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author:("Qiao, moulin")
1.  Lung cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2011 
Thoracic Cancer  2015;7(1):94-99.
Abstract
Background
The National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China is responsible for cancer surveillance. Cancer registration data from registries located in each province are submitted annually to the NCCR for analysis and publication. The lung cancer incidences, and mortalities were estimated in 2011 in China by NCCR.
Methods
In 2014, 234 population‐based cancer registries' data in 2011 were submitted to the NCCR and 177 cancer registries' data were selected after quality evaluation. The selected data were classified into urban and rural areas; the crude incidence and mortality rates of lung cancer were calculated by age and gender. Age‐standardized rates were calculated by China and World standard population. The 6th National Population Census data of China was used to estimate the 2011 lung cancer burden in China.
Results
Lung cancer remained the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in China in 2011. Lung cancer incidence and mortality were higher in men and urban areas than those in women and rural areas. The rates were relatively low in patients under 40 years of age, and dramatically increased after age 40, reaching a peak in patients aged 80–84.
Conclusion
The burden of lung cancer was serious in China in 2011, especially for men in urban areas. Effective methods of intervention, such as air pollution and smoking controls, should be enhanced in the future.
doi:10.1111/1759-7714.12286
PMCID: PMC4718125  PMID: 26816543
Chinese people; epidemiology; incidence; lung cancer
2.  Prophylactic vaccination against human papillomaviruses to prevent cervical cancer and its precursors 
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows:
To evaluate the immunogenicity, clinical efficacy, and safety of prophylactic HPV vaccines in females. The assessment of clinical efficacy will address protection against HPV infection (for homologous and heterologous HPV types), against re-infection, against cervical cancer and its precursors (high-grade CIN (grade 2 or grade 3), adenocarcinoma in situ) in women previously not exposed to HPV infection (negative at enrolment for both HPV DNA and antibodies against the vaccine HPV types). We will assess clinical effectiveness by evaluating outcomes in all women, irrespective of the HPV DNA or serology status at enrolment. Evaluation by fine age and time since sexual debut categories is also planned.
doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009069
PMCID: PMC4176676  PMID: 25267916
3.  Esophageal cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2010 
Thoracic Cancer  2014;5(4):343-348.
Background
The National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCR) is responsible for cancer surveillance. Local cancer registries in each province submit data for annual publication.. The incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer in China in 2010 by age, gender, and area is reported in this article.
Methods
There were data from 145 out of 219 qualified cancer registries. Esophageal cancer cases and deaths (ICD 10 code as C15) were stratified by location, gender, age, and cancer site. The 2000 Chinese census and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. The rank in all cancer types and cumulative rate were also calculated.
Results
It was estimated that 287 632 new cases were diagnosed and 208 473 patients died from esophageal cancer in 2010 in China. Esophageal cancer incidence ranked fifth of all cancer types with a rate of 21.88/100 000. Age-standardized rates by Chinese population (CASR) and World population (WASR) for incidence and mortality were 16.71/100 000 and 16.97/100 000, respectively. The mortality of esophageal cancer ranked fourth in all cancer types with a rate of 15.85/100 000. The CASR and WASR for mortality were 11.95/100 000 and 12.02/100 000, respectively. For both incidence and mortality, the rates of esophageal cancer were much higher in men than that in women, in rural areas than in urban areas, and peaked at age 80–84.
Conclusions
Esophageal cancer is still a major cancer type in rural areas of China. Effective prevention and control should be emphasized, including health education, chemoprevention, and early detection in high-risk groups.
doi:10.1111/1759-7714.12100
PMCID: PMC4704347  PMID: 26767022
Cancer registry; China; esophageal cancer; incidence; mortality
4.  Lung cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2010 
Thoracic Cancer  2014;5(4):330-336.
Background
The National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCR) is responsible for cancer surveillance. Local cancer registries in each province submit data for annual publication. The incidence and mortality of lung cancer in China in 2010 by age, gender, and area is reported in this article.
Methods
In 2013, 145 of 219 population-based cancer registries' 2010 data were selected after quality evaluation. Classification included Western, Middle, and Eastern areas, and the crude incidence and mortality rates of lung cancer were calculated by age, gender, and urban and rural. Age-standardized rates were determined by China and World standard population data. The 6th National Population Census data of China was used, combined with the registries' data to estimate the lung cancer burden in China in 2010.
Results
Lung cancer had the highest incidence and mortality in China for men and women. It was estimated that 605 946 lung cancer cases were diagnosed in China in 2010, with a crude incidence rate of 46.08/100 000, and 486 555 patients died from lung cancer, with a crude mortality rate of 37.00/100 000. Age-standardized rates for incidence were 35.23/100 000 and 35.04/100 000, respectively. Incidence and mortality rates for lung cancer were higher in men and urban areas than those in women and rural areas, reaching a peak for subjects of 80–84 years old.
