Patients with bipolar disorder experience sleep disturbance, even in euthymic phases. Changes in sleep pattern are frequent signs of a new episode of (hypo)mania or depression. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is an effective treatment for primary insomnia, but there are no published results on the effects of CBT-I in patients with bipolar disorder. In this randomized controlled trial, we wish to compare CBT-I and treatment as usual with treatment as usual alone to determine its effect in improving quality of sleep, stabilizing minor mood variations and preventing new mood episodes in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and comorbid insomnia.
Patients with euthymic bipolar I or II disorder and insomnia, as verified by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID-1) assessment, will be included. The patients enter a three-week run-in phase in which they complete a sleep diary and a mood diary, are monitored for seven consecutive days with an actigraph and on two of these nights with polysomnography in addition before randomization to an eight-week treatment trial. Treatment as usual consists of pharmacological and supportive psychosocial treatment. In this trial, CBT-I will consist of sleep restriction, psychoeducation about sleep, stabilization of the circadian rhythm, and challenging and correcting sleep state misperception, in three to eight sessions.
This trial could document a new treatment for insomnia in bipolar disorder with possible effects on sleep and on stability of mood. In addition, more precise information can be obtained about the character of sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder.
Bipolar disorder type I and II; CBT-I; Cognitive behavioral therapy; Euthymic; Insomnia; Randomized controlled trial
Our aim was to compare subjective and objective sleep quality and arousal in migraine and to evaluate the relationship between sleep quality and pain thresholds (PT) in controls, interictal, preictal and postictal migraine.
Polysomnography and PT (to pressure, heat and cold) measurements were done in 34 healthy controls and 50 migraineurs. Subjective sleep quality was assessed by sleep diaries, Epworth sleepiness scale, Karolinska sleep questionnaire and Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Migraineurs who had their sleep registration more than 48 h from an attack were classified as interictal while those who were less than 48 h from an attack were classified as either preictal or postictal.
Migraineurs reported more insomnia and other sleep-related symptoms than controls, but the objective sleep differences were smaller and we found no differences in daytime sleepiness. Interictal migraineurs had more awakenings (p=0.048), a strong tendency for more slow-wave sleep (p=0.050), lower thermal pain thresholds (TPT) (heat pain thresholds p=0.043 and cold pain thresholds p=0.031) than controls. Migraineurs in the preictal phase had shorter latency to sleep onset than controls (p=0.003). Slow-wave sleep correlated negatively with pressure PT and slow bursts correlated negatively with TPT.
Lower PT in interictal migraineurs seems related to increased sleep pressure. We hypothesize that migraineurs on the average suffer from a relative sleep deprivation and need more sleep than healthy controls. Lack of adequate rest might be an attack-precipitating- and hyperalgesia-inducing factor.
Migraine phase; Sleep; Arousal; Pain thresholds
A strong relationship between insomnia and painful disorders has been found, but it is still unclear whether chronic pain leads to insomnia. There is a need of large-scale prospective studies to evaluate if there is a causal relationship between painful disorders and insomnia.
All inhabitants aged ≥ 20 years in Nord-Trøndelag County of Norway were invited to participate in two surveys (n = 92,566 and 93,860, respectively). 27,185 subjects participated in both surveys, and 19,271 of these were insomnia-free at baseline (population at risk). Using logistic regression, we evaluated the influence of headache, CMSCs and coexisting headache and CMSCs on the subsequent risk of insomnia.
Compared to subjects without headache and CMSCs, there was an increased risk of insomnia among those with headache, most pronounced among those with headache ≥ 7 days / month (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.9 – 2.6). Similarly, an increased risk among those with CMSCs was found, most evident for those with widespread CMSCs (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.8 – 2.2). Having coexistent CMSCs and headache (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.8 – 2.2) predisposed more strongly to insomnia than having headache (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.3 – 1.6) and CMSCs (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.4 – 1.7) alone.
In this prospective study headache and CMSCs were risk factors for insomnia 11 years later.
