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author:("Qiao, moulin")
1.  Prophylactic vaccination against human papillomaviruses to prevent cervical cancer and its precursors 
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows:
To evaluate the immunogenicity, clinical efficacy, and safety of prophylactic HPV vaccines in females. The assessment of clinical efficacy will address protection against HPV infection (for homologous and heterologous HPV types), against re-infection, against cervical cancer and its precursors (high-grade CIN (grade 2 or grade 3), adenocarcinoma in situ) in women previously not exposed to HPV infection (negative at enrolment for both HPV DNA and antibodies against the vaccine HPV types). We will assess clinical effectiveness by evaluating outcomes in all women, irrespective of the HPV DNA or serology status at enrolment. Evaluation by fine age and time since sexual debut categories is also planned.
PMCID: PMC4176676  PMID: 25267916
2.  A Nation-Wide Multicenter Retrospective Study of the Epidemiological, Pathological and Clinical Characteristics of Breast Cancer In Situ in Chinese Women in 1999 - 2008 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e81055.
Compared with invasive breast cancer, breast cancer in situ (BCIS) is seldom life threatening. However, an increasing incidence has been observed in recent years over the world. The purpose of our study is to investigate the epidemiological, clinical and pathological profiles of BCIS in Chinese women from 1999-2008.
Four thousand and two hundred-eleven female breast cancer (BC) patients were enrolled in this hospital-based nation-wide and multi-center retrospective study. Patients were randomly selected from seven hospitals in seven representative geographical regions of China between 1999 and 2008. The epidemiological, clinical and pathological data were collected based on the designed case report form (CRF).
There were one hundred and forty-three BCIS cases in four thousand and two hundred-eleven BC patients (3.4%). The mean age at diagnosis was 48.3 years and BCIS peaked in age group 40-49 yrs (39.9%). The most common subtype was ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (88.0%). 53.8% were positive for estrogen receptor (ER). Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive status was observed in 23.8% of patients. All patients underwent surgeries and 14.7% of them had breast conservation therapies (BCT) (21/143), but 41.9% accepted chemotherapy (64/143). Much less patients underwent radiotherapy (16.0%, 23/143) and among patients who had BCT, 67% accepted radiotherapy (14/21). Endocrine therapy was taken in 44.1% patients (63/143).
The younger age of BCIS among Chinese women than Western countries and increasing number of cases pose a great challenge. BCT and endocrine therapy are under great needs.
PMCID: PMC3835770  PMID: 24278375
3.  The Diverse Distribution of Risk Factors between Breast Cancer Subtypes of ER, PR and HER2: A 10-Year Retrospective Multi-Center Study in China 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e72175.
Hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and some risk factors determine therapies and prognosis of breast cancer. The risk factors distributed differently between patients with receptors. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of risk factors between subtypes of breast cancer by the 3 receptors in Chinese native women with a large sample size.
The multi-center study analyzed 4211 patient medical records from 1999 to 2008 in 7 regions of China. Data on patients’ demographic information, risk factors (menopausal status, parity, body mass index) and receptor statuses were extracted. Breast cancer subtypes included ER (+/−), PR (+/−), HER2 (+/−), 4 ER/PR and 4 molecular subtypes. Wilcoxon and Chi-square tests were used to estimate the difference. The unconditional logistic regression model was used for analysis, and presented p-value after Bonferroni correction in the results.
Compared to patients with negative progesterone receptor, the positive patients were younger at diagnosis, and reported less likely in postmenopausal status and lower parity (p<0.05). Comparing with the subtype of ER+/PR+, ER+/PR− subtype were 4-year older at diagnosis (OR = 1.02), more likely to be postmenopausal (OR = 1.91) and more likely to have >1 parity (OR = 1.36) (p<0.05); ER−/PR− subtype were more likely to be postmenopausal (OR = 1.33) and have >1 parity (OR = 1.19) (p<0.05). In contrast to the luminal A subtype, triple negative subtype had a lower BMI (OR = 0.96) and ORs of overweight and obesity reduced by >20% (p<0.05).
In this study, it was found that Chinese female patients did have statistically significant differences of age, menopausal status, parity and body mass index between breast cancer subtypes. Studies are warranted to further investigate the risk factors between subtypes, which was meaningful for prevention and treatment among Chinese females.
PMCID: PMC3748061  PMID: 23977244
4.  Estimation of cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol drinking in china 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:730.
Cancer constitutes a serious burden of disease worldwide and has become the second leading cause of death in China. Alcohol consumption is causally associated with the increased risk of certain cancers. Due to the current lack of data and the imperative need to guide policymakers on issues of cancer prevention and control, we aim to estimate the role of alcohol on the cancer burden in China in 2005.
We calculated the proportion of cancers attributable to alcohol use to estimate the burden of alcohol-related cancer. The population attributable fraction was calculated based on the assumption of no alcohol drinking. Data on alcohol drinking prevalence were from two large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population. Data on relative risk were obtained from meta-analyses and large-scale studies.
We found that a total of 78,881 cancer deaths were attributable to alcohol drinking in China in 2005, representing 4.40% of all cancers (6.69% in men, 0.42% in women). The corresponding figure for cancer incidence was 93,596 cases (3.63% of all cancer cases). Liver cancer was the main alcohol-related cancer, contributing more than 60% of alcohol-related cancers.
Particular attention needs to be paid to the harm of alcohol as well as its potential benefits when making public health recommendations on alcohol drinking.
PMCID: PMC3009646  PMID: 21108783
5.  Using NHANES oral health examination protocols as part of an esophageal cancer screening study conducted in a high-risk region of China 
BMC Oral Health  2007;7:10.
The oral health status of rural residents in the People's Republic of China has not been extensively studied and the relationship between poor oral health and esophageal cancer (EC) is unclear. We aim to report the oral health status of adults participating in an EC screening study conducted in a rural high-risk EC area of China and to explore the relationship between oral health and esophageal dysplasia.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) oral health examination procedures and the Modified Gingival Index (MGI) were used in a clinical study designed to examine risk factors for esophageal cancer and to test a new esophageal cytology sampling device. This study was conducted in three rural villages in China with high rates of EC in 2002 and was a collaborative effort involving investigators from the National Institutes of Health and the Cancer Institute of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.
Nearly 17% of the study participants aged 40–67 years old were edentulous. Overall, the mean number of adjusted missing teeth (including third molars and retained dental roots) was 13.8 and 35% had 7 contacts or less. Women were more likely to experience greater tooth loss than men. The average age at the time of first tooth loss for those with no posterior functional contacts was approximately 41 years for men and 36 years for women. The mean DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth) score for the study population was 8.5. Older persons, females, and individuals having lower educational attainment had higher DMFT scores. The prevalence of periodontal disease (defined as at least one site with 3 mm of attachment loss and 4 mm of pocket depth) was 44.7%, and 36.7% of the study participants had at least one site with 6 mm or more of attachment loss. Results from a parsimonious multivariate model indicate that participants with poor oral health wemore likely to have esophageal dysplasia (OR = 1.59; 95% CI 1.06, 2.39).
This report describes the first use of NHANES oral health protocols employed in a clinical study conducted outside of the United States. The extent and severity of poor oral health in this Chinese study group may be an important health problem and contributing factor to the prevalence of EC.
PMCID: PMC1993835  PMID: 17640341

Results 1-5 (5)