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1.  Complications of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for macular edema and predictive factors for intraocular pressure elevation 
AIM
To investigate the complications of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) for the treatment of macular edema, and to determine the risk factors for intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation.
METHODS
Charts of patients with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), diabetic retinopathy and uveitis who had received IVTA injections were reviewed to document its complications. IOP elevation was defined as a pressure of ≥24mmHg at some point during follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to characterize baseline risk factors for this elevation.
RESULTS
The study included 111 eyes of 65 female and 46 male patients with a mean follow-up of (11.6±5.1) months. Of the 111 eyes, 52 (46.8%) had macular edema secondary to BRVO, 44 (39.6%) had clinically significant diabetic macular edema (CSDME) and 15 (13.5%) had non-infectious uveitis with macular edema. IOP was recorded ≥ 24mmHg in 38 eyes (34.2%) during the follow-up. Higher baseline IOP (P=0.022), younger age (P=0.003), and male gender (P=0.014) were significant risk factors for IOP elevation after IVTA injection. Eyes with prior vitrectomy were less likely to have IOP elevation (P=0.054). Two eyes (5.2% of eyes with increased IOP) underwent trabeculectomy, and 9 eyes (16.3% of the phakic eyes) necessitated cataract surgery. Other complications included branch vein occlusion (1.8%), sterile endophthalmitis (0.9%) and pseudohypopyon (0.9%).
CONCLUSION
IVTA has side effects with IOP elevation and cataract formation being the two most common. A subset of patients is more prone to developing increased IOP following IVTA, namely, younger male patients with higher baseline IOP.
doi:10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.06.13
PMCID: PMC3530815  PMID: 23275907
intravitreal triamcinolone; complications; risk factors; intraocular pressure
2.  Gastroesophageal reflux disease in our asthma patients: the presence of dysphagia can influence pulmonary function 
Background
The prevalence of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) in Turkey is reported as 11.6%. Studies of pulmonary function in asthmatics have demonstrated a correlation between lung resistance and the occurrence of spontaneous gastroesophageal reflux. Few studies have included measures of lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. The aim of this study is to assess whether asthma patients had worse lung function and gas diffusion according to diversity of GERD symptoms they concurrently experienced. The secondary aim of the study is to determine the frequency and different faces of GERD in our asthma patients compared to healthy controls.
Methods
Sixty consecutive asthma patients evaluatd at the pulmonary specialty outpatient clinic were included in the study. The control group included 60 healthy volunteers who had normal pulmonary function and routine laboratory tests. A modified version of a self-reported questionnaire developed by Locke and associates at the Mayo Clinic was conducted face-to-face with consecutive asthma patients and control subjects. Pulmonary function measurements were taken using spirometry. DLCO (mL/dk/mmHg) and DLCO/VA (DLCO adjusted according to alveolar volume) were measured using a single-breath technique. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 17.0 statistical software.
Results
DLCO and DLCO/VA were significantly lower in asthma patients who had dysphagia symptoms. Frequent and significant acid regurgitations were seen in 28.33% (n = 17) of patients in the study group and 6.7% (n = 4) of patients in the control group. Severe, troublesome heartburn symptoms were reported by 28.2% (n = 17) of patients in the study group and 16.7% (n = 10) of subjects in the control group. Dysphagia was detected in 38.3% (n = 23) of all asthma cases and in 1.7% (n = 1) of the subjects in the control group.
Conclusions
There were many faces of gastroesophageal reflux disease in our asthmatic patients. Dysphagia was the only GERD symptom influencing on pulmonary function tests, while gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and nocturnal awakening attacks were common in this study.
doi:10.1186/2049-6958-7-53
PMCID: PMC3558373  PMID: 23244779
Asthma; Dysphagia; Gastroesophageal reflux disease; Lung function
3.  Angle-closure glaucoma in a patient with the nanophthalmos-ocular cystinosis-foveoschisis-pigmentary retinal dystrophy complex 
BMC Ophthalmology  2012;12:23.
Background
To report clinical features of bilateral angle-closure glaucoma in a patient with nanophthalmic eyes associated with ocular cystinosis, foveoschisis and pigmentary retinal dystrophy. This is probably the first published report of the possible association of all these five entities in the same patient.
