The present cross-sectional study aimed to assess daytime sleepiness in Chinese adolescents using the Paediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS) and to identify associations between PDSS answers and craniofacial characteristics. A group of 265 Chinese adolescents aged 11-17 years self-completed the PDSS, and their extra- and intra-oral craniofacial characteristics were recorded. Among the participants, 59.7% (157) experienced one or more daytime sleepiness events. No significant associations were found between total PDSS scores and the craniofacial parameters, but when PDSS answers were assessed at the item level, several craniofacial characteristics were found to be positively associated with daytime sleepiness, such as hypertrophic tonsils (P = 0.05), a relatively large tongue (P < 0.01), a bilateral Class II molar relationship (P < 0.05) and increased overjet (P < 0.05). A short lower face (P < 0.01) and a convex profile (P < 0.01) were found to be negatively associated with daytime sleepiness. Daytime sleepiness is commonly reported among Chinese adolescents seeking orthodontic treatment and there are potential associations between the condition and craniofacial characteristics. An assessment of daytime sleepiness is recommended to orthodontists in young patients presenting with hypertrophic tonsils, relative large tongues and Class II tendency malocclusions, and appropriate medical referrals should also be considered.
Adolescents; Chinese; craniofacial abnormalities; sleepiness.
To quantify average angular measurements that define the soft tissue profiles of 12-year-old southern Chinese and to determine gender differences.
Materials and methods
A random population sample of 514 12-year-old children was recruited (about 10% of a Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort). Photographs were taken in natural head posture and 12 soft tissue landmarks were located on the photos to measure 12 angular measurements using ImageJ (V1.45s) for Windows. Approximately 10% of photographs were reanalyzed and method error was calculated. Angular norm values for the 12 parameters were determined and gender differences were assessed using 2 sample T-test with 95% confidence interval.
The response rate was 54.1% (278/514). Norm values for the 12 angular measurements were generated. The greatest variability was found for the nasolabial (Cm-Sn-Ls) and labiomental (Li-Sm-Pg) angles. Gender differences were found in 4 angular parameters: vertical nasal angle (N-Prn/TV) (p < 0.05), cervicomental angle (G-Pg/C-Me) (p < 0.001), facial convexity angle (G-Sn-Pg) (p < 0.01) and total facial convexity angle (G-Prn-Pg)(p < 0.01).
Norm values for 12 angular measurements among 12-year-old southern Chinese children were provided and some variability noted. Gender differences were apparent in several angular measurements. This study has implications in developing norm values for southern Chinese and for comparison with other ethnic groups.
Photogrammetric analysis; Soft tissue profile; 12-year-old southern Chinese
To examine the current literature on the impact of patients’ expectations on treatment outcomes or final patient satisfaction and to identify the theoretical frameworks, study designs and measurement instruments which have been employed to assess patients’ expectations within implant dentistry.
A structured literature search of four databases Pubmed, Cochrane, Web of Science and PsychINFO was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Any type of literature published in English discussing the topic of ‘patients expectations’ in oral health were identified and further screened. Studies reporting on expectations regarding dental implants were selected and a narrative review was conducted.
The initial search yielded 16707 studies, out of which 1051 ‘potentially effective studies’ were further assessed and final 41 ‘effective studies’ were included [Kappa = 0.76]. Ten observational studies, published from 1999 to 2013, dealt specifically with expectations of dental implants. There was a large degree of heterogeneity among studies in terms of assessment instruments. Expectations relating to aesthetics and function were primarily considered. Among the 10 studies, 8 were classified as quantitative research and 2 as qualitative research. The STROBE quality of reporting scores of the studies ranged from 13.5 to 18.0. Three of the 8 quantitative studies employed a before/after study design (prospective studies) and used visual analogue scales (VAS) to measure patient expectations.
There is a growing interest in patients’ expectations of dental implants. Most studies are cross sectional in nature and the quality of reporting varies considerably. Expectations with respect to aesthetics and function are key attributes considered. The use of visual analogue scales (VAS) provides quantitative assessments of patients’ expectations but the lack of standardization of measures prohibits meta- analyses.
Dental implant; Patients’ expectations; Systematic review
Background and objective
Current studies on the aetiology of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) are subject to recall bias because of the retrospective collection of information. Our objective was to investigate potential risk factors associated with the occurrence of DDE through a prospective cohort study.
