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1.  The Cellular Interactome of the Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus Nucleocapsid Protein and Functional Implications for Virus Biology 
Journal of Virology  2013;87(17):9486-9500.
The coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein plays a multifunctional role in the virus life cycle, from regulation of replication and transcription and genome packaging to modulation of host cell processes. These functions are likely to be facilitated by interactions with host cell proteins. The potential interactome of the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) N protein was mapped using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) coupled to a green fluorescent protein-nanotrap pulldown methodology and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The addition of the SILAC label allowed discrimination of proteins that were likely to specifically bind to the N protein over background binding. Overall, 142 cellular proteins were selected as potentially binding to the N protein, many as part of larger possible complexes. These included ribosomal proteins, nucleolar proteins, translation initiation factors, helicases, and hnRNPs. The association of selected cellular proteins with IBV N protein was confirmed by immunoblotting, cosedimentation, and confocal microscopy. Further, the localization of selected proteins in IBV-infected cells as well as their activity during virus infection was assessed by small interfering RNA-mediated depletion, demonstrating the functional importance of cellular proteins in the biology of IBV. This interactome not only confirms previous observations made with other coronavirus and IBV N proteins with both overexpressed proteins and infectious virus but also provides novel data that can be exploited to understand the interaction between the virus and the host cell.
PMCID: PMC3754094  PMID: 23637410
2.  Characterization of the Interaction between Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and the Cell Cycle in Continuous Cell Culture and Primary Human Airway Epithelial Cells▿  
Journal of Virology  2011;85(19):10300-10309.
Viruses can modify conditions inside cells to make them more favorable for replication and progeny virus production. One way of doing this is through manipulation of the cell cycle, a process that describes the ordered growth and division of cells. Analysis of model cell lines, such as A549 cells and primary airway epithelial cells, infected with human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) has shown alteration of the cell cycle during infection, although the signaling events were not clearly understood. In this study, targeted transcriptomic analysis of HRSV-infected primary airway epithelial cells revealed alterations in the abundances of many mRNAs encoding cell cycle-regulatory molecules, including decreases in the D-type cyclins and corresponding cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and CDK6 [CDK4/6]). These alterations were reflected in changes in protein abundance and/or relocalization in HRSV-infected cells; taken together, they were predicted to result in G0/G1 phase arrest. In contrast, there was no change in the abundances of D-type cyclins in A549 cells infected with HRSV. However, the abundance of the G1/S phase progression inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 was increased over that in mock-treated cells, and this, again, was predicted to result in G0/G1 phase arrest. The G0/G1 phase arrest in both HRSV-infected primary cells and A549 cells was confirmed using dual-label flow cytometry that accurately measured the different stages of the cell cycle. Comparison of progeny virus production in primary and A549 cells enriched in G0/G1 using a specific CDK4/6 kinase inhibitor with asynchronously replicating cells indicated that this phase of the cell cycle was more efficient for virus production.
PMCID: PMC3196461  PMID: 21795354
3.  Talking about living and dying with the oldest old: public involvement in a study on end of life care in care homes 
BMC Palliative Care  2011;10:20.
Public involvement in research on sensitive subjects, such as death and dying, can help to ensure that questions are framed to reflect the interests of their peers, develop a shared understanding of issues raised, and moderate the often unequal power relationship between researcher and participant. This paper describes the contribution and impact of older members of a Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg) to a study on living and dying in care homes.
A longitudinal study, with a mixed method approach, its aims were to capture key experiences, events and change over one year, of older people resident in participating care homes in the East of England. Residents were interviewed up to three times and their case notes were reviewed four times over the year. Interviews were semi structured, and recorded. Four members of a Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg) contributed to preliminary discussions about the research and three were involved with many of the subsequent stages of the research process including the facilitation of discussion groups with residents.
There were three areas where the involvement of the Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg) positively influenced the study process. These were recruitment, governance and safeguarding, and in collaboration with the residents in the care homes, the discussion and interpretation of emergent findings. PIRg members were of similar age to the residents and their involvement provided different and often more reflective insights of the significance of the findings for the participants. There were examples where decision making about the range of PIRg participation was not always negotiable, and this raised issues about power relationships within the team. Nevertheless, PIRg members expressed personal benefit and satisfaction through participating in the research and a commitment to continue to support research with this older age group.
The contribution of the PIRg supported a successful recruitment process that exceeded response rates of other studies in care homes. It safeguarded residents during the conduct of research on a sensitive topic and helped in validating the interview data gathered by the researchers through the discussion groups facilitated by the PIRg. There were power differentials that persisted and affected PIRg participation. The study has showed the value of developing job descriptions and a more formal means of setting out respective expectations. Future research may wish to elicit the views of focal participants in such studies about the mediation of research by public involvement in research.
PMCID: PMC3266630  PMID: 22112207
4.  Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of A549 Cells Infected with Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus* 
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major cause of pediatric lower respiratory tract disease to which there is no vaccine or efficacious chemotherapeutic strategy. Although RNA synthesis and virus assembly occur in the cytoplasm, HRSV is known to induce nuclear responses in the host cell as replication alters global gene expression. Quantitative proteomics was used to take an unbiased overview of the protein changes in transformed human alveolar basal epithelial cells infected with HRSV. Underpinning this was the use of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture coupled to LC-MS/MS, which allowed the direct and simultaneous identification and quantification of both cellular and viral proteins. To reduce sample complexity and increase data return on potential protein localization, cells were fractionated into nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts. This resulted in the identification of 1,140 cellular proteins and six viral proteins. The proteomics data were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis to identify defined canonical pathways and functional groupings. Selected data were validated using Western blot, direct and indirect immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, and functional assays. The study served to validate and expand upon known HRSV-host cell interactions, including those associated with the antiviral response and alterations in subnuclear structures such as the nucleolus and ND10 (promyelocytic leukemia bodies). In addition, novel changes were observed in mitochondrial proteins and functions, cell cycle regulatory molecules, nuclear pore complex proteins and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking proteins. These data shed light into how the cell is potentially altered to create conditions more favorable for infection. Additionally, the study highlights the application and advantage of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture coupled to LC-MS/MS for the analysis of virus-host interactions.
PMCID: PMC2984239  PMID: 20647383
5.  Abortion (Amendment) Bill 
British Medical Journal  1980;280(6214):643-644.
PMCID: PMC1600750
6.  BPAS and AID 
British Medical Journal  1978;2(6153):1712.
PMCID: PMC1608925
8.  The frequency of illegal abortion 
The Eugenics Review  1964;56(1):57.
PMCID: PMC2982612  PMID: 5879312

Results 1-8 (8)