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1.  Socioeconomic Barriers to Rhegmatogenous Detachment Surgery in Brazil 
Journal of Ophthalmology  2014;2014:452152.
Purpose. To verify access barriers patients with retinal detachment face to arrive at a reference center and to evaluate patients' knowledge about the disease. Methods. Transversal study that applied a questioner to 65 patients of the Clinical Hospital of the University of Sao Paulo with retinal detachment between February and August of 2010. Results. Reasons for not performing the surgery in other services were as follows: 47% were referred because there was not vitreoretinal surgeon at original service; 27% could not afford the surgery, had no health insurance, or had no coverage at health insurance plan for the procedure. Time between the first symptom and the arrival at our service was as follows: 18 patients arrived in up to 7 days; 35 between 8 and 30 days; 8 between 31 and 90 days; 5 in more than 90 days. Reasons for delay were as follows: 70% did not know how serious the pathology was; 56% thought that it had spontaneous cure; 16% did not have money to pay for ophthalmic evaluation, 10% did not know where to go and 24% for other reasons. Conclusion. Educational programs about disease and measures to optimize the referral to specialized services are needed to accelerate the treatment of patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.
doi:10.1155/2014/452152
PMCID: PMC4258914  PMID: 25506423
2.  Choroidal bulging in patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease in the non-acute uveitic stage 
Background
Detection of choroidal inflammation in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease is still a challenge. Progression to sunset glow fundus has been observed despite apparent good clinical control of inflammation. Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) permits choroid inflammation detection, though it is invasive, time consuming, and costly. The purpose of the present study is to report a sign indicative of probable inflammation on enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT): a localized increase in choroidal thickness with bulging of the outer retina (‘choroidal bulging’) in patients with VKH disease in the non-acute uveitic stage.
Findings
This is a retrospective observational study. The choroidal bulging was a particular finding observed in four eyes of three patients with VKH disease in the non-acute uveitic stage (median disease duration 55.3 ± 40.3 months, range 10 to 108). This study is part of an ongoing longitudinal study in patients with VKH disease carried out in the Uveitis Service, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. In all eyes, the choroidal bulging was identified in the presence of anterior chamber cells and/or on fundus angiographic (fluorescein and indocyanine green) findings, indicative of disease activity. Changes in the thickness of the choroidal bulging accompanied the variation in the clinical and angiographic signs of inflammation.
Conclusion
The choroidal bulging is a particular finding detected on EDI-OCT that may indicate ongoing inflammation in the posterior segment of the eye. This EDI-OCT feature may assist in the treatment-monitoring of patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease in the non-acute uveitic stage.
doi:10.1186/1869-5760-4-6
PMCID: PMC3937426  PMID: 24548697
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease; Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography; Non-acute uveitic stage; Disease activity parameter; Choroidal inflammation
3.  Retinal involvement of Paracoccioidomycosis: A Case Report 
Tropical Medicine and Health  2013;40(4):149-153.
Purpose: to describe the clinicopathologic features and treatment of a rare case of systemic paracoccidioidomycosis with choroidal and retinal involvement. Design: retrospective interventional case report. Participant: A 36-year-old young man with visual impairment in left eye with anterior uveitis and presence of whitish perimacular choroidal nodule, multiple underlying whitish spots and mid-periphery exudative retinal detachment. A primary extensive work-up for systemic infectious, autoimmune, neoplasic or inflammatory conditions was performed and high-resolution computer tomography scan demonstrated asymmetric parietal thickening of the trachea and bilateral diffuse multiple lobular opacities. Pulmonary bronchoscopy/biopsy of larynx, trachea and bronchial tube were also performed. Histopathological evaluation showed characteristic of Paracoccidioidomycosis. Intervention: Patient was treated with oral sulphadiazine (1.5 g/day). Main Outcome Measures: Anterior uveitis, retinal examination, histopathological evaluation and primary clinical outcome were observed during systemic treatment. Results: After 3 months of irregular treatment, choroidal lesions decreased in size forming atrophic scars and fibrotic spots; however visual acuity did not show any improvement. Conclusion: We report a rare case of systemic paracoccidioidomycosis with choroidal and retinal involvement treated with oral sulphadiazine.
doi:10.2149/tmh.2012-27
PMCID: PMC3598072  PMID: 23532715
Paracoccioidomycosis; retina; eye
4.  Indocyanine green angiography findings in patients with long-standing Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Ophthalmology  2012;12:40.
Background
To investigate indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) findings in patients with long-standing Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease and their correlation with disease activity on clinical examination as well as with systemic corticosteroid therapy.
Methods
Twenty-eight patients (51 eyes) with long-standing (≥6 months from disease onset) VKH disease whose treatment was tapered based only in clinical features were prospectively included at a single center in Brazil. All patients underwent standardized clinical evaluation, which included fundus photography, fluorescein angiography and ICGA. Clinical disease activity was determined based in the Standardization in Uveitis Nomenclature Working Group. Fisher exact test and logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis.
Results
Disease-related choroidal inflammation on ICGA was observed in 72.5% (31 of 51 eyes). Angiographic findings suggestive of (choroidal and/or retinal) disease activity were not observed on FA. Clinically active disease based on clinical evaluation was observed in 41.2% (21 of 51 eyes). In these 21 eyes, disease-related choroidal inflammation on ICGA was observed in 76.2% (16 of 21 eyes); in the remaining eyes (without clinical active disease) disease-related choroidal inflammation on ICGA was observed in 70.0% (21 of 30 eyes). In respect to systemic corticosteroid therapy, 10 patients (18 of 51 eyes) were under treatment with prednisone. In these 10 (18 of 51 eyes) patients, disease-related choroidal inflammation on ICGA was observed in 83.3% (15 of 18 eyes); in the remaining patients (33 of 51 eyes) disease-related choroidal inflammation on ICGA was observed in 66.7% (22 of 33 eyes).
Conclusion
ICGA findings suggestive of disease-related choroidal inflammation were observed in a considerable proportion of patients with long-standing VKH disease, independent of the inflammatory status of the disease on clinical examination or current use of systemic corticosteroid. Therefore, the current study reinforces the crucial role of ICGA to assist the management and treatment of patients with long-standing VKH disease.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-12-40
PMCID: PMC3480878  PMID: 22889440
Angiography; Indocyanine green; Choroid; Diagnosis; Inflammation; Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada

Results 1-4 (4)