Chronic stress may be a risk factor for developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but most studies of the effects of stress in models of AD utilize acute adverse stressors of questionable clinical relevance. The goal of this work was to determine how chronic psychosocial stress affects behavioral and pathological outcomes in an animal model of AD, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. A triple-transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTgAD mice) and nontransgenic control mice were used to test for an affect of chronic mild social stress on blood glucose, plasma glucocorticoids, plasma insulin, anxiety and hippocampal Aβ, ptau and BDNF levels. Despite the fact that both control and 3xTgAD mice experienced rises in corticosterone during episodes of mild social stress, at the end of the 6 week stress period 3xTgAD mice displayed increased anxiety, elevated levels of Aβ oligomers and intraneuronal Aβ, and decreased BDNF levels, whereas control mice did not. Findings suggest 3xTgAD mice are more vulnerable than control mice to chronic psychosocial stress, and that such chronic stress exacerbates Aβ accumulation and impairs neurotrophic signaling.
Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid oligomers; psychosocial stress; corticosterone; hippocampus; BDNF
Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most common zoonosis worldwide, affecting a wide range of warm-blooded mammals and birds worldwide. However, no information on T. gondii infection in pet birds in China is available. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in pet birds in Gansu province, China.
A total of 687 blood samples were collected from pet birds (Carduelis spinus, Alauda gulgula, Cocothraustes migratorlus) in three representative administrative regions in Gansu province, northwest China between August 2011 and September 2012 T. gondii antibodies were determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Genomic DNA was extracted from the brain tissues of seropositive pet birds and T. gondii B1 gene was amplified using a semi-nested PCR.DNA samples giving positive B1 amplification were then genetically characterized using multi-locus PCR-RFLP.
The overall T. gondii seroprevalence was 11.21% (77/687). C. spinus had the highest T. gondii seroprevalence (11.65%), followed by A. arvensis (11.39%) and C. migratorlus (5.26%), these differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Of 77 DNA samples, 8 were positive for the T. gondii B1 gene, four showed complete genotyping results. Only one genotype (the Type II variant: ToxoDB genotype #3) was identified.
The results of the present survey indicated the presence of T. gondii infection in pet birds in Gansu province, China. These data provide base-line information for the execution of control strategies against T. gondii infection in pet birds. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the occurrence of T. gondii prevalence and genotype in pet birds in China.
Toxoplasma gondii; Toxoplasmosis; Pet birds; Seroprevalence; Genetic characterization
Our current knowledge of tooth development derives mainly from studies in mice, which have only one set of non-replaced teeth, compared with the diphyodont dentition in humans. The miniature pig is also diphyodont, making it a valuable alternative model for understanding human tooth development and replacement. However, little is known about gene expression and function during swine odontogenesis. The goal of this study is to undertake the survey of differential gene expression profiling and functional network analysis during morphogenesis of diphyodont dentition in miniature pigs. The identification of genes related to diphyodont development should lead to a better understanding of morphogenetic patterns and the mechanisms of diphyodont replacement in large animal models and humans.
The temporal gene expression profiles during early diphyodont development in miniature pigs were detected with the Affymetrix Porcine GeneChip. The gene expression data were further evaluated by ANOVA as well as pathway and STC analyses. A total of 2,053 genes were detected with differential expression. Several signal pathways and 151 genes were then identified through the construction of pathway and signal networks.
The gene expression profiles indicated that spatio-temporal down-regulation patterns of gene expression were predominant; while, both dynamic activation and inhibition of pathways occurred during the morphogenesis of diphyodont dentition. Our study offers a mechanistic framework for understanding dynamic gene regulation of early diphyodont development and provides a molecular basis for studying teeth development, replacement, and regeneration in miniature pigs.
Gene expression profile; Diphyodont; Odontogenesis; Miniature pig
Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in animals and humans worldwide. Although the prevalence of T. gondii has been reported in many animals in China, little is known of T. gondii infection in sows. Antibodies to T. gondii in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, were examined using indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT). Overall, 31.3% (373/1191) of the examined sows were seropositive for T. gondii. Among 11 representative regions of Hunan province, the seroprevalence ranged from 14.8% to 45.1%. In addition, the T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in summer (37.4%) and autumn (34.9%) than in spring (24.6%) and winter (23.9%). Regarding different antibody titers, the seroprevalence ranged from 1.8% (titer ≥ 1 : 1024) to 17.4% (titer = 1 : 64). The findings of the present investigation revealed the high seroprevalence of T. gondii in sows in Hunan province, China, which poses a potential risk for T. gondii infection in humans and animals in this province. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to prevent and control toxoplasmosis of pigs in this province. This is the first report of the comprehensive survey of T. gondii seroprevalence in sows in Hunan Province, subtropical China.