Using a random community sample of Hong Kong children born in 1997, we performed a cohort study in which the subjects’ background information, medical and dental records were prospectively collected. A clinical examination to identify DDE was conducted in 2010 when the subjects were 12 years old. The central incisor, lateral incisor and first molar in each quadrant were chosen as the index teeth and were examined ‘wet’ by two trained and calibrated examiners using the modified FDI (DDE) Index.
With a response rate of 74.9%, the 514 examined subjects had matched data for background information. Diffuse opacites were the most common type of DDE. Of the various possible aetiological factors considered, only experience of severe diseases during the period 0–3 years was associated with the occurrence of ‘any defect’ (p = 0.017) and diffuse opacities (p = 0.044). The children with experience of severe diseases before 3 years of age were 7.89 times more likely to be affected by ‘any defect’ compared with those who did not have the experience (OR 7.89; 95% CI 1.07, 58.14; p = 0.043). However, after adjusting for confounding factors, the association no longer existed.
No variables could be identified as risk factors of DDE in this Hong Kong birth cohort.
Caregivers’ oral health literacy (OHL) assessment results have been found to be related to their children’s oral health status. A further aspect of this relationship may be the role of caregivers’ reading habits.
Our goal was to describe the relationship between caregivers’ multimodal (digital and print) and multilingual (English and Chinese) reading habits, their OHL, and their child’s oral health status in Hong Kong.
A random sample of 301 child-caregiver dyads was recruited from kindergartens in Hong Kong. Data included sociodemographic information and caregivers’ self-reported digital print and reading habits across two languages (Chinese and English). Caregivers’ OHL levels were assessed by two locally developed and validated oral health literacy assessment tasks: Hong Kong Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry-30 (HKREALD-30) and the Hong Kong Oral Health Literacy Assessment Task for Pediatric Dentistry (HKOHLAT-P). Children’s oral health status was assessed using two measures: dental caries experience (number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth) and oral hygiene status (Visible Plaque Index).
Bivariate variations revealed significant differences in mean OHL scores between caregivers with different reading habits (P<.01). Correlations revealed significant associations between caregivers’ practices of reading multimodal (print/digital) and multilingual (English/Chinese) texts, their literacy levels, and their children’s oral health status (P<.01). Adjusting for sociodemographics and all other reading habits in the regression analysis, the caregivers' habit of reading digital and print texts was significantly retained in the final model. Regression analysis revealed significant associations between caregivers’ reading habits (digital Chinese) and their OHL word recognition scores: OR 5.00, 95% CI 1.10-3.65, P=.027. Significant associations were also evident for their OHL comprehension scores (digital Chinese: OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.30-4.20, P=.004; print Chinese: OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.40-4.30, P=.001). However, no significant associations were found between caregivers' reading habits and child’s oral health status (P>.05).
Caregivers’ habits of reading print and digital Chinese texts are significantly associated with their OHL scores. Their reading habits, however, do not affect their children’s oral health status.
health literacy; multilingualism; multiliteracies; health informatics; medical consumerism; digital; caregiver; oral health status; paediatrics
To establish cephalometric norms for the upper airway of 12-year-old Chinese children, and to assess these norms with regard to gender, age, ethnicity and other craniofacial structures.
Lateral cephalograms were obtained from a random sample of 425 12-year-old Chinese children (224 boys and 201 girls) to establish the Chinese norms, and from a matched group of 108 12-year-old Caucasian children (61 boys and 47 girls) as an ethnic comparison. Published data on the upper airway norms of Chinese adults were used to make age comparisons. Nine upper airway and 14 craniofacial variables were measured.
Chinese boys tended to have a thicker soft palate (P = 0.008), and less depth in the retropalatal (P = 0.011), retroglossal (P = 0.034) and hypopharyngeal (P < 0.001) pharynx than Chinese girls, whereas no gender dimorphism was found in Caucasian children. Ethnic differences were found in the depth of the retroglossal oropharynx in both genders and the position of the hyoid bone in boys. Compared with Chinese adults, the overall size of the upper airway in Chinese children was smaller. The mandibular body length and the craniocervical inclination were found to be statistically significantly, albeit weakly correlated with upper airway variables.
