advocates and professional experts, were administered to parents. Parent cognitive interviews confirmed item readability, clarity, content, and response range. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis, assessed internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and construct and concurrent validity.
Results
We recruited 237 parents (mean child age 8.1 years, 51% Black, 59% from primary care, 61% of children medication naive). Factor analyses identified 4 medication preference subscales (treatment acceptability, feasibility, stigma, and adverse effects, Cronbach's α 0.74 to 0.87); three behavior therapy subscales (treatment acceptability, feasibility, and adverse effects, α 0.76 to 0.83); and three goal subscales (academic achievement, behavioral compliance, and interpersonal relationships, α 0.83 to 0.86). The most strongly endorsed goal was academic achievement. The scales demonstrated construct validity, concurrent validity (r= 0.3–0.6) compared to the Treatment Acceptability Questionnaire and Impairment Rating Scale and moderate to excellent test-retest reliability (ICC= 0.7–0.9).
Conclusions
We developed a valid and reliable instrument for measuring preferences and goals for ADHD treatment, which may help clinicians more easily adhere to new national treatment guidelines for ADHD that emphasize shared decision making.
doi:10.1016/j.acap.2012.04.009
PMCID: PMC3456970  PMID: 22748759
ADHD; Shared Decision Making; Patient Preference; Practice-Based Research
12.  Shared Decision-Making and Health Care Expenditures Among Children With Special Health Care Needs 
Pediatrics  2012;129(1):99-107.
Background And Objectives
To understand the association between shared decision-making (SDM) and health care expenditures and use among children with special health care needs (CSHCN).
Methods
We identified CSHCN <18 years in the 2002–2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey by using the CSHCN Screener. Outcomes included health care expenditures (total, out-of-pocket, office-based, inpatient, emergency department [ED], and prescription) and utilization (hospitalization, ED and office visit, and prescription rates). The main exposure was the pattern of SDM over the 2 study years (increasing, decreasing, or unchanged high or low). We assessed the impact of these patterns on the change in expenditures and utilization over the 2 study years.
Results
Among 2858 subjects representing 12 million CSHCN, 15.9% had increasing, 15.2% decreasing, 51.9% unchanged high, and 17.0% unchanged low SDM. At baseline, mean per child total expenditures were $2131. Over the 2 study years, increasing SDM was associated with a decrease of $339 (95% confidence interval: $21, $660) in total health care costs. Rates of hospitalization and ED visits declined by 4.0 (0.1, 7.9) and 11.3 (4.3, 18.3) per 100 CSHCN, and office visits by 1.2 (0.3, 2.0) per child with increasing SDM. Relative to decreasing SDM, increasing SDM was associated with significantly lower total and out-of-pocket costs, and fewer office visits.
Conclusions
We found that increasing SDM was associated with decreased utilization and expenditures for CSHCN. Prospective study is warranted to confirm if fostering SDM reduces the costs of caring for CSHCN for the health system and families.
doi:10.1542/peds.2011-1352
PMCID: PMC3255469  PMID: 22184653
children with special health care needs; communication; decision-making; health care expenditures
13.  The promise of shared decision-making in paediatrics 
Acta Paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992)  2010;99(10):1464-1466.
doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2010.01978.x
PMCID: PMC3401948  PMID: 21050268
14.  Shared Decision-Making in Pediatrics: A National Perspective 
Pediatrics  2010;126(2):306-314.
OBJECTIVES
To identify patterns of shared decision-making (SDM) among a nationally representative sample of US children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or asthma and determine if demographics, health status, or access to care are associated with SDM.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
We performed a cross-sectional study of the 2002–2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, which represents 2 million children with ADHD and 4 million children with asthma. The outcome, high SDM, was defined by using latent class models based on 7 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey items addressing aspects of SDM. We entered factors potentially associated with SDM into logistic regression models with high SDM as the outcome. Marginal standardization then described the standardized proportion of children’s households with high SDM for each factor.
