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1.  Profile of patients presenting at a low vision clinic in a developing country 
BMC Ophthalmology  2012;12:31.
Background
Low vision is an important public health problem; however, very few low vision clinics are available to address the needs of low vision patients in most developing countries. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients attending the low vision clinic of a Nigerian tertiary hospital.
Methods
This was a prospective cross sectional study of all new patients seen at the low vision clinic over a 36 month period. Patients were administered with a structured questionnaire, and were examined and tested with low vision devices by the attending low vision specialist. Information on the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients was recorded.
Results
A total of 193 new patients seen during the period were studied. The mean age was 41.4 years, and their ages ranged between 6 and 90 years with a male to female ratio of 1.9:1. Majority (58%) were aged below 50 years, 23.3% were children (≤15 years), while 21.8% were elderly patients (≥65 years). The commonest cause of low vision was retinitis pigmentosa (16.6%); 14.5% had age related macular degeneration (ARMD); 9.8% had albinism; while only 1% had diabetic retinopathy. ARMD (45.2%) was the commonest cause in the elderly patients, while albinism (24.4%) and optic atrophy (24.4%) were the commonest in children.
Conclusion
The demographic and clinical characteristics of low vision patients seen in this clinic are similar to that of patients in other developing countries, but different from those in developed countries. Elderly patients and females may be under-utilising low vision services. There is a need for further research into the determinants of low vision service utilisation in developing countries. This would further aid the planning and delivery of services to low vision patients in these countries.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-12-31
PMCID: PMC3466151  PMID: 22846399
Low vision; Patient characteristics; Developing countries
2.  Retinoblastoma presenting with a cheek mass. 
This is a report of a case of retinoblastoma that mimicked Burkitt's lymphoma by presenting with a left proptosis and a right cheek mass. With the aid of fine-needle aspiration cytology, the diagnosis was established as retinoblasstoma and a left modified exenteration was performed. The patient had adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the left orbit and the right maxilla with regression. At 12 months postoperatively, there was no evidence of recurrence, and the patient was still hale and hearty. In conclusion, this patient had left retinoblastoma with metastasis to the contralateral jaw. It is important to note that orbital Burkitt's lymphoma can be a differential diagnosis of retinoblastoma.
Images
PMCID: PMC2594919  PMID: 16334505
3.  Retinopathy among type 2 diabetic patients seen at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria: a preliminary report 
Objective
To determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among patients attending the diabetic clinics of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria.
Methodology
We examined the eyes of 76 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus between July 2003 and January 2004 using dilated fundoscopy at the eye clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan. The results were compared with published figures.
Results
Mean age of patients was 57.5 ± 10.4 years. Thirty–two patients (42.1%) had diabetic retinopathy. Of these, one patient had features of proliferative diabetic retinopathy while the other patients had non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Majority (53.1%) of those who had retinopathy had diabetes for more than 10 years, while 21.4% of patients without retinopathy had diabetes for more than 10 years (p = 0.005). The mean serial post-prandial plasma glucose of those who had retinopathy was higher when compared with the mean for those who did not have retinopathy (248.7 mg/dl vs 178.3 mg/dl; p = 0.003).
Conclusion
The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in our patients is higher than was previously reported in earlier studies. Patients with diabetes ought to be referred for ophthalmological evaluation and follow-up which they should be actively encouraged to attend.
PMCID: PMC2698674  PMID: 19668393
diabetic retinopathy; tertiary hospital patients; Africans

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