With the improvement in thoracoscopic and laparoscopic surgery, thoracoscopic and laparoscopic esophagectomy (TLE), a minimally invasive approach, has attracted increasing attention as an alternative to open three-field esophagectomy. From June 2012 to October 2013, 90 patients underwent laparoscopic and thoracoscopic resection of esophageal carcinoma in our department. The VATS esophagectomy technique described here is the approach currently employed in the department of thoracic surgery at Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital of China.
Thoracoscopic and laparoscopic; minimally invasive; esophagectomy
Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT), ghrelin knockout (ghrelin−/−), and GOAT knockout (GOAT−/−) mice. Ghrelin−/− mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT−/− mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin−/− and GOAT−/− mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin−/− mice, yet potentiated in GOAT−/− mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT−/− mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin−/− and GOAT−/− mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities.
With the prevalence of obesity, artificial, non-nutritive sweeteners have been widely used as dietary supplements that provide sweet taste without excessive caloric load. In order to better understand the overall actions of artificial sweeteners, especially when they are chronically used, we investigated the peripheral and central nervous system effects of protracted exposure to a widely used artificial sweetener, acesulfame K (ACK). We found that extended ACK exposure (40 weeks) in normal C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a moderate and limited influence on metabolic homeostasis, including altering fasting insulin and leptin levels, pancreatic islet size and lipid levels, without affecting insulin sensitivity and bodyweight. Interestingly, impaired cognitive memory functions (evaluated by Morris Water Maze and Novel Objective Preference tests) were found in ACK-treated C57BL/6J mice, while no differences in motor function and anxiety levels were detected. The generation of an ACK-induced neurological phenotype was associated with metabolic dysregulation (glycolysis inhibition and functional ATP depletion) and neurosynaptic abnormalities (dysregulation of TrkB-mediated BDNF and Akt/Erk-mediated cell growth/survival pathway) in hippocampal neurons. Our data suggest that chronic use of ACK could affect cognitive functions, potentially via altering neuro-metabolic functions in male C57BL/6J mice.
The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in birds has epidemiological significance because birds are indeed considered as a good indicator of environmental contamination by T. gondii oocysts. In this study, the prevalence of T. gondii in 313 house sparrows in Lanzhou, northwestern China was assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies to T. gondii were positive in 39 (12.46%) of 313 samples (MAT titer ≥ 1:5). Tissues of heart, brain, and lung from the 39 seropositive house sparrows were tested for T. gondii DNA, 11 of which were found to be positive for the T. gondii B1 gene by PCR amplification. These positive DNA samples were typed at 9 genetic markers, including 8 nuclear loci, i.e., SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, GRA6, L358, PK1, c22-8 and an apicoplast locus Apico. Of them, 4 isolates were genotyped with complete data for all loci, and 2 genotypes (Type II variants; ToxoDB #3 and a new genotype) were identified. These results showed that there is a potential risk for human infection with T. gondii in this region. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in house sparrows in China.
Toxoplasma gondii; sparrow; seroprevalence; PCR-RFLP typing; northwestern China
Normal aging is a complex process that affects every organ system in the body, including the taste system. Thus, we investigated the effects of the normal aging process on taste bud morphology, function, and taste responsivity in male mice at 2, 10, and 18 months of age. The 18-month-old animals demonstrated a significant reduction in taste bud size and number of taste cells per bud compared with the 2- and 10-month-old animals. The 18-month-old animals exhibited a significant reduction of protein gene product 9.5 and sonic hedgehog immunoreactivity (taste cell markers). The number of taste cells expressing the sweet taste receptor subunit, T1R3, and the sweet taste modulating hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1, were reduced in the 18-month-old mice. Concordant with taste cell alterations, the 18-month-old animals demonstrated reduced sweet taste responsivity compared with the younger animals and the other major taste modalities (salty, sour, and bitter) remained intact.