Prospective; Headache; Chronic musculoskeletal complaints; Risk factor; Insomnia
We discuss the comments on our article “Sleep quality, arousal and pain thresholds in migraineurs. A blinded controlled polysomnographic study” published in JHP 2013 Feb 14;14(1):12. We hypothesize that migraineurs need more sleep than healthy controls and more sleep than they manage to achieve. Some migraineurs probably have a decreased ability to process incoming stimuli. Increased spontaneous pain may follow either sleep restriction or sleep disturbance. A comparison of migraineurs with attack onset related to sleep, migraineurs with attack onset not related to sleep and controls will be reported in another paper.
Migraine; Sleep; Sleep deprivation; Arousal; Pain
The mechanisms associating sleep and migraine are unknown. No previous polysomnographic (PSG) or pain-threshold (PT) study has compared patients with sleep-related migraine attacks (SM), non-sleep related migraine attacks (NSM) and healthy controls.
We have performed a blinded, prospective exploratory study with case–control design. Thirty-four healthy controls, 15 patients with SM and 18 patients with NSM had interictal PSG heat-, cold- and pressure PT (HPT, CPT, PPT) recordings and completed diary- and questionnaire on sleep and headache related aspects.
NSM patients had more slow-wave sleep (SWS) and more K-bursts than SM patients (K-bursts: p = 0.023 and SWS: p = 0.030) and controls (K-bursts: p = 0.009 and SWS: 0.041). NSM patients also had lower HPT and CPT than controls (p = 0.026 and p = 0.021). In addition, SM patients had more awakenings and less D-bursts than controls (p = 0.025 and p = 0.041).
SM- and NSM patients differed in objective-, but not subjective sleep quality. NSM patients had PSG findings indicating foregoing sleep deprivation. As foregoing sleep times were normal, a relative sleep deficit might explain reduced PT among NSM patients. The SM patients had signs of slightly disturbed sleep.
Sleep; Arousal; Migraine; Sleep-related migraine; Non-sleep related migraine; Subjective sleep quality; Polysomnography; Pain thresholds
Macular thickening (MT) without clinically recognized macular edema has been described in anterior uveitis (AU). Although fellow-eyes of patients have been used as controls in several studies, little is known about macular thickness in these eyes. We studied the rate and extent of MT in both AU-affected and quiescent fellow-eyes of phakic AU patients with good visual acuity (VA). We also assessed macular thickness related to HLA-B27 presence and to recurrence, since these issues have been almost unexplored by previous optical coherence tomography (OCT) studies.
Patients with AU were prospectively included and macular thickness was measured with OCT initially and on follow up. Macular thickness in patients’ affected eyes (n = 30) as well as in their quiet fellow-eyes (n = 28) was compared with eyes of age- and gender matched controls. Inter-ocular differences in macular thickness between AU affected eyes and their fellow-eyes were assessed in patients (n = 28), also in a subgroup with visual acuity ≥ 0.8 (n = 23) by one-sample Student’s t-tests. Inter-ocular differences were also assessed related to HLA-B27 presence and related to the status of current AU episode (initial or relapse).
Subclinical MT is present in both quiet fellow-eyes and AU-affected eyes of patients. MT was found in most cases of AU, even in phakic eyes with good VA. There was a larger increase in macular thickness in HLA-B27-positive than in HLA-B27-negative patients. No differences in macular thickness were found between patients with their first AU episode and patients with recurrent episodes.
MT probably reflects systemic immune-mediated response to the inflammatory disorder in AU, and it is possible that HLA-B27-related factors are involved in the pathogenesis of AU. These observations are in line with and extend the current understanding of the mechanisms behind MT in AU.
We assessed adulthood cognition in relation to early exposure to severe hypoglycemia (SH).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Sixteen years subsequent to a study of cognitive function in 28 diabetic children and 28 matched control subjects, we reexamined the same subjects with a 96% participation rate. Diabetic subjects were classified as with (n = 9) or without (n = 18) early (≤10 years of age) SH, which was defined as convulsions or loss of consciousness.