Conclusion
Lung cancer has the highest incidence and mortality of all cancers in China, especially for males in urban areas. Our findings justify the need to plan and develop effective interventions, such as air pollution control and smoking deterrents, to control and prevent the spread of lung cancer in China.
doi:10.1111/1759-7714.12098
PMCID: PMC4704352  PMID: 26763691
Cancer epidemiology; Chinese data; lung cancer
5.  Demonstration program of population-based lung cancer screening in China: Rationale and study design 
Thoracic Cancer  2014;5(3):197-203.
Background
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death and has become an enormous economic burden in China. Low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT) screening could reduce lung cancer mortality. The feasibility of conducting a population-based lung cancer screening with LDCT in China is uncertain.
Methods
In 2010, a demonstration program of lung cancer screening was initiated in China. High-risk individuals were enrolled in a cluster sampling design in different centers. Participants received baseline and annual screening with spiral CT and follow-up information was collected. The objective of this program is to evaluate the feasibility of conducting population-based LDCT lung cancer screening in the Chinese context. The rates of detection, early diagnosis and treatment are defined as indicators of program performance. The optimal management strategies for nodules are explored in the Chinese context based on experiences in other studies overseas.
Results
A demonstration program of ongoing prospective, multi-center, population-based lung cancer screening is being performed in China.
Conclusions
This demonstration program will provide opportunities to explore the feasibility of LDCT lung cancer screening in the Chinese setting.
doi:10.1111/1759-7714.12078
PMCID: PMC4704303  PMID: 26767001
Feasibility study; lung cancer; mass screening; spiral computed tomography
6.  Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes of XRCC1, XPA, XPC, XPD and associations with lung cancer risk in Chinese people 
Thoracic Cancer  2014;5(3):232-242.
Background
The carcinogenic chemicals and reactive oxygen species in tobacco can result in DNA damage. DNA repair genes play an important role in maintaining genome integrity. Genetic polymorphisms of DNA repair genes and smoking may contribute to susceptibility of lung cancer.
Methods
In this hospital-based case-control study, we investigated the relationship between 13 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in base excision repair pathway and nucleotide excision repair pathway genes, smoking, and lung cancer susceptibility. Thirteen tag SNPs were genotyped in 265 lung cancer patients and 301 healthy controls. Logistic regression and multifactor dimensionality reduction method were applied to explore the association and high-order gene-gene and gene-smoking interaction.
Results
In single tag SNP analysis, XPA rs2808668, XPC rs2733533, and XPD rs1799787 were significantly associated with lung cancer susceptibility. Joint effects analysis of XPA rs2808668, XPC rs2733533 and XPD rs1799787 showed that there was an increased risk of lung cancer with increasing numbers of risk alleles. Haplotype analysis showed that XRCC1 (rs25487, rs1799782, rs3213334) GCC had a positive association with lung cancer. Analysis of gene-gene and gene-smoking interaction by multifactor dimensionality reduction showed that a positive interaction existed between the four genes and smoking. The two-factor model, including XPC rs2755333 and smoking, had the best prediction ability for lung cancer. Compared with the C/C genotype of XPC rs2733533 and no smoking, the combination of genotype A carriers with XPC rs2733533 and heavy smokers (≥30 pack-year) had a 13.32-fold risk of lung cancer.
Conclusion
Our results suggest multiple genetic variants in multiple DNA repair genes may jointly contribute to lung cancer risk through gene-gene and gene-smoking interactions.
doi:10.1111/1759-7714.12073
PMCID: PMC4704308  PMID: 26767006
DNA repair gene; haplotype; lung cancer susceptibility; multifactor dimensionality reduction; tagging SNP
7.  A Nation-Wide Multicenter Retrospective Study of the Epidemiological, Pathological and Clinical Characteristics of Breast Cancer In Situ in Chinese Women in 1999 - 2008 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e81055.
Background
Compared with invasive breast cancer, breast cancer in situ (BCIS) is seldom life threatening. However, an increasing incidence has been observed in recent years over the world. The purpose of our study is to investigate the epidemiological, clinical and pathological profiles of BCIS in Chinese women from 1999-2008.
Methods
Four thousand and two hundred-eleven female breast cancer (BC) patients were enrolled in this hospital-based nation-wide and multi-center retrospective study. Patients were randomly selected from seven hospitals in seven representative geographical regions of China between 1999 and 2008. The epidemiological, clinical and pathological data were collected based on the designed case report form (CRF).
Results
There were one hundred and forty-three BCIS cases in four thousand and two hundred-eleven BC patients (3.4%). The mean age at diagnosis was 48.3 years and BCIS peaked in age group 40-49 yrs (39.9%). The most common subtype was ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (88.0%). 53.8% were positive for estrogen receptor (ER). Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive status was observed in 23.8% of patients. All patients underwent surgeries and 14.7% of them had breast conservation therapies (BCT) (21/143), but 41.9% accepted chemotherapy (64/143). Much less patients underwent radiotherapy (16.0%, 23/143) and among patients who had BCT, 67% accepted radiotherapy (14/21). Endocrine therapy was taken in 44.1% patients (63/143).
Conclusions
The younger age of BCIS among Chinese women than Western countries and increasing number of cases pose a great challenge. BCT and endocrine therapy are under great needs.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081055
PMCID: PMC3835770  PMID: 24278375
8.  The Diverse Distribution of Risk Factors between Breast Cancer Subtypes of ER, PR and HER2: A 10-Year Retrospective Multi-Center Study in China 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e72175.
