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1.  Retinal involvement of Paracoccioidomycosis: A Case Report 
Tropical Medicine and Health  2013;40(4):149-153.
Purpose: to describe the clinicopathologic features and treatment of a rare case of systemic paracoccidioidomycosis with choroidal and retinal involvement. Design: retrospective interventional case report. Participant: A 36-year-old young man with visual impairment in left eye with anterior uveitis and presence of whitish perimacular choroidal nodule, multiple underlying whitish spots and mid-periphery exudative retinal detachment. A primary extensive work-up for systemic infectious, autoimmune, neoplasic or inflammatory conditions was performed and high-resolution computer tomography scan demonstrated asymmetric parietal thickening of the trachea and bilateral diffuse multiple lobular opacities. Pulmonary bronchoscopy/biopsy of larynx, trachea and bronchial tube were also performed. Histopathological evaluation showed characteristic of Paracoccidioidomycosis. Intervention: Patient was treated with oral sulphadiazine (1.5 g/day). Main Outcome Measures: Anterior uveitis, retinal examination, histopathological evaluation and primary clinical outcome were observed during systemic treatment. Results: After 3 months of irregular treatment, choroidal lesions decreased in size forming atrophic scars and fibrotic spots; however visual acuity did not show any improvement. Conclusion: We report a rare case of systemic paracoccidioidomycosis with choroidal and retinal involvement treated with oral sulphadiazine.
doi:10.2149/tmh.2012-27
PMCID: PMC3598072  PMID: 23532715
Paracoccioidomycosis; retina; eye
2.  Indocyanine green angiography findings in patients with long-standing Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Ophthalmology  2012;12:40.
Background
To investigate indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) findings in patients with long-standing Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease and their correlation with disease activity on clinical examination as well as with systemic corticosteroid therapy.
Methods
Twenty-eight patients (51 eyes) with long-standing (≥6 months from disease onset) VKH disease whose treatment was tapered based only in clinical features were prospectively included at a single center in Brazil. All patients underwent standardized clinical evaluation, which included fundus photography, fluorescein angiography and ICGA. Clinical disease activity was determined based in the Standardization in Uveitis Nomenclature Working Group. Fisher exact test and logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis.
Results
Disease-related choroidal inflammation on ICGA was observed in 72.5% (31 of 51 eyes). Angiographic findings suggestive of (choroidal and/or retinal) disease activity were not observed on FA. Clinically active disease based on clinical evaluation was observed in 41.2% (21 of 51 eyes). In these 21 eyes, disease-related choroidal inflammation on ICGA was observed in 76.2% (16 of 21 eyes); in the remaining eyes (without clinical active disease) disease-related choroidal inflammation on ICGA was observed in 70.0% (21 of 30 eyes). In respect to systemic corticosteroid therapy, 10 patients (18 of 51 eyes) were under treatment with prednisone. In these 10 (18 of 51 eyes) patients, disease-related choroidal inflammation on ICGA was observed in 83.3% (15 of 18 eyes); in the remaining patients (33 of 51 eyes) disease-related choroidal inflammation on ICGA was observed in 66.7% (22 of 33 eyes).
Conclusion
ICGA findings suggestive of disease-related choroidal inflammation were observed in a considerable proportion of patients with long-standing VKH disease, independent of the inflammatory status of the disease on clinical examination or current use of systemic corticosteroid. Therefore, the current study reinforces the crucial role of ICGA to assist the management and treatment of patients with long-standing VKH disease.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-12-40
PMCID: PMC3480878  PMID: 22889440
Angiography; Indocyanine green; Choroid; Diagnosis; Inflammation; Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada

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