Overall, cognitive scores were 0.9 SDs lower in subjects with early SH compared with subjects without early SH (P = 0.003). The two diabetic groups particularly differed with respect to problem solving, verbal function, and psychomotor efficiency. Earlier age at first incident of SH was associated with poorer cognition (P for trend = 0.001).
The findings suggest that early exposure to SH may have lasting and clinically relevant effects on cognition.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between sleep disturbance and headache type and frequency, in a random sample of participants in the third Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey. The headache diagnoses were set by neurologists using the ICHD-2 criteria performing a semi structured face-to-face interview. Sleep problems were measured by the two validated instruments Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Among 297 participants, 77 subjects were headache-free, whereas 135 were diagnosed with tension-type headache (TTH), 51 with migraine, and 34 with other headache diagnoses. In the multivariate analyses, using logistic regression, excessive daytime sleepiness, defined as ESS ≥ 10, was three times more likely among migraineurs compared with headache-free individuals (OR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.0–10.2). Severe sleep disturbances, defined as KSQ score in the upper quartile, was five times more likely among migraineurs (OR = 5.4, 95% CI 2.0–15.5), and three times more likely for subjects with TTH (OR = 3.3, 1.4–7.3) compared with headache-free individuals. Subjects with chronic headache were 17 times more likely to have severe sleep disturbances (OR = 17.4, 95% CI 5.1–59.8), and the association was somewhat stronger for chronic migraine (OR = 38.9, 95% CI 3.1–485.3) than for chronic TTH (OR = 18.3, 95% CI 3.6–93.0). In conclusion, there was a significant association between severe sleep disturbances and primary headache disorders, most pronounced for those with chronic headache. Even though one cannot address causality in the present study design, the results indicate an increased awareness of sleep problems among patients with headache.
Chronic headache; Migraine; Tension-type headache; Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire; Daytime sleepiness
Ethnic, intersubject, interoperator and intermachine differences in measured macular thickness seem to exist. Our purpose was to collect normative macular thickness data in Norwegians and to evaluate the association between macular thickness and age, gender, parity, and contraception status.
Retinal thickness was measured by Stratus Optical Coherence Tomography in healthy subjects. Mean macular thickness (MMT) was analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA with three dependent regional MMT-variables for interaction with age, gender, parity and oral contraception use. Exploratory correlation with age by the Pearson correlation test, both before and after stratification by gender was performed. Differences in MMT between older and younger subjects, between oral contraception users and non-users, as well as parous and nulliparous women were studied by post-hoc Student's t-tests.
Central MMT in Norwegians was similar to values earlier reported in whites. MMT in central areas of 1 and 2.25 mm in diameter were higher in males than in females. In younger subjects (≤43 years) differences in MMT between genders were larger than in the mixed age group, whereas in older subjects (>43 years) the small differences did not reach the set significance level. No differences were found in minimal foveolar thickness (MMFT) between the genders in any age group.
Mean foveal thickness (1 mm in diameter) was positively associated with age in females (r = 0.28, p = 0.03). MMFT was positively associated with age in all groups and reached significance both in females and in mixed gender group (r = 0.20, p = 0.041 and r = 0.26, p = 0.044 respectively).
Mean foveal thickness and MMFT were significantly higher in parous than in nulliparous women, and age-adjusted ANOVA for MMFT revealed a borderline effect of parity.
Age and gender should be taken into consideration when establishing normal ranges for MMT in younger subjects. The gender difference in retinal thickness in young, but not older adults suggests a gonadal hormonal influence. The possible association between parity and retinal structure and its clinical relevance, should be studied further.
This study aimed to explore the value of extended motor nerve conduction studies in patients with ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow (UNE) in order to find the most sensitive and least time-consuming method. We wanted to evaluate the utility of examining both the sensory branch from the fifth finger and the dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve. Further we intended to study the clinical symptoms and findings, and a possible correlation between the neurophysiological findings and pain.
The study was prospective, and 127 UNE patients who were selected consecutively from the list of patients, had a clinical and electrodiagnostic examination. Data from the most symptomatic arm were analysed and compared to the department's reference limits. Student's t - test, chi-square tests and multiple regression models were used. Two-side p-values < 0.05 were considered as significant.