RESULTS
For both ADHD and asthma, 65% of children’s households had high SDM. Those who reported poor general health for their children were 13% less likely to have high SDM for ADHD (64 vs 77%) and 8% less likely for asthma (62 vs 70%) when adjusting for other factors. Results for behavioral impairment were similar. Respondent demographic characteristics were not associated with SDM. Those with difficulty contacting their clinician by telephone were 26% (ADHD: 55 vs 81%) and 29% (asthma: 48 vs 77%) less likely to have high SDM than those without difficulty.
CONCLUSIONS
These findings indicate that households of children who report greater impairment or difficulty contacting their clinician by telephone are less likely to fully participate in SDM. Future research should examine how strategies to foster ongoing communication between families and clinicians affect SDM.
doi:10.1542/peds.2010-0526
PMCID: PMC3373306  PMID: 20624804
ADHD; asthma; communication; decision-making; telephone care
15.  Electronic medical record use in pediatric primary care 
Objectives
To characterize patterns of electronic medical record (EMR) use at pediatric primary care acute visits.
Design
Direct observational study of 529 acute visits with 27 experienced pediatric clinician users.
Measurements
For each 20 s interval and at each stage of the visit according to the Davis Observation Code, we recorded whether the physician was communicating with the family only, using the computer while communicating, or using the computer without communication. Regression models assessed the impact of clinician, patient and visit characteristics on overall visit length, time spent interacting with families, and time spent using the computer while interacting.
Results
The mean overall visit length was 11:30 (min:sec) with 9:06 spent in the exam room. Clinicians used the EMR during 27% of exam room time and at all stages of the visit (interacting, chatting, and building rapport; history taking; formulation of the diagnosis and treatment plan; and discussing prevention) except the physical exam. Communication with the family accompanied 70% of EMR use. In regression models, computer documentation outside the exam room was associated with visits that were 11% longer (p=0.001), and female clinicians spent more time using the computer while communicating (p=0.003).
Limitations
The 12 study practices shared one EMR.
Conclusions
Among pediatric clinicians with EMR experience, conversation accompanies most EMR use. Our results suggest that efforts to improve EMR usability and clinician EMR training should focus on use in the context of doctor–patient communication. Further study of the impact of documentation inside versus outside the exam room on productivity is warranted.
doi:10.1136/jamia.2010.004135
PMCID: PMC3005866  PMID: 21134975
16.  Contrasting Parents' and Pediatricians' Perspectives on Shared Decision-Making in ADHD 
Pediatrics  2010;127(1):e188-e196.
OBJECTIVE:
The goal was to compare how parents and clinicians understand shared decision-making (SDM) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a prototype for SDM in pediatrics.
METHODS:
We conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 parents of children 6 to 12 years of age with ADHD (50% black and 43% college educated) and 30 primary care clinicians with varying experience. Open-ended interviews explored how pediatric clinicians and parents understood SDM in ADHD. Interviews were taped, transcribed, and then coded. Data were analyzed by using a modified grounded theory approach.
RESULTS:
Parents and clinicians both viewed SDM favorably. However, parents described SDM as a partnership between equals, with physicians providing medical expertise and the family contributing in-depth knowledge of the child. In contrast, clinicians understood SDM as a means to encourage families to accept clinicians' preferred treatment. These findings affected care because parents mistrusted clinicians whose presentation they perceived as biased. Both groups discussed how real-world barriers limit the consideration of evidence-based options, and they emphasized the importance of engaging professionals, family members, and/or friends in SDM. Although primary themes did not differ according to race, white parents more commonly received support from medical professionals in their social networks.
CONCLUSIONS:
Despite national guidelines prioritizing SDM in ADHD, challenges to implementing the process persist. Results suggest that, to support SDM in ADHD, modifications are needed at the practice and policy levels, including clinician training, incorporation of decision aids and improved strategies to facilitate communication, and efforts to ensure that evidence-based treatment is accessible.
doi:10.1542/peds.2010-1510
PMCID: PMC3010085  PMID: 21172996
shared decision-making; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
17.  Validity of medical record documented varicella-zoster virus among unvaccinated cohorts 
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics  2013;9(8):1735-1738.
Background: A varicella diagnosis or verification of disease history by any healthcare provider is currently accepted for determining evidence of immunity by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).