Cephalometric norms for the upper airway of Chinese 12-year-old children were established, indicating gender-specific differences, and some ethnic differences were found in comparison with those of 12-year-old Caucasian children. An association between the mandibular body length and the craniocervical inclination with upper airway variables was also noticeable.
Cephalometry; Chinese; Children; Upper airway
Introduction. The psychosocial and quality of life (QoL) of patients with deformed or missing ears are frequently compromised. The aim of this study is to develop innovative techniques using CAD/CAM technology in prosthetic auricular rehabilitation and provide improvement in the treatment outcomes, including their psychology and QoL. Methods. This is a preliminary clinical cohort study. Six patients requesting for auricular reconstruction were recruited and rehabilitated with implant-supported prosthesis using CAD/CAM technology. Different treatment outcomes including QoL and psychological changes were assessed at different time points. Results. A significant reduction in severity of depressive symptoms (P = 0.038) and an improving trend of satisfaction with life were found at 1 year postoperatively when compared with the preoperative findings. The domain scores in ‘‘Body image”, ‘‘Family/friends/strangers”, and ‘‘Mood” were also significantly higher (P < 0.05) at 1 year postoperatively than 1 week postoperatively. However, only 50% of the patients wear their auricular prosthesis regularly. Conclusion. This preliminary study has confirmed that implant-supported auricular prosthesis could induce improvement in the psychology and QoL with statistically significant differences in the domains of the body image, social interaction, and mood. Our present findings can inform research design and hypotheses generation of future studies.
Chronic orofacial pain (OFP) is common in general adult populations worldwide. High levels of psychological distress and impaired coping abilities are common among Western people with chronic OFP but limited information was found in southern Chinese people. This study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of community dwelling elderly people with chronic OFP symptoms and their treatment seeking behaviour in Hong Kong.
An exploratory qualitative interview study was conducted. Elderly people experiencing chronic OFP symptoms were invited to take part in an individual semi-structured interview. A total of 25 semi-structured interviews were performed for 25 participants.
Pertinent issues relating to the treatment seeking behaviour emerged from the interviews, many of which were inter-related and overlapping. They were organized into three major themes: (i) Impact of chronic OFP on daily life; (ii) Personal knowledge and feeling of chronic OFP; (iii) Management of chronic OFP. The participants were found to have the intention to seek professional treatment, but there were barriers which discouraged them continuing to seek professional treatment. They also received complementary treatment for chronic OFP, such as acupuncture, massage and “chi kung”. Moreover, a wide range self-management techniques were also mentioned. On the other hand, those who did not seek professional treatment for the chronic OFP claimed that they had accepted or adapted to the pain as part of their lives.
This qualitative study observed that elderly people affected by chronic OFP symptoms in Hong Kong sought many different ways to manage their pain including traditional and complementary approaches. The role of the dentist in dealing with chronic OFP is unclear. Multiple barriers exist to accessing care for chronic OFP. The findings may be used to inform future chronic OFP management strategies in Hong Kong.
To investigate the effect of persistent neurosensory disturbance of the lingual nerve (LN) or inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) on general health and oral health- related quality of life (QoL).
The study design was a case-control study. Patients with persistent neurosensory deficit of LN or IAN after lower third molar surgery (for 12 months or more) were the study group. The control group was an age and gender matched sample of patients who had dental extractions or lower third molar surgeries without trigeminal neurosensory deficit. The outcome variables were the general health and oral health-related QoL. General health-related QoL was assessed using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and oral health-related QoL using the 14-item Short Form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Differences in SF-36 scores and OHIP-14 scores between the groups were compared.
Forty-eight subjects (24 cases and 24 controls) were recruited. When compared to the control group, patients with neurosensory deficits had poorer Mental-Health Component Scores (MCS) (p = 0.005), General Health (p = 0.023), Vitality (p = 0.048), Social Functioning (p = 0.003), Role-emotion (p = 0.008) and Mental Health (p = 0.022). The OHIP-14 scores were also significantly worse in this patients with neurosensory deficits compared with the control group (p = 0.002). When compared within the study group, older patient with neurosensory deficit was found to correlate with worse Physical Health Component Scores (PCS) (p = 0.02) and OHIP-14 scores (p = 0.02), while more severe visualized analog scaling rating of numbness was correlated with a worse PCS (p = 0.034).
