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1.  Retinal circulation and its role in macular disorders in patients without systemic disease 
AIM
To determine whether retinal circulatory changes play a role in the pathogenesis of macular disorders in patients who are otherwise healthy.
METHODS
Patients with macular disorders that required angiographic imaging were included in this prospective case series. After a complete ocular exam, fluorescein angiography was performed using a standardized technique on the HRA-II (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) with special focus on the posterior pole. Only patients with good quality images were included in the analysis. Circulatory parameters recorded included the arm-choroid time, choroid-retinal artery, and finally the retinal artery-vein time. Zonal asymmetry (between the upper and lower zones divided by a line passing through the centre of the fovea) in transit times, if any was also noted. Appropriate statistical analysis was done. Circulation times were compared with age matched historical controls. Changes in retinal dye transit times relative to historical age matched controls, if any, were noted and compared between various disorders.
RESULTS
A total of 156 eyes of 156 patients (120 males) were included in the study. Mean age: 49.14±14.93y. Macular disorders studied were age related degeneration, polypoidal vasculopathy, central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) and parafoveal telangiectasia. Delayed circulation time was noted in CSCR patients only.
CONCLUSION
CSCR patients appear to have delayed arterial filling, retinal circulatory disturbances do not seem to contribute to the pathogenesis of other macular disorders.
doi:10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2015.03.27
PMCID: PMC4458668  PMID: 26086013
fluorescein angiography; circulation; parafoveal telangiectasia; idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy; age-related macular degeneration; central serous chorioretinopathy
2.  Atypical features of nanophthalmic macula- a spectral domain OCT study 
BMC Ophthalmology  2012;12:12.
Background
To report atypical features on Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a case of non-familial pure adult nanophthalmos.
Case presentation
A 39 year old male hyperope was found to have biometric and fundus findings typical of nanophthalmos. The additional atypical features included serous pigment epithelial detachment (PED) in right eye and a cuff of subretinal fluid with underlying yellow deposits along superotemporal arcade in the left eye. Fundus flourescein angiogram showed hyperfluorescence due to window defect, dye pooling due to serous PED in right eye and leak superior to disc in right eye and superotemporally in left eye. Cirrus-SD OCT horizontal line scan passing through the fovea showed extensive inner limiting membrane corrugations causing distorted foveal contour in both eyes. A large juxtafoveal serous PED and a small extrafoval PED were seen with folds in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choriocapillary layer in the right eye.
Conclusion
Structural disruptions in the RPE-choriocapillary complex in the form of folds or juxtafoveal serous PED and RPE folds can be atypical features of nanophthalmic macula better discerned on high resolution OCT.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-12-12
PMCID: PMC3441246  PMID: 22672150
Nanophthalmos

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