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1.  The Anti-Acetylcholine Receptor Antibody Test in Suspected Ocular Myasthenia Gravis 
Journal of Ophthalmology  2014;2014:689792.
Aim. To estimate the clinical significance of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody (anti-AChR-Ab) levels in suspected ocular myasthenia gravis. Methods. In total, 144 patients complaining of fluctuating diplopia and ptosis were evaluated for serum levels of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody and their medical charts were retrospectively reviewed. Subjects were classified into three groups: variable diplopia only, ptosis only, and both variable diplopia and ptosis. We investigated serum anti-AChR-Ab titer levels and performed thyroid autoantibody tests. Results. Patients' chief complaints were diplopia (N = 103), ptosis (N = 12), and their concurrence (N = 29). Abnormal anti-AChR-Ab was observed in 21 of 144 patients (14.1%). Between the three groups, mean age, number of seropositive patients, and mean anti-AChR-Ab level were not significantly different (P = 0.224, 0.073, and 0.062, resp.). Overall, 27.5% of patients had abnormal thyroid autoantibodies. Conclusion. The sensitivity of anti-AChR-Ab was 14.1% in suspected ocular myasthenia gravis and seropositivity in myasthenia gravis patients showed a high correlation with the presence of thyroid autoantibodies.
doi:10.1155/2014/689792
PMCID: PMC4247930  PMID: 25478208
2.  Fermented soshiho-tang with Lactobacillus plantarum enhances the antiproliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle cell 
Background
Soshiho-tang (SST) is a traditional medicine widely used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis. SST has been shown to confer a variety of pharmacological activities, including prevention of hepatotoxicity, promotion of liver regeneration, and modulation of liver fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative activity of native and fermented (FSST) formulations of SST in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and examined the potential underlying mechanisms driving these effects.
Methods
SST, along with preparations fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum KFRI-144 (S-A144), L. amylophilus KFRI-161 (S-A161) and L. bulgaricus KFRI-344 (S-A344), were investigated to determine their effects on the proliferation and viability of VSMCs, along with the signalling pathways underlying these effects.
Results
S-A144 exhibited a strong, dose-dependent inhibition of VSMC proliferation relative to untreated controls, but the others did not affect. In addition, S-A144 significantly decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and PLCγ1 in a dose-dependent manner and induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase characterised by decreased expression of CDKs, cyclins and PCNA.
Conclusions
The findings suggest that S-A144 exhibit enhanced inhibition of PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation comparison to S-AOR through the suppression of cell cycle progression and expression of cell cycle-related proteins, along with the downregulation of Akt phosphorylation.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-78
PMCID: PMC3942327  PMID: 24580756
Soshiho-tang; Fermentation; Vascular smooth muscle cells; Antiproliferative effect
3.  The effect of midazolam dose and age on the paradoxical midazolam reaction in Korean pediatric patients 
Background
Although midazolam administration may occasionally induce a paradoxical episode, such as threatened crying and violent behavior in children, systematic studies on the causes of paradoxical reaction are limited. We investigated the effect of children's age and a dose of midazolam on the paradoxical reaction.
Methods
A total of one hundred sixty four children of 1-3 years and 3-5 years, were enrolled in this study. Each age group randomly received 0.05 mg/kg or 0.1 mg/kg of intravenous midazolam (41 patients/group).
Results
The incidence of paradoxical midazolam reaction in the study groups, 1-3 years with 0.1 mg/kg of intravenous midazolam, 1-3 years with 0.05 mg/kg, 3-5 years with 0.1 mg/kg, and 3-5 years with 0.05 mg/kg were as follows: 29.3%, 12.2%, 7.3% and 2.4%, respectively. The incidence among the 4 groups was significantly different (P = 0.002), highest in the 1-3 years receiving 0.1 mg/kg of midazolam (29.3%). Both age (P = 0.004, OR [95%CI] = 5.3 [1.7-16.8]) and dose of midazolam (P = 0.036, OR [95%CI] = 3.0 [1.1-8.4]) were risk factors. Perioperative clinical data including anxiety scales of children were not associated with the paradoxical midazolam reaction.