Patients with persistent LN or IAN deficit after lower third molar surgery have poorer health-related QoL and poorer oral health-related QoL than those without such deficits.
Limited information on oral health status for young adults aged 18 year-olds is known, and no available data exists in Hong Kong. The aims of this study were to investigate the oral health status and its risk indicators among young adults in Hong Kong using negative binomial regression.
A survey was conducted in a representative sample of Hong Kong young adults aged 18 years. Clinical examinations were taken to assess oral health status using DMFT index and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) according to WHO criteria. Negative binomial regressions for DMFT score and the number of sextants with healthy gums were performed to identify the risk indicators of oral health status.
A total of 324 young adults were examined. Prevalence of dental caries experience among the subjects was 59% and the overall mean DMFT score was 1.4. Most subjects (95%) had a score of 2 as their highest CPI score. Negative binomial regression analyses revealed that subjects who had a dental visit within 3 years had significantly higher DMFT scores (IRR = 1.68, p < 0.001). Subjects who brushed their teeth more frequently (IRR = 1.93, p < 0.001) and those with better dental knowledge (IRR = 1.09, p = 0.002) had significantly more sextants with healthy gums.
Dental caries experience of the young adults aged 18 years in Hong Kong was not high but their periodontal condition was unsatisfactory. Their oral health status was related to their dental visit behavior, oral hygiene habit, and oral health knowledge.
Dental caries; Periodontal disease; Negative binomial regression
Dental caries (tooth decay) is highly prevalent and is largely attributable to unhealthy self-care behaviors (diet and oral hygiene). The conventional (health) education (CE), focusing on disseminating information and giving normative advice, often fails to achieve sustained behavioral changes. This study incorporates two innovative elements into CE: (i) motivational interviewing (MI), a client-centered counseling for changing behaviors, and (ii) an interactive caries risk assessment (RA) tool, which is devised to facilitate dental counseling and may enhance MI in several ways. Through a randomized, controlled, evaluator-blinded trial, three intervention schemes (CE, CE + MI, and CE + MI + RA) will be compared for their effectiveness in eliciting dentally healthy behaviors and preventing caries in preschool children.
This study targets 3-year-old children who are at a critical stage for embedding health habits. Children with unfavorable dental behaviors (insufficient toothbrushing and/or frequent snacking) and their parents will be recruited from 12 participating kindergartens. Parent-child dyads (n = 690) will be randomly assigned into three groups. In the first group (CE), oral health information and advice will be delivered to parents through pamphlets. In the second group (CE + MI), in addition to the pamphlets, individual MI counseling with each parent will be performed by one of two trained dental hygienists. In the third group (CE + MI + RA), besides pamphlets and MI, interactive RA will be integrated into MI to motivate parents and facilitate their informed decision making and goal planning. At baseline and after 12 and 24 months, parents will complete a questionnaire and children will undergo a dental examination. The effectiveness of the intervention schemes will be compared over 12 and 24 months. The primary outcome will be caries increment in children and proportion of caries-free children. Secondary outcomes will be changes in parental efficacy for protecting children’s oral health and changes in children’s dental behaviors.
Motivating and empowering parents to cultivate dentally healthy habits of young children presents both promises and challenges. With careful methodological considerations, this study is expected to provide scientific evidence for public health workers, dentists, and dental auxiliaries (nurses and hygienists) to choose appropriate interventions to advance children’s oral health.
Motivational interviewing; Caries risk assessment; Oral health intervention; Oral health education; Dental counseling; Children; Preschool; Parents; Randomized controlled trial
Proportions derived from neoclassical canons, initially described by Renaissance sculptors and painters, are still being employed as aesthetic guidelines during the clinical assessment of the facial morphology.
1. to determine the applicability of neoclassical canons for Southern Chinese faces and 2. to explore gender differences in relation to the applicability of the neoclassical canons and their variants.
3-D photographs acquired from 103 young adults (51 males and 52 females) without facial dysmorphology were used to test applicability of four neoclassical canons. Standard anthropometric measurements that determine the facial canons were made on these 3-D images. The validity of the canons as well as their different variants were quantified.