Objective: To examine the accuracy of medical record (MR) documented varicella history as a measure of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immunity among unvaccinated individuals born after 1980. We also assessed methods to practically implement ACIP guidelines to verify varicella history using medical records.
Study Design: As part of a larger cross-sectional study conducted at three Philadelphia clinics from 2004–2006, we recruited 536 unvaccinated patients aged 5–19 y (birth years: 1985–2001). Varicella history was obtained from three sources: parent/patient interview, any MR documentation (sick and well visits) and MR documentation of a sick visit for varicella. All participants were tested for VZV IgG. For each source and three age groups (5–9, 10–14, 15–19 y old), positive predictive value (PPV) was calculated. Specificity of varicella history was compared between different sources using McNemar’s Chi-square.
Results: Among participants aged 5–9, 10–14 and 15–19 y the PPV for any MR documentation and sick visit diagnosis were 96% and 100%, 92% and 97%, and 99% and 100%, respectively. The specificity for sick visit documentation was higher than any MR documentation and patient/parent recall among all age groups; however, these differences were only statistically significant when comparing sick visit documentation to parent/patient recall for 10-14 y olds.
Conclusion: Sick visit documentation of varicella in the MR is an accurate predictor of varicella seropositivity and useful for confirming disease history among unvaccinated persons (birth years: 1985–2001). This method is a practical way to verify varicella history using the ACIP guidelines.
doi:10.4161/hv.24849
PMCID: PMC3906274  PMID: 23807363
varicella; chickenpox; unvaccinated; medical record documentation; immunity
18.  Utilizing health information technology to improve vaccine communication and coverage 
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics  2013;9(8):1802-1811.
Vaccination coverage is still below the Healthy People 2010 and 2020 goals. Technology use in the US is widespread by patients and providers including text message, email, internet, social media and electronic health records. Health information technology (IT) interventions can facilitate the rapid or real-time identification of children in need of vaccination and provide the foundation for vaccine-oriented parental communication or clinical alerts in a flexible and tailored manner. There has been a small but burgeoning field of work integrating IT into vaccination interventions including reminder/recall using non-traditional methods, clinical decision support for providers in the electronic health record, use of technology to affect work-flow and the use of social media. The aim of this review is to introduce and present current data regarding the effectiveness of a range of technology tools to promote vaccination, describe gaps in the literature and offer insights into future directions for research and intervention.
doi:10.4161/hv.25031
PMCID: PMC3906285  PMID: 23807361
SMS; clinical decision support; mHealth; technology; vaccine; web 2.0
19.  Using freelisting to understand shared decision making in ADHD: Parents’ and pediatricians’ perspectives 
Patient education and counseling  2010;84(2):236-244.
Objective
To compare and contrast notions of ADHD among pediatricians and parents of affected children to understand the perspectives they bring to shared decision making (SDM).
Methods
In this freelisting study, 60 parents of children with ADHD and 30 primary care pediatricians listed words reflecting their understanding of (1) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), (2) getting/offering help for ADHD, (3) talking to doctors/families about ADHD, and (4) “mental health.” Smith’s salience score established terms that were salient and cultural consensus analysis identified variation within subgroups of participants.
Results
Parents’ terms reflected ADHD’s effects on the child and family, while clinicians often mentioned school. Lists suggested differing needs and goals for clinicians and subgroups of parents in SDM: “time” for clinicians, “learning” and “understanding” for non-college educated parents, and “comfort” and “relief” for college educated parents. Neither parents nor clinicians framed ADHD in the same way as “mental health.”
Conclusion
Parents and clinicians, who conceptualize ADHD differently, should negotiate a shared understanding of ADHD as a basis for SDM. Treatment discussions should be tailored to encompass families’ varied emotional and educational needs.