Ulnar paresthesias (96%) were more common than pain (60%). Reduced ulnar sensitivity (86%) and muscle strength (48%) were the most common clinical findings. Adding a third stimulation site in the elbow mid-sulcus for motor conduction velocity (MCV) to abductor digiti minimi (ADM) increased the electrodiagnostic sensitivity from 80% to 96%. Additional recording of ulnar MCV to the first dorsal interosseus muscle (FDI) increased the sensitivity from 96% to 98%. The ulnar fifth finger and dorsal branch sensory studies were abnormal in 39% and 30% of patients, respectively. Abnormal electromyography in FDI was found in 49% of the patients. Patients with and without pain had generally similar conduction velocity parameter means.
We recommend three stimulation sites at the elbow for MCV to ADM. Recording from FDI is not routinely indicated. Sensory studies and electromyography do not contribute much to the sensitivity of the electrodiagnostic evaluation, but they are useful to document axonal degeneration. Most conduction parameters are unrelated to the presence of pain.
Abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) in migraineurs has been reported in several studies. However, few have evaluated EEG findings in migraineurs during a time period when neither the last attack nor the next attack may interact with the results. We, therefore, compared interictal EEG in migraineurs and headache-free subjects with a design controlled for interference by pre-ictal changes. Pre-ictal EEG findings in the painful cranial side during the next attack after registration were also investigated. Correlations between clinical variables and EEG are reported as well. Interictal EEGs from 33 migraineurs (6 with and 27 without aura) and 31 controls were compared. Absolute power, asymmetry and relative power were studied for delta, theta and alpha frequency bands in parieto-occipital, temporal and fronto-central areas. EEG variables were correlated to attack frequency, headache duration, attack duration, pain intensity, photo- and phonophobia. Compared with controls, migraineurs had increased relative theta power in all cortical regions and increased delta activity in the painful fronto-central region. Absolute power and asymmetry were similar among groups. In age-adjusted analyses, headache intensity correlated with increased delta activity. In this blinded controlled study, we found globally increased relative theta activity in migraineurs. A slight interictal brain dysfunction is probably present between attacks.
Migraine; Headache; Hemicrania; QEEG; Delta; Theta
In psychiatric acute departments some patients present with brief depressive periods accompanied with fluctuating arrays of other psychiatric symptoms like psychosis, panic or mania. For the purpose of the present study we call this condition Acute Unstable Depressive Syndrome (AUDS).
The aims of the present study were to compare clinical signs of organic brain dysfunctions and epilepsy in patients with AUDS and Major Depressive Episode (MDE).
Out of 1038 consecutive patients admitted to a psychiatric acute ward, 16 patients with AUDS and 16 age- and gender-matched MDE patients were included in the study. Using standardized instruments and methods we recorded clinical data, EEG and MRI.
A history of epileptic seizures and pathologic EEG activity was more common in the AUDS group than in the MDE group (seizures, n = 6 vs. 0, p = 0.018; pathologic EEG activity, n = 8 vs. 1, p = 0.015). Five patients in the AUDS group were diagnosed as having epilepsy, whereas none of those with MDE had epilepsy (p = 0.043). There were no differences between the groups regarding pathological findings in neurological bedside examination and cerebral MRI investigation.
Compared to patients admitted with mood symptoms fulfilling DSM 4 criteria of a major depressive disorder, short-lasting atypical depressive symptoms seem to be associated with a high frequency of epileptic and pathologic EEG activity in patients admitted to psychiatric acute departments.
Patients with brief depressive episodes and concurrent rapidly fluctuating psychiatric symptoms do not fit current diagnostic criteria and they can be difficult to diagnose and treat in an acute psychiatric setting. We wanted to study whether these patients had signs of more epileptic or organic brain dysfunction than patients with depression without additional symptomatology.
Sixteen acutely admitted patients diagnosed with a brief depressive episode as well as another concurrent psychiatric diagnosis were included. Sixteen patients with major depression served as controls. Three electroencephalographic studies (EEG) were visually interpreted and the background activity was also analysed with quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG).
