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1.  Baseline central macular thickness predicts the need for retreatment with intravitreal triamcinolone plus laser photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema 
Purpose
To identify baseline characteristics that predict the number of treatments with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) plus laser photocoagulation needed to treat diabetic macular edema over a 2-year period.
Methods
Individual data from 42 eyes of 42 participants treated with IVTA plus laser photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema during a prospective, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial were used for this post hoc analysis. Baseline characteristics – age, gender, best-corrected visual acuity, glycosylated hemoglobin, phakic status, intraocular pressure, and central macular thickness (CMT) – were correlated with the number of IVTA plus laser treatments received during the 2 years of this study.
Results
The median number of treatments received over the 2-year period was 2.5 (interquartile range 1.0–3.0), with 21 (50%) eyes needing three or more treatments. Eyes that received more IVTA plus laser treatments had a higher mean baseline CMT and eyes with a higher baseline CMT were more likely to receive three or more treatments (odds ratio 5.13, 95% confidence interval 1.75–15.04, P=0.003 per 100 μm increase in CMT). No significant relationship was found between other baseline characteristics and the number of IVTA plus laser treatments received.
Conclusion
Higher baseline CMT was strongly linked with receiving more IVTA plus laser treatments. These patients may be at higher risk of developing dose-dependent steroid-related adverse events, cataract progression, and intraocular pressure rise.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S47424
PMCID: PMC3739543  PMID: 23946643
diabetic macular edema; intravitreal triamcinolone; central macular thickness
2.  An experimental study of VEGF induced changes in vasoactivity in pig retinal arterioles and the influence of an anti-VEGF agent 
BMC Ophthalmology  2012;12:10.
Background
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in ocular physiology. Anti-VEGF agents are now used for treatment of common retinal diseases. This study characterises the vasoactive properties of VEGF in isolated perfused pig retinal arterioles under normal tone or endothelin-1 (ET-1) pre-contracted conditions and determines the influence of an anti VEGF agent on VEGF induced vasoactivity.
Methods
An isolated perfused retinal arteriole preparation was used. The outer diameter of retinal vessels was monitored at 2 second intervals in response to VEGF and the anti VEGF agent, bevacizumab. The effect of intraluminal delivery of VEGF was determined over a wide concentration range (10-16 to 10-7 M) both with and without pre-contraction with ET-1 (3 x 10-9 M). Bevacizumab (0.35 mg mL-1) was applied extraluminally to determine the influence of bevacizumab on VEGF induced vasoactive changes on ET-1 pre-contracted vessels.
Results
In retinal arterioles with normal tone, VEGF induced a concentration dependent contraction at low concentrations, reaching 93.5% at 10-11 M and then contraction was reduced at higher concentrations, recovering to 98.1% at 10-7 M. VEGF produced a potent concentration dependent vasodilatation in arterioles pre-contracted with ET-1. VEGF induced vasodilatation in arterioles pre-contracted with ET-1 was significantly inhibited by bevacizumab.
Conclusions
VEGF induced vasoactive changes in pig retinal arterioles are dependent on concentration and vascular tone. Bevacizumab inhibits VEGF-induced vasodilatation in pre-contracted arterioles.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-12-10
PMCID: PMC3395563  PMID: 22642643
3.  Comparison of visual acuity outcomes between ranibizumab and bevacizumab treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration 
AIM
To compare visual acuity (VA) outcomes between intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and ranibizumab in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
METHODS
We conducted a consecutive, retrospective case series study in patients with newly diagnosed all type choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to AMD who received an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (1.25mg) or ranibizumab (0.3mg) at Lions Eye Institute, Western Australia from Mar. 2006 to May 2008. All patients received injection at baseline with additional monthly injections given at the discretion of the treating physician. Main outcome measures were changes in VA.
RESULTS
There were 371 consecutive patients received injection at least in one eye with at least 6 months of follow up (median of 12.0 months). Bevacizumab treatment prevented 221 out of 278 (79.5%) patients from losing < 15 letters in VA compared with 79 out of 93 (84.9%) of ranibizumab treated patients (P=0.25). While 68 (24.5%) of bevacizumab treated patients gained ≥15 letters of VA compared with 24 (25.8%) of ranibizumab treated patients (P=0.79). 75.3% and 66.2% patients benefited from ranibizumab and bevacizumab respectively with final VA better than 6/60 (P=0.10). Multivariate analysis showed that pre-treatment VA was negatively associated with benefit outcome. Assignment of injection was not associated with VA outcome of benefit after adjusting the covariate (P=0.857).
CONCLUSION
There are no difference in treatment efficacy in terms of VA between bevacizumab and ranibizumab in routine clinical condition.
doi:10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2011.01.20
PMCID: PMC3340678  PMID: 22553617
age-related macular degeneration; anti-VEGF; bevacizumab; ranibizumab; choroidal neovascularization

Results 1-3 (3)