Practice implications
Fostering SDM in primary care is consonant with notions of ADHD as distinct from mental health.
doi:10.1016/j.pec.2010.07.035
PMCID: PMC3551534  PMID: 20797833
Shared decision making; Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; Disparities
20.  The Implementation and Acceptability of an HPV Vaccination Decision Support System Directed at Both Clinicians and Families 
We developed an electronic medical record (EMR)-based HPV vaccine decision support intervention targeting clinicians, (immunization alerts, education, and feedback) and families (phone reminders and referral to an educational website). Through telephone surveys completed by 162 parents of adolescent girls, we assessed the acceptability of the family-focused intervention and its effect on information-seeking behavior, communication, and HPV vaccine decision-making. The intervention was acceptable to parents and 46% remembered receiving the reminder call. Parents reported that the call prompted them to seek out information regarding the HPV vaccine, discuss the vaccine with friends and family, and reach a decision. Parents whose adolescent girls attended practices receiving the clinician-focused intervention were more likely to report that their clinician discussed the HPV vaccine at preventive visits. The results of this study demonstrate the acceptability and potential impact on clinical care of a comprehensive decision support system directed at both clinicians and families.
PMCID: PMC3540460  PMID: 23304334
21.  Association of Late-Preterm Birth With Asthma in Young Children: Practice-Based Study 
Pediatrics  2011;128(4):e830-e838.
OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate the association of late-preterm birth with asthma severity among young children.
METHODS:
A retrospective cohort study was performed with electronic health record data from 31 practices affiliated with an academic medical center. Participants included children born in 2007 at 34 to 42 weeks of gestation and monitored from birth to 18 months. We used multivariate logistic or Poisson models to assess the impact of late-preterm (34–36 weeks) and low-normal (37–38 weeks) compared with term (39–42 weeks) gestation on diagnoses of asthma and persistent asthma, inhaled corticosteroid use, and numbers of acute respiratory visits.
RESULTS:
Our population included 7925 infants (7% late-preterm and 21% low-normal gestation). Overall, 8.3% had been diagnosed with asthma by 18 months. Compared with term gestation, late-preterm gestation was associated with significant increases in persistent asthma diagnoses (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.68), inhaled corticosteroid use (aOR: 1.66), and numbers of acute respiratory visits (incidence rate ratio: 1.44). Low-normal gestation was associated with increases in asthma diagnoses (aOR: 1.34) and inhaled corticosteroid use (aOR: 1.39).
CONCLUSION:
Birth at late-preterm and low-normal gestational ages might be an important risk factor for the development of asthma and for increased health service use in early childhood.
doi:10.1542/peds.2011-0809
PMCID: PMC3387906  PMID: 21911345
late preterm; gestational age; asthma; persistent asthma; health care use
22.  Shared decision making and behavioral impairment: a national study among children with special health care needs 
BMC Pediatrics  2012;12:153.
Background
The Institute of Medicine has prioritized shared decision making (SDM), yet little is known about the impact of SDM over time on behavioral outcomes for children. This study examined the longitudinal association of SDM with behavioral impairment among children with special health care needs (CSHCN).
Method
CSHCN aged 5-17 years in the 2002-2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were followed for 2 years. The validated Columbia Impairment Scale measured impairment. SDM was measured with 7 items addressing the 4 components of SDM. The main exposures were (1) the mean level of SDM across the 2 study years and (2) the change in SDM over the 2 years. Using linear regression, we measured the association of SDM and behavioral impairment.
Results
Among 2,454 subjects representing 10.2 million CSHCN, SDM increased among 37% of the population, decreased among 36% and remained unchanged among 27%. For CSHCN impaired at baseline, the change in SDM was significant with each 1-point increase in SDM over time associated with a 2-point decrease in impairment (95% CI: 0.5, 3.4), whereas the mean level of SDM was not associated with impairment. In contrast, among those below the impairment threshold, the mean level of SDM was significant with each one point increase in the mean level of SDM associated with a 1.1-point decrease in impairment (0.4, 1.7), but the change was not associated with impairment.