The group with brief depression and concurrent symptoms had multiple abnormal features in their standard EEG compared to patients with major depression, but they did not show significantly more epileptiform activity. They also had significantly higher temporal QEEG delta amplitude and interhemispheric temporal delta asymmetry.
Organic brain dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of patients with brief depressive episodes mixed with rapidly fluctuating psychiatric symptoms. This subgroup of depressed patients should be investigated further in order to clarify the pathophysiology and to establish the optimal evaluation scheme and treatment in an acute psychiatric setting.
One common feature of chronic musculoskeletal pain and headaches are that they are both influenced by stress. Among these, tension-type headache (TTH), fibromyalgia (FMS) and chronic shoulder/neck pain (SNP) appear to have several similarities, both with regard to pathophysiology, clinical features and demographics. The main hypothesis of the present study was that patients with chronic pain (TTH, FMS and SNP) had stress-induced features distinguishing them from migraine patients and healthy controls. We measured pain, blood pressure, heart rate (HR) and skin blood flow (BF) during (1 h) and after (30 min) controlled low-grade cognitive stressor in 22 migraine patients, 18 TTH patients, 23 FMS patients, 29 SNP patients and 44 healthy controls. FMS patients had a lower early HR response to stress than migraine patients, but no differences were found among FMS, TTH and SNP patients. Finger skin BF decreased more in FMS patients compared to migraine patients, both during and after the test. When comparing chronic pain patients (chronic TTH, FMS and SNP) with those with episodic pain (episodic TTH and migraine patients) or little or no pain (healthy controls), different adaptation profiles were found during the test for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HR and skin BF in the chronic group. In conclusion, these results suggest that TTH, FMS and SNP patients may share common pathophysiological mechanisms regarding the physiological responses to and recovery from low-grade cognitive stress, differentiating them from episodic pain conditions such as migraine
Tension-type headache (TTH); Migraine; Fibromyalgia (FMS); Chronic neck/shoulder pain (SNP); Stress; Chronic pain
Stress is a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain. We wanted to explore stress related physiology in healthy subjects in order to gain insight into mechanisms of pain development which may relate to the pathophysiology of musculoskeletal pain disorders.
Continuous blood pressure, heart rate, finger skin blood flow, respiration, surface electromyography together with perception of pain, fatigue and tension were recorded on 35 healthy women and 9 healthy men before, during a 60 minute period with task-related low-grade mental stress, and in the following 30 minute rest period.
Subjects responded physiologically to the stressful task with an increase in trapezius and frontalis muscle activity, increased blood pressure, respiration frequency and heart rate together with reduced finger skin blood flow. The blood pressure response and the finger skin blood flow response did not recover to baseline values during the 30-minute rest period, whereas respiration frequency, heart rate, and surface electromyography of the trapezius and frontalis muscles recovered to baseline within 10 minutes after the stressful task. Sixty-eight percent responded subjectively with pain development and 64% reported at least 30% increase in pain. Reduced recovery of the blood pressure was weakly correlated to fatigue development during stress, but was not correlated to pain or tension.
Based on a lack of recovery of the blood pressure and the acral finger skin blood flow response to mental stress we conclude that these responses are more protracted than other physiological stress responses.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal relationship between autonomic changes and pain activation in migraine and tension-type headache induced by stress in a model relevant for everyday office-work.
We measured pain, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and skin blood flow (BF) during and after controlled low-grade cognitive stress in 22 migraineurs during headache-free periods, 18 patients with tension-type headache (TTH) and 44 healthy controls. The stress lasted for one hour and was followed by 30 minutes of relaxation.
Cardiovascular responses to cognitive stress in migraine did not differ from those in control subjects. In TTH patients HR was maintained during stress, whereas it decreased for migraineurs and controls. A trend towards a delayed systolic BP response during stress was also observed in TTH. Finger BF recovery was delayed after stress and stress-induced pain was associated with less vasoconstriction in TTH during recovery.
It is hypothesized that TTH patients have different stress adaptive mechanisms than controls and migraineurs, involving delayed cardiovascular adaptation and reduced pain control system inhibition.