Introduction
Hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and some risk factors determine therapies and prognosis of breast cancer. The risk factors distributed differently between patients with receptors. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of risk factors between subtypes of breast cancer by the 3 receptors in Chinese native women with a large sample size.
Methods
The multi-center study analyzed 4211 patient medical records from 1999 to 2008 in 7 regions of China. Data on patients’ demographic information, risk factors (menopausal status, parity, body mass index) and receptor statuses were extracted. Breast cancer subtypes included ER (+/−), PR (+/−), HER2 (+/−), 4 ER/PR and 4 molecular subtypes. Wilcoxon and Chi-square tests were used to estimate the difference. The unconditional logistic regression model was used for analysis, and presented p-value after Bonferroni correction in the results.
Results
Compared to patients with negative progesterone receptor, the positive patients were younger at diagnosis, and reported less likely in postmenopausal status and lower parity (p<0.05). Comparing with the subtype of ER+/PR+, ER+/PR− subtype were 4-year older at diagnosis (OR = 1.02), more likely to be postmenopausal (OR = 1.91) and more likely to have >1 parity (OR = 1.36) (p<0.05); ER−/PR− subtype were more likely to be postmenopausal (OR = 1.33) and have >1 parity (OR = 1.19) (p<0.05). In contrast to the luminal A subtype, triple negative subtype had a lower BMI (OR = 0.96) and ORs of overweight and obesity reduced by >20% (p<0.05).
Conclusion
In this study, it was found that Chinese female patients did have statistically significant differences of age, menopausal status, parity and body mass index between breast cancer subtypes. Studies are warranted to further investigate the risk factors between subtypes, which was meaningful for prevention and treatment among Chinese females.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072175
PMCID: PMC3748061  PMID: 23977244
9.  Estimation of cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol drinking in china 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:730.
Background
Cancer constitutes a serious burden of disease worldwide and has become the second leading cause of death in China. Alcohol consumption is causally associated with the increased risk of certain cancers. Due to the current lack of data and the imperative need to guide policymakers on issues of cancer prevention and control, we aim to estimate the role of alcohol on the cancer burden in China in 2005.
Methods
We calculated the proportion of cancers attributable to alcohol use to estimate the burden of alcohol-related cancer. The population attributable fraction was calculated based on the assumption of no alcohol drinking. Data on alcohol drinking prevalence were from two large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population. Data on relative risk were obtained from meta-analyses and large-scale studies.
Results
We found that a total of 78,881 cancer deaths were attributable to alcohol drinking in China in 2005, representing 4.40% of all cancers (6.69% in men, 0.42% in women). The corresponding figure for cancer incidence was 93,596 cases (3.63% of all cancer cases). Liver cancer was the main alcohol-related cancer, contributing more than 60% of alcohol-related cancers.
Conclusions
Particular attention needs to be paid to the harm of alcohol as well as its potential benefits when making public health recommendations on alcohol drinking.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-730
PMCID: PMC3009646  PMID: 21108783
10.  Using NHANES oral health examination protocols as part of an esophageal cancer screening study conducted in a high-risk region of China 
BMC Oral Health  2007;7:10.
Background
The oral health status of rural residents in the People's Republic of China has not been extensively studied and the relationship between poor oral health and esophageal cancer (EC) is unclear. We aim to report the oral health status of adults participating in an EC screening study conducted in a rural high-risk EC area of China and to explore the relationship between oral health and esophageal dysplasia.
Methods
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) oral health examination procedures and the Modified Gingival Index (MGI) were used in a clinical study designed to examine risk factors for esophageal cancer and to test a new esophageal cytology sampling device. This study was conducted in three rural villages in China with high rates of EC in 2002 and was a collaborative effort involving investigators from the National Institutes of Health and the Cancer Institute of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.
Results
Nearly 17% of the study participants aged 40–67 years old were edentulous. Overall, the mean number of adjusted missing teeth (including third molars and retained dental roots) was 13.8 and 35% had 7 contacts or less. Women were more likely to experience greater tooth loss than men. The average age at the time of first tooth loss for those with no posterior functional contacts was approximately 41 years for men and 36 years for women. The mean DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth) score for the study population was 8.5. Older persons, females, and individuals having lower educational attainment had higher DMFT scores. The prevalence of periodontal disease (defined as at least one site with 3 mm of attachment loss and 4 mm of pocket depth) was 44.7%, and 36.7% of the study participants had at least one site with 6 mm or more of attachment loss. Results from a parsimonious multivariate model indicate that participants with poor oral health wemore likely to have esophageal dysplasia (OR = 1.59; 95% CI 1.06, 2.39).
Conclusion
This report describes the first use of NHANES oral health protocols employed in a clinical study conducted outside of the United States. The extent and severity of poor oral health in this Chinese study group may be an important health problem and contributing factor to the prevalence of EC.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-7-10
PMCID: PMC1993835  PMID: 17640341

Results 1-10 (10)