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1.  Effects of the Temporary Placement of a Self-Expandable Metallic Stent in Benign Pyloric Stenosis 
Gut and Liver  2013;7(4):417-422.
The use of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) is an established palliative treatment for malignant stenosis in the gastrointestinal tract; therefore, its application to benign stenosis is expected to be beneficial because of the more gradual and sustained dilatation in the stenotic portion. We aimed in this prospective observational study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of temporary SEMS placement in benign pyloric stenosis.
Twenty-two patients with benign stenosis of the prepylorus, pylorus, and duodenal bulb were enrolled and underwent SEMS placement. We assessed symptom improvement, defined as an increase of at least 1 degree in the gastric-outlet-obstruction scoring system after stent insertion.
No major complications were observed during the procedures. After stent placement, early symptom improvement was achieved in 18 of 22 patients (81.8%). During the follow-up period (mean 10.2 months), the stents remained in place successfully for 6 to 8 weeks in seven patients (31.8%). Among the 15 patients (62.5%) with stent migration, seven (46.6%) showed continued symptomatic improvement without recurrence of obstructive symptoms.
Despite the symptomatic improvement, temporary SEMS placement is premature as an effective therapeutic tool for benign pyloric stenosis unless a novel stent is developed to prevent migration.
PMCID: PMC3724029  PMID: 23898381
Benign pyloric stenosis; Self-expandable metallic stent
2.  Incidence of Cholangiocarcinoma with or without Previous Resection of Liver for Hepatolithiasis 
Gut and Liver  2013;7(4):475-479.
To investigate the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in patients with hepatolithiasis with or without previous resection of liver.
From 2002 to 2009, we retrospectively reviewed 117 patients who were diagnosed and treated for hepatolithiasis in Korea University Guro Hospital. Among the 117 patients, 55 patients who were lost during follow-up were excluded, and 62 patients were eligible for analysis. The hepatic resection group (n=25) included patients who underwent left hemihepatectomy (n=2); left lateral segmentectomy (n=10); left lobectomy (n=9); right lobectomy (n=3); or wedge resection (n=1). The nonhepatic resection group (n=37) included transhepatic cholangiographic lithotomy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-treated patients. The mean follow-up period was 47 months.
The incidence of cholangiocarcinoma while patients were followed for hepatolithiasis was 12.9% (8/62) (hepatic resection group, three cases [12%] vs nonhepatic resection group, five cases [13.5%]; p=1.000). The mean follow-up period was 53 months (47±11 months) until the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma.
There was no difference in the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma according to previous liver resections. Patients with hepatolithiasis should be carefully followed up for detection of cholangiocarcinoma even after a previous liver resection.
PMCID: PMC3724038  PMID: 23898390
Hepatolithiasis; Cholangiocarcinoma; Liver resection
3.  Effect of fibrin glue as an adjuvant to hang-back surgery 
BMC Ophthalmology  2012;12:14.
The hang-back surgery is a useful technique in the field of strabismus surgery. The aim of this study is to determine the stabilizing effects of fibrin glue as an adjuvant to hang-back surgery.
Materials and methods
Four (4)-mm hang-back recessions of the superior rectus muscle was performed in 32 eyes of 16 rabbits. Only in the left eye of the 16 rabbits, fibrin glue was applied between the recessed muscle bed and the sclera at the end of hang-back surgery (fibrin glue group). After 6 weeks, we compared the stability of the recessed rectus muscle between the fibrin glue group and the control group by evaluating the displacement of the muscle.
The frequency of stable insertion of the recessed muscle at the intended site was greater in the fibrin glue group (9 eyes) compared to the control group (3 eyes) (p = 0.028). In the control group, 5 eyes showed anterior displacement and 8 eyes showed posterior displacement and in the fibrin glue group, 1 eye showed anterior displacement, and 6 eyes showed posterior displacement. Anterior displacement was more common in the control group (6.3% Vs 31.3%). The control group and the fibrin glue group showed similar histological findings on microscopic examination.
Fibrin glue is effective in stabilizing the new rectus muscle insertion and decreasing the displacement in the hang-back surgery.
PMCID: PMC3473302  PMID: 22677044
Fibrin glue; Hang-back surgery; Rabbit

Results 1-3 (3)