The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between indicators of sympathoneural, sympathomedullar and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) activity and stress-induced head and shoulder-neck pain in patients with migraine or tension-type headache (TTH). We measured noradrenaline, adrenaline and cortisol levels before and after low-grade cognitive stress in 21 migraineurs, 16 TTH patients and 34 controls. The stressor lasted for 60 min and was followed by 30 min of relaxation. Migraine patients had lower noradrenaline levels in blood platelets compared to controls. Pain responses correlated negatively with noradrenaline levels, and pain recovery correlated negatively with the cortisol change in migraineurs. TTH patients maintained cortisol secretion during the cognitive stress as opposed to the normal circadian decrease seen in controls and migraineurs. There may therefore be abnormal activation of the HPA axis in patients with TTH when coping with mental stress, but no association was found between pain and cortisol. A relationship between HPA activity and stress in TTH patients has to our knowledge not been reported before. In migraine, on the other hand, both sympathoneural activation and HPA activation seem to be linked to stress-induced muscle pain and recovery from pain respectively. The present study suggests that migraineurs and TTH patients cope differently with low-grade cognitive stress.
Catecholamines; Cortisol; Migraine; Tension-type headache; Stress
Quantification of thermal thresholds is a useful method to assess and follow up the function of afferent small A-δ and C-fibres in patients with nerve dysfunctions. The object of this study was to estimate thermal test-retest repeatability in 19 patients with unilateral sciatica (14 L5 and 5 S1) in affected and non-affected dermatomes on the symptomatic (S) and non-symptomatic (NS) sides. Detection thresholds were measured at six sites, two within each of the L4, L5 and S1 dermatomes. The test was repeated after 1–2 h and the coefficient of repeatability (CR=2SD of test-retest differences) was calculated. Warm threshold repeatability did not differ between S and NS sides, but cold threshold CR was higher in the affected dermatome on the foot as compared to the contralateral dermatome (P=0.04). Warm thresholds were more variable (CR=5°C and 4.7°C on S and NS sides) than cold thresholds (CR=2.2°C and 2.1°C on the S and NS sides). The expected range of variation for the second measurement was between 51% and 200% for warm and between 45% and 230% for cold thresholds. The sensitivity was better on the foot than the lateral calf (5 of 14 vs 1 of 14 abnormal thresholds) in the subgroup with L5 sciatica. We conclude that dermatomal thermotesting has acceptable repeatability, particularly at proximal lower extremity sites. The test may be useful in longitudinal investigations of patients with sciatica, e.g. in treatment follow-up studies.
Thermotest Repeatability Sensory thresholds Low-back pain Sciatica
To determine the efficacy of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in the prophylaxis of migraine.
Double blind, placebo controlled, crossover study.
Neurological outpatient clinic.
Sixty patients aged 19-59 years with migraine with two to six episodes a month.
Treatment period of 12 weeks with one 10 mg lisinopril tablet once daily for one week then two 10 mg lisinopril tablets once daily for 11 weeks, followed by a two week wash out period. Second treatment period of one placebo tablet once daily for one week and then two placebo tablets for 11 weeks. Thirty participants followed this schedule, and 30 received placebo followed by lisinopril.
Main outcome measures
Primary end points: number of hours with headache, number of days with headache, number of days with migraine. Secondary end points: headache severity index, use of drugs for symptomatic relief, quality of life and number of days taken as sick leave, acceptability of treatment.
In the 47 participants with complete data, hours with headache, days with headache, days with migraine, and headache severity index were significantly reduced by 20% (95% confidence interval 5% to 36%), 17% (5% to 30%), 21% (9% to 34%), and 20% (3% to 37%), respectively, with lisinopril compared with placebo. Days with migraine were reduced by at least 50% in 14 participants for active treatment versus placebo and 17 patients for active treatment versus run-in period. Days with migraine were fewer by at least 50% in 14 participants for active treatment versus placebo. Intention to treat analysis of data from 55 patients supported the differences in favour of lisinopril for the primary end points.
The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril, has a clinically important prophylactic effect in migraine.