The neoclassical cannons seldom applied to these individuals, and facial three-section and orbital canons did not apply at all. The orbitonasal canon was most frequently applicable, with a frequency of 19%. Significant sexual dimorphism was found relative to the prevalence of the variants of facial three-section and orbitonasal canons.
The neoclassical canons did not appear to apply to our sample when rigorous quantitative measurements were employed. Thus, they should not be used as esthetic goals for craniofacial surgical interventions.
Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and stereophotography are two of the latest imaging modalities available for three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of craniofacial structures. However, CBCT provides only limited information on surface texture. This can be overcome by combining the bone images derived from CBCT with 3-D photographs. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the feasibility of integrating 3-D Photos and CBCT images 2) to assess degree of error that may occur during the above processes and 3) to identify facial regions that would be most appropriate for 3-D image registration.
CBCT scans and stereophotographic images from 29 patients were used for this study. Two 3-D images corresponding to the skin and bone were extracted from the CBCT data. The 3-D photo was superimposed on the CBCT skin image using relatively immobile areas of the face as a reference. 3-D colour maps were used to assess the accuracy of superimposition were distance differences between the CBCT and 3-D photo were recorded as the signed average and the Root Mean Square (RMS) error.
The signed average and RMS of the distance differences between the registered surfaces were −0.018 (±0.129) mm and 0.739 (±0.239) mm respectively. The most errors were found in areas surrounding the lips and the eyes, while minimal errors were noted in the forehead, root of the nose and zygoma.
CBCT and 3-D photographic data can be successfully fused with minimal errors. When compared to RMS, the signed average was found to under-represent the registration error. The virtual 3-D composite craniofacial models permit concurrent assessment of bone and soft tissues during diagnosis and treatment planning.
Anxiety and depression have been identified as a common psychological distress faced by the majority of cancer patients. With the increasing number of cancer cases, increasing demands will be placed on health systems to address effective psychosocial care and therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the possible role of hope and optimism on anxiety and depression. We also wanted to investigate if there is a specific component of hope that could play a role in buffering anxiety and depression amongst cancer patients.
A retrospective cross sectional study was conducted in the outpatient station of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, PR-China. Fifty patients successfully treated for OC cancer were recruited after their informed consents had been obtained during the review clinic. During their regular follow-up controls in the outpatient clinic the patients compiled the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), hope scale (HS) and the life orientation scale-revised (LOT-R).
Hope was negatively correlated with depression (r = -.55, p < .001) and anxiety (r = -.38, p < .05). Similar pattern was found between optimism and the latter adjustment outcomes (depression: r = -.55, p < .001; anxiety: r = -.35, p < .05). Regression analyses indentified that both hope and optimism were significant predictors of depression. Hope and optimism had equal association with depression (hope: β = .40 versus optimism: β = .38). Hope and optimism together were significantly predictive of anxiety, whereas neither hope nor optimism alone was significant individual predictors of anxiety.
Hope and optimism both negatively correlated with patients' level of anxiety and depression. Besides theoretical implications, this study brings forward relevant findings related to developing specific clinical psychological care in the field of oncology that to date has not been researched specifically in the field of oncology. The results of this study will help guide the direction of future prospective studies in the field of oncology. This will contribute significantly to increasing patients quality of life as well enabling health care facilities to provide all cancer patients a more holistic cancer care.
This study aims to perform an evidence-based review on the quantitative data regarding coping processes related to posttraumatic growth in the field of oncology to facilitate understanding of posttraumatic growth in oral cavity cancer (OCC) patients.
Material and methods
Pubmed, Medline, and PsycINFO were used for the search and the reference list checked for each selected article. Full articles meeting the inclusion criteria were retrieved. Only English articles were included.
The initial search yielded 934 publications; 64 “potentially relevant papers” and 21 “effective” papers formed the basis of this review. Personality traits and social support lead to development of positive coping methods in cancer patients. Overriding influences are benefit finding and meaning making. Specific coping processes were identified to be significantly associated with posttraumatic growth in patients suffering from different cancers and a need for additional prospective research regarding specific processes and outcomes among oral cavity cancer patients. A proposed theoretical model based on the evidence of management of other cancer research fields is suggested for patients with OCC.