Taste buds; Aging; Sweet taste; Glucagon-like peptide-1; T1R3
Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is an improved version of earlier resonance energy transfer technologies used for the analysis of biomolecular protein interaction. BRET analysis can be applied to many transmembrane receptor classes, however the majority of the early published literature on BRET has focused on G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) research. In contrast, there is limited scientific literature using BRET to investigate receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activity. This limited investigation is surprising as RTKs often employ dimerization as a key factor in their activation, as well as being important therapeutic targets in medicine, especially in the cases of cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative, and respiratory conditions. In this review, we consider an array of studies pertinent to RTKs and other non-GPCR receptor protein–protein signaling interactions; more specifically we discuss receptor-protein interactions involved in the transmission of signaling communication. We have provided an overview of functional BRET studies associated with the RTK superfamily involving: neurotrophic receptors [e.g., tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR)]; insulinotropic receptors [e.g., insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR)] and growth factor receptors [e.g., ErbB receptors including the EGFR, the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and the c-kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)]. In addition, we review BRET-mediated studies of other tyrosine kinase-associated receptors including cytokine receptors, i.e., leptin receptor (OB-R) and the growth hormone receptor (GHR). It is clear even from the relatively sparse experimental RTK BRET evidence that there is tremendous potential for this technological application for the functional investigation of RTK biology.
receptor tyrosine kinase; RTK; protein–protein interaction; neurotrophic; insulin receptor; insulin-like growth factor receptor; epidermal growth factor receptor; cytokine receptors
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by progressive motor impairment and cognitive alterations. Changes in energy metabolism, neuroendocrine function, body weight, euglycemia, appetite function, and circadian rhythm can also occur. It is likely that the locus of these alterations is the hypothalamus. We used the HD transgenic (tg) rat model bearing 51 CAG repeats, which exhibits similar HD symptomology as HD patients to investigate hypothalamic function. We conducted detailed hypothalamic proteome analyses and also measured circulating levels of various metabolic hormones and lipids in pre-symptomatic and symptomatic animals. Our results demonstrate that there are significant alterations in HD rat hypothalamic protein expression such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), heat shock protein-70, the oxidative damage protein glutathione peroxidase (Gpx4), glycogen synthase1 (Gys1) and the lipid synthesis enzyme acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 1 (Agpat1). In addition, there are significant alterations in various circulating metabolic hormones and lipids in pre-symptomatic animals including, insulin, leptin, triglycerides and HDL, before any motor or cognitive alterations are apparent. These early metabolic and lipid alterations are likely prodromal signs of hypothalamic dysfunction. Gaining a greater understanding of the hypothalamic and metabolic alterations that occur in HD, could lead to the development of novel therapeutics for early interventional treatment of HD.
To investigate the cognitive enhancement effect of WNK, an extracts combination of P. ginseng, G. biloba, and C. sativus L. and possible mechanisms, 5-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic mice were used in this study. After 3 months of administration, all mice received Morris water maze (MWM) training and a probe test. Mouse brain sections were detected by immunohistochemistry, HE staining, and transmission electron microscopy. MWM results showed significant difference between transgenic mice and nontransgenic littermates (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). WNK-treated mice exhibited enhanced maze performance over the training progression, especially better spatial memory retention in probe test compared to transgenic mice (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) and better spatial learning and memory at the fourth day of MWM test compared to EGB761- (G. biloba extract-) treated ones (P < 0.05). Hippocampal Aβ plaque burden significantly differed between APP/PS1 and littermate mice (P < 0.001), while decreased Aβ plaque appeared in WNK- or EGB761-treated transgenic brains (P < 0.05). Neurodegenerative changes were evident from light microscopic and ultrastructural observations in transgenic brains, which were improved by WNK or EGB761 treatment. These data indicate WNK can reduce the decline in spatial cognition, which might be due to its effects on reducing Aβ plaque formation and ameliorating histopathology and ultrastructure in hippocampus of APP/PS1 mouse brain.
Toxoplasma gondii infection is a global concern, affecting a wide range of warm-blooded animals and humans worldwide, including poultry. Domestic and companion birds are considered to play an important role in the transmission of T. gondii to humans and other animals. However, little information on T. gondii infection in domestic birds in Lanzhou, northwest China was available. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in domestic birds in Lanzhou, northwest China.
In the present study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in 413 (305 caged and 108 free-range) adult chickens, 334 (111 caged and 223 free-range) adult ducks and 312 adult pigeons in Lanzhou, northwest China, were examined using the modified agglutination test (MAT).
30 (7.26%) chickens, 38 (11.38%) ducks and 37 (11.86%) pigeons were found to be positive for T. gondii antibodies at the cut-off of 1:5. The prevalences in caged and free-range chickens were 6.23% and 10.19% respectively, however, statistical analysis showed that the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). The seroprevalences in caged and free-range ducks were 6.31% and 13.90% respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05).
The results of the present survey indicated the presence of T. gondii infection in adult chickens, ducks and pigeons sold for meat in poultry markets in Lanzhou, northwest China, which poses a potential risk for T. gondii infection in humans and other animals in this region. This is the first seroprevalence study of T. gondii infection in domestic birds in this region.