Case presentation
A 50-year-old white male was referred for uncontrolled glaucoma in both eyes. He was previously diagnosed with angle-closure glaucoma in association with ocular cystinosis. Ocular examination revealed high hyperopia (+13.5 OD and +14 OS diopters) with reduced axial length (16.27 mm OD and 15.93 mm OS). Despite being on 3 topical medications, his IOP measured 37 mmHg OD and 35 mm Hg OS. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed refractile, polychromatic crystalline deposits throughout the cornea and conjunctiva in both eyes. Gonioscopy revealed an extremely narrow angle with peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS). Anterior chamber depths were shallow. Fundus examination disclosed punctate hypopigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium mainly at the posterior pole. Optical coherence tomography showed foveal schisis appearing as small retinal cysts. The patient did not display any systemic abnormalities.
Conclusions
This case brings into discussion a new clinical entity of angle closure glaucoma in nanophthalmos accompanied by ocular cystinosis-foveoschisis-pigmentary retinal dystrophy complex.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-12-23
PMCID: PMC3441863  PMID: 22799444
Angle-closure glaucoma; Nanophthalmos; Ocular cystinosis; Foveoschisis; Pigmentary retinal dystrophy
4.  Evaluation of QT and P Wave Dispersion and Mean Platelet Volume among Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients 
Background: In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) number of thromboembolic events are increased due to hypercoagulupathy and platelet activation. Increases in mean platelet volume (MPV) can lead to platelet activation, this leads to thromboembolic events and can cause acute coronary syndromes. In IBD patients, QT-dispersion and P-wave dispersion are predictors of ventricular arrhythmias and atrial fibrilation; MPV is accepted as a risk factor for acute coronary syndromes, we aimed at evaluating the correlations of these with the duration of disease, its localization and activity.
Methods: The study group consisted of 69 IBD (Ulcerative colitis n: 54, Crohn's Disease n:15) patients and the control group included 38 healthy individuals. Disease activity was evaluated both endoscopically and clinically. Patients with existing cardiac conditions, those using QT prolonging medications and having systemic diseases, anemia and electrolyte imbalances were excluded from the study. QT-dispersion, P-wave dispersion and MPV values of both groups were compared with disease activity, its localization, duration of disease and the antibiotics used.
Results: The P-wave dispersion values of the study group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Duration of the disease was not associated with QT-dispersion, and MPV levels. QT-dispersion, P-wave dispersion, MPV and platelet count levels were similar between the active and in mild ulcerative colitis patients. QT-dispersion levels were similar between IBD patients and the control group. No difference was observed between P-wave dispersion, QT-dispersion and MPV values; with regards to disease duration, disease activity, and localization in the study group (p>0.05).
Conclusions: P-wave dispersion which is accepted as a risk factor for the development of atrial fibirilation was found to be high in our IBD patients. This demonstrates us that the risk of developing atrial fibrillation may be high in patients with IBD. No significant difference was found in the QT-dispersion, and in the MPV values when compared to the control group.
PMCID: PMC3180769  PMID: 21960745
Inflammatory bowel diseases; QT-dispersion; P-wave dispersion; mean platelet volume
5.  The value of hepatic diffusion-weighted MR imaging in demonstrating hepatic congestion secondary to pulmonary hypertension 
Background
Congestive hepatomegaly might be the first sign for pulmonary hypertension. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value obtained with quantitative diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is affected by liver fibrosis and perfusion. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of DW-MRI in cooperation with biochemical markers, ultrasonography (US) and echocardiography (TTE) in determining the degree of hepatic congestion secondary to pulmonary hypertension (PHT).
Methods
35 patients with PHT and 26 control subjects were included in the study. PHT was diagnosed if pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) was measured above 35 mmHg with TTE. Study group was classified into mild and moderate PHT. DW-MRI was performed with b-factors of 0, 500 and 1000 sec/mm². Mean ADC, ADC-II (Average of the ADC values of right lobe anterior and posterior segments), US, TTE and blood biochemical parameters of both groups were compared.
Results
There exists a positive correlation between liver size and the diameters of vena cava inferior, right atrium, right hepatic vein(RHV), mid-hepatic vein(MHV), left hepatic vein(LHV) (p < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between PASP and RHV, MHV, LHV. The patients had lower ejection fractions (p < 0.01) and higher LDH (p < 0.01) and ALP (p < 0.05) levels than the control group. The ADC values of the patients with moderate PASP were higher than those with a mild PASP (p < 0.05). Mean ADC was higher in patients with moderate PHT compared to control group (p = 0.009). There was a positive correlation between PASP and ADC values of right lobe posterior segment of the liver (p < 0.05). The ADC-II and mean ADC values of the patients with moderate PASP were higher than those of the control group (p < 0.01).
Conclusions
Congestion due to moderate PHT might be diagnosed with DW-MRI. As PASP increase; mean ADC and ADC-II values increase.
doi:10.1186/1476-7120-8-28
PMCID: PMC2920852  PMID: 20663149

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