An evidence-based review of coping strategies related to posttraumatic growth was performed which identified key coping strategies and factors that enhance coping processes. A conceptual model of coping strategies to enhance posttraumatic growth in OCC patients based on the scientific evidence attained is suggested to provide a more holistic approach to OCC management.
Coping process; Posttraumatic growth; Cancer; Oral cavity; Oncology
The impact of acculturation on systemic health has been extensively investigated and is regarded as an important explanatory factor for health disparity. However, information is limited and fragmented on the oral health implications of acculturation. This study aimed to review the current evidence on the oral health impact of acculturation. Papers were retrieved from five electronic databases. Twenty-seven studies were included in this review. Their scientific quality was rated and key findings were summarized. Seventeen studies investigated the impacts of acculturation on the utilization of dental services; among them, 16 reported positive associations between at least one acculturation indicator and use of dental services. All 15 studies relating acculturation to oral diseases (dental caries and periodontal disease) suggested better oral health among acculturated individuals. Evidence is lacking to support that better oral health of acculturated immigrants is attributable to their improved dental attendance. Further researches involving other oral health behaviors and diseases and incorporating refined acculturation scales are needed. Prospective studies will facilitate the understanding on the trajectory of immigrants’ oral health along the acculturation continuum.
Acculturation; Immigrants; Ethnicity; Oral health; Dental care
To assess the health- and oral health-related quality of life of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to determine their inter-relationship between the two quality of life measures.
A total of 144 preschool children with and without CP were invited to participate in the case–control study. Health-related quality of life was assessed by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Version 4.0 (PedsQL™ 4.0) and oral health-related quality of life by the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Differences in PedsQL™ 4.0 and ECOHIS scores were determined between the groups, and correlation between PedsQL and ECOHIS were explored.
Significant differences in overall scores of PedsQL™ 4.0 (P < 0.001) and in overall scores of ECOHIS (P < 0.05) were apparent between the two groups. In terms of health- and oral health-related quality of life, preschool children with CP fared worse than the age–gender-matched control group. There was a positive albeit weak correlation (r = 0.203, P < 0.05) between PedsQL™ 4.0 and ECOHIS scores.
Differences in health- and oral health-related quality of life exist among preschool children with CP. Correlation between health- and oral health-related quality of life could at best be described as weak.
Cerebral palsy; Health-related quality of life; Oral health-related quality of life
Oral health studies conducted so far in Nigeria have documented prevalence and incidence of dental disease using traditional clinical measures. However none have investigated the use of an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) instrument to document oral health outcomes. The aims of this study are: to describe how oral health affects and impacts quality of life (QoL) and to explore the association between these affects and the oral health care seeking behavior of adults in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.
A cross-sectional survey recruited 356 adults aged 18–64 years from two large hospital outpatient departments and from members of a university community. Closed-ended oral health questionnaire with "effect and impact" item-questions from OHQoL-UK© instrument was administered by trained interviewers. Collected data included sociodemographic, dental visits, and effects and impact of oral health on QoL. Univariate and bivariable analyses were done and a chi-square test was used to test differences in proportions. Multivariable analyses using ANOVA examined the association between QoL factors and visits to a dentist.
Complete data was available for 83% of the participants. About 62% of participants perceived their oral health as affecting their QoL. Overall, 82%, 63%, and 77% of participants perceived that oral health has an effect on their eating or enjoyment of food, sleep or ability to relax, and smiling or laughing, respectively. Some 46%, 36%, and 25% of participants reported that oral health impact their daily activities, social activities, and talking to people, respectively. Dental visits within the last year was significantly associated with eating, speech, and finance (P < 0.05). The summary score for the oral health effects on QoL ranged from 33 to 80 with a median value of 61 (95% CI: 60, 62) and interquartile range of 52–70. Multivariable modeling suggested a model containing only education (F = 6.5, pr>F = 0.0111). The mean of effects sum score for those with secondary/tertiary education levels (mean = 61.8; 95% CI: 60.6, 62.9) was significantly higher than those with less than secondary level of education (mean = 57.2; 95% CI: 57.2, 60.6).
Most adults in the study reported that oral health affects their life quality, and have little/no impact on their quality of life. Dental visits within the last year were associated with eating, speech, and finance.