Conclusion
Although the change in SDM may be more important for children with behavioral impairment and the mean level over time for those below the impairment threshold, results suggest that both the change in SDM and the mean level may impact behavioral health for CSHCN.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-153
PMCID: PMC3470977  PMID: 22998626
Children with Special Health Care Needs; Communication; Decision-Making
23.  Designing Computerized Decision Support That Works for Clinicians and Families 
Evidence-based decision-making is central to the practice of pediatrics. Clinical trials and other biomedical research provide a foundation for this process, and practice guidelines, drawing from their results, inform the optimal management of an increasing number of childhood health problems. However, many clinicians fail to adhere to guidelines. Clinical decision support delivered using health information technology, often in the form of electronic health records, provides a tool to deliver evidence-based information to the point of care and has the potential to overcome barriers to evidence-based practice. An increasing literature now informs how these systems should be designed and implemented to most effectively improve outcomes in pediatrics. Through the examples of computerized physician order entry, as well as the impact of alerts at the point of care on immunization rates, the delivery of evidence-based asthma care, and the follow-up of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the following review addresses strategies for success in using these tools. The following review argues that, as decision support evolves, the clinician should no longer be the sole target of information and alerts. Through the Internet and other technologies, families are increasingly seeking health information and gathering input to guide health decisions. By enlisting clinical decision support systems to deliver evidence-based information to both clinicians and families, help families express their preferences and goals, and connect families to the medical home, clinical decision support may ultimately be most effective in improving outcomes.
doi:10.1016/j.cppeds.2010.10.006
PMCID: PMC3373310  PMID: 21315295
24.  HPV vaccine decision making in pediatric primary care: a semi-structured interview study 
BMC Pediatrics  2011;11:74.
Background
Despite national recommendations, as of 2009 human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates were low with < 30% of adolescent girls fully vaccinated. Research on barriers to vaccination has focused separately on parents, adolescents, or clinicians and not on the decision making process among all participants at the point of care. By incorporating three distinct perspectives, we sought to generate hypotheses to inform interventions to increase vaccine receipt.
Methods
Between March and June, 2010, we conducted qualitative interviews with 20 adolescent-mother-clinician triads (60 individual interviews) directly after a preventive visit with the initial HPV vaccine due. Interviews followed a guide based on published HPV literature, involved 9 practices, and continued until saturation of the primary themes was achieved. Purposive sampling balanced adolescent ages and practice type (urban resident teaching versus non-teaching). Using a modified grounded theory approach, we analyzed data with NVivo8 software both within and across triads to generate primary themes.
Results
The study population was comprised of 20 mothers (12 Black, 9 < high school diploma), 20 adolescents (ten 11-12 years old), and 20 clinicians (16 female). Nine adolescents received the HPV vaccine at the visit, eight of whom were African American. Among the 11 not vaccinated, all either concurrently received or were already up-to-date on Tdap and MCV4. We did not observe systematic patterns of vaccine acceptance or refusal based on adolescent age or years of clinician experience. We identified 3 themes: (1) Parents delayed, rather than refused vaccination, and when they expressed reluctance, clinicians were hesitant to engage them in discussion. (2) Clinicians used one of two strategies to present the HPV vaccine, either presenting it as a routine vaccine with no additional information or presenting it as optional and highlighting risks and benefits. (3) Teens considered themselves passive participants in decision making, even when parents and clinicians reported including them in the process.
Conclusions
Programs to improve HPV vaccine delivery in primary care should focus on promoting effective parent-clinician communication. Research is needed to evaluate strategies to help clinicians engage reluctant parents and passive teens in discussion and measure the impact of distinct clinician decision making approaches on HPV vaccine delivery.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-11-74
PMCID: PMC3175168  PMID: 21878128
25.  Early identification of young children at risk for poor academic achievement: preliminary development of a parent-report prediction tool 
Background
Early school success is clearly related to later health. A prediction index that uses parent report to assess children's risk for poor academic achievement could potentially direct targeted service delivery to improve child outcomes.
Methods
We obtained risk factors through literature review and used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Child Files to examine the predictive associations of these factors with academic achievement scores.
Results
Twenty predictors were identified including four strong predictors (maternal education, child gender, family income, and low birth weight). Significantly, 12 predictors explained 17-24% of score variance.
Conclusions
Parent-reported factors provide predictive accuracy for academic achievement.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-11-197
PMCID: PMC3173303  PMID: 21851586

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