The neuroendocrine hormone ghrelin is an octanoylated 28-residue peptide that exerts numerous physiological functions. Ghrelin exerts its effects on the body mainly through a highly conserved G protein-coupled receptor known as the growth hormone secretagagogue receptor subtype 1a (GHS-R1a). Ghrelin and GSH-R1a are widely expressed in both peripheral and central tissues/organs, and ghrelin signaling plays a critical role in maintaining energy balance and neuronal health. The multiple orexigenic effects of ghrelin and its receptor have been studied in great detail, and GHS-R1a-mediated ghrelin signaling has long been a promising target for the treatment of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. In addition to its well-characterized metabolic effects, there is also mounting evidence that ghrelin-mediated GHS-R1a signaling exerts neuroprotective effects on the brain. In this review, we will summarize some of the effects of ghrelin-mediated GSH-R1a signaling on peripheral energy balance and cognitive function. We will also discuss the potential pharmacotherapeutic role of GSH-R1a-mediated ghrelin signaling for the treatment of complex neuroendocrine disorders.
Cognitive function; energy balance; ghrelin; growth hormone secretagagogue receptor; memory; metabolic disorders; neuroprotection; obesity
In this study, specific sequences within three genes (3D, VP4 and 2B) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome were determined to be effective RNAi targets. These sequences are highly conserved among different serotype viruses based on sequence analysis. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-expressing plasmids (p3D-NT19, p3D-NT56, pVP4-NT19, pVP4-NT65 and p2B-NT25) were constructed to express siRNA targeting 3D, VP4 and 2B, respectively. The antiviral potential of these siRNA for various FMDV isolates was investigated in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells and suckling mice. The results show that these siRNA inhibited virus yield 10- to 300-fold for different FMDV isolates of serotype O and serotype Asia I at 48 h post infection in BHK-21 cells compared to control cells. In suckling mice, p3D-NT56 and p2B-NT25 delayed the death of mice. Twenty percent to 40% of the animals that received a single siRNA dose survived 5 days post infection with serotype O or serotype Asia I. We used an attenuated Salmonella choleraesuis (C500) vaccine strain, to carry the plasmid that expresses siRNA directed against the polymerase gene 3D (p3D-NT56) of FMDV. We used guinea pigs to evaluate the inhibitory effects of recombinant S. cho (p3D-NT56/S. cho) on FMDV infection. The results show that 80% of guinea pigs inoculated with 109 CFU of p3D-NT56/S. cho and challenged 36 h later with 50 ID50 of homologous FMDV were protected. We also measured the antiviral activity of p3D-NT56/S. cho in swine. The results indicate that 100% of the animals treated with 5 × 109 CFU of p3D-NT56/S. cho were protected in 9 days.
foot-and-mouth disease virus; RNA interference; Salmonella choleraesuis; conserved sequence; swine
The oral health status of rural residents in the People's Republic of China has not been extensively studied and the relationship between poor oral health and esophageal cancer (EC) is unclear. We aim to report the oral health status of adults participating in an EC screening study conducted in a rural high-risk EC area of China and to explore the relationship between oral health and esophageal dysplasia.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) oral health examination procedures and the Modified Gingival Index (MGI) were used in a clinical study designed to examine risk factors for esophageal cancer and to test a new esophageal cytology sampling device. This study was conducted in three rural villages in China with high rates of EC in 2002 and was a collaborative effort involving investigators from the National Institutes of Health and the Cancer Institute of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.
Nearly 17% of the study participants aged 40–67 years old were edentulous. Overall, the mean number of adjusted missing teeth (including third molars and retained dental roots) was 13.8 and 35% had 7 contacts or less. Women were more likely to experience greater tooth loss than men. The average age at the time of first tooth loss for those with no posterior functional contacts was approximately 41 years for men and 36 years for women. The mean DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth) score for the study population was 8.5. Older persons, females, and individuals having lower educational attainment had higher DMFT scores. The prevalence of periodontal disease (defined as at least one site with 3 mm of attachment loss and 4 mm of pocket depth) was 44.7%, and 36.7% of the study participants had at least one site with 6 mm or more of attachment loss. Results from a parsimonious multivariate model indicate that participants with poor oral health wemore likely to have esophageal dysplasia (OR = 1.59; 95% CI 1.06, 2.39).
This report describes the first use of NHANES oral health protocols employed in a clinical study conducted outside of the United States. The extent and severity of poor oral health in this Chinese study group may be an important health problem and contributing factor to the prevalence of EC.