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1.  Shortening the Xerostomia Inventory 
To determine the validity and properties of the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version in samples from Australia, The Netherlands, Japan and New Zealand.
Study design
Six cross-sectional samples of older people from The Netherlands (N = 50), Australia (N = 637 and N = 245), Japan (N = 401) and New Zealand (N = 167 and N = 86). Data were analysed using the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version.
Almost all data-sets revealed a single extracted factor which explained about half of the variance, with Cronbach’s alpha values of at least 0.70. When mean scale scores were plotted against a “gold standard” xerostomia question, statistically significant gradients were observed, with the highest score seen in those who always had dry mouth, and the lowest in those who never had it.
The Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version is valid for measuring xerostomia symptoms in clinical and epidemiological research.
PMCID: PMC3154566  PMID: 21684773
2.  Supervised versus non-supervised implementation of an oral health care guideline in (residential) care homes: a cluster randomized controlled clinical trial 
BMC Oral Health  2010;10:17.
The increase of the proportion of elderly people has implications for health care services. Advances in oral health care and treatment have resulted in a reduced number of edentulous individuals. An increasing number of dentate elderly people have tooth wear, periodontal disease, oral implants, and sophisticated restorations and prostheses. Hence, they are in need of both preventive and curative oral health care continuously. Weakened oral health due to neglect of self care and professional care and due to reduced oral health care utilization is already present when elderly people are still community-dwelling. At the moment of (residential) care home admittance, many elderly people are in need of oral health care urgently. The key factor in realizing and maintaining good oral health is daily oral hygiene care. For proper daily oral hygiene care, many residents are dependent on nurses and nurse aides. In 2007, the Dutch guideline "Oral health care in (residential) care homes for elderly people" was developed. Previous implementation research studies have revealed that implementation of a guideline is very complicated. The overall aim of this study is to compare a supervised versus a non-supervised implementation of the guideline in The Netherlands and Flanders (Belgium).
The study is a cluster randomized intervention trial with an institution as unit of randomization. A random sample of 12 (residential) care homes accommodating somatic as well as psycho-geriatric residents in The Netherlands as well as in Flanders (Belgium) are randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. Representative samples of 30 residents in each of the 24 (residential) care homes are monitored during a 6-months period. The intervention consists of supervised implementation of the guideline and a daily oral health care protocol. Primary outcome variable is the oral hygiene level of the participating residents. To determine the stimulating or inhibiting factors of the implementation project and the nurses' and nurse aides' compliance and perceived barriers, a process evaluation is carried out.
The method of cluster randomization may result in a random effect and cluster selection bias, which has to be taken into account when analyzing and interpreting the results.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN86156614
PMCID: PMC2912776  PMID: 20598123
3.  The diagnostic suitability of a xerostomia questionnaire and the association between xerostomia, hyposalivation and medication use in a group of nursing home residents 
Clinical Oral Investigations  2010;15(2):185-192.
The study objective was to explore the diagnostic suitability of the Xerostomia Inventory and the association between xerostomia, hyposalivation and medication use in a group of nursing home residents. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 50 physically impaired nursing home residents (20 men) with a mean age of 78.1 years (range, 53–98) in The Netherlands. The Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch version was completed for all residents and the data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis to determine the diagnostic suitability. Residents’ data on xerostomia, whole saliva secretion rates and hyposalivation-related medications used were collected and statistically analyzed. The diagnostic suitability of the Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch version appeared restricted. The prevalence of xerostomia was 52%, without gender and age difference. The prevalence of hyposalivation was 24% for resting, 60% for chewing-stimulated and 18% for acid-stimulated whole saliva. All whole saliva secretion rates were significantly lower in women than in men and in older than in younger residents. Forty-four percent of all medications used were hyposalivation-related and women used significantly more medications than men. Xerostomia was significantly negatively correlated with the resting whole saliva secretion rate. The number of hyposalivation-related medications used was not significantly correlated with the various whole saliva secretion rates. In nursing home residents, xerostomia, hyposalivation and using hyposalivation-related medications seem common and partially associated features.
PMCID: PMC3056013  PMID: 20165967
Xerostomia; Hyposalivation; Medication; Nursing home; Xerostomia Inventory

Results 1-3 (3)