Conclusions
In conclusion, we suggest that children less than 3 years old receiving higher dose of intravenous midazolam are at risk for the paradoxical midazolam reaction.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2013.65.1.9
PMCID: PMC3726857  PMID: 23904933
Child; Midazolam; Paradoxical reaction
4.  Antithrombotic and antiplatelet activities of Soshiho-tang extract 
Background
Soshiho-tang (SH; Chinese name, Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang; Japanese name, Shosaiko-to) is a traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese medicine, which has been used to treat various conditions, including hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and chronic and acute liver disease. SH consists of seven herbal components, of which Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, are reported to have antithrombotic and antiplatelet activities. We investigated the antithrombotic activity of SH, including S. baicalensis and Z. officinale, as an integrative therapy.
Methods
To identify the antithrombotic activity of SH, we used a FeCl3-induced thrombus formation model. The mechanism of SH-mediated antithrombotic activity was assessed by determining platelet aggregation and coagulation times ex vivo, washed platelet aggregation, serotonin secretion, and thromboxane B2 formation.
Results
SH prolonged the occlusion time of thrombus formation when applied in a FeCl3-induced thrombus formation model. SH also inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation ex vivo in a concentration-dependent manner; however, it did not affect coagulation. Hence, to identify the antiplatelet effect of SH, we investigated washed platelet aggregations in vitro. SH significantly inhibited various agonist-induced platelet aggregations, and it completely inhibited serotonin secretion and thromboxane B2 formation.
Conclusions
The findings suggest that SH inhibited FeCl3-induced thrombus formation through antiplatelet activity, including inhibition of platelet aggregation, and serotonin and TXB2 production. Thus, SH may be useful as an integrative herbal formula for the treatment of thrombosis.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-137
PMCID: PMC3686589  PMID: 23773779
Soshiho-tang; Antithrombotic activity; Antiplatelet activity; Serotonin secretion; TXB2 formation
5.  5,8-Dimethoxy-2-Nonylamino-Naphthalene-1,4-Dione Inhibits Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Blocking Autophosphorylation of PDGF-Receptor β 
As the abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis and vascular restenosis, a candidate drug with antiproliferative properties is needed. We investigated the antiproliferative action and underlying mechanism of a newly synthesized naphthoquinone derivative, 5,8-dimethoxy-2-nonylamino-naphthalene-1,4-dione (2-nonylamino-DMNQ), using VSMCs treated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). 2-Nonylamino-DMNQ inhibited proliferation and cell number of VSMCs induced by PDGF, but not epidermal growth factor (EGF), in a concentration-dependent manner without any cytotoxicity. This derivative suppressed PDGF-induced [3H]-thymidine incorporation, cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S phase, and the phosphorylation of phosphor-retinoblastoma protein (pRb) as well as the expression of cyclin E/D, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2/4, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Importantly, 2-nonylamino-DMNQ inhibited the phosphorylation of PDGF receptorβ(PDGF-Rβ) enhanced by PDGF at Tyr579, Tyr716, Tyr751, and Tyr1021 residues. Subsequently, 2-nonylamino-DMNQ inhibited PDGF-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, ERK1/2, Akt, and PLCγ1. Therefore, our results indicate that 2-nonylamino-DMNQ inhibits PDGF-induced VSMC proliferation by blocking PDGF-Rβ autophosphorylation, and subsequently PDGF-Rβ-mediated downstream signaling pathways.
doi:10.4196/kjpp.2013.17.3.203
PMCID: PMC3682080  PMID: 23776396
2-Nonylamino-DMNQ; Cardiovascular diseases; Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β; Proliferation; Vascular smooth muscle cell
6.  Long-term Follow-up of Acute Isolated Accommodation Insufficiency 
Purpose
To define the long-term results of accommodation insufficiency and to investigate the correlation between accommodation insufficiency and other factors including near point of convergence (NPC), age, and refractive errors.
Methods
From January 2008 to December 2009, 11 patients with acute near vision disturbance and remote near point of accommodation (NPA) were evaluated. Full ophthalmologic examinations, including best corrected visual acuity, manifest refraction and prism cover tests were performed. Accommodation ability was measured by NPA using the push-up method. We compared accommodation insufficiency and factors including age, refractive errors and NPC. We also investigated the recovery from loss of accommodation in patients.
Results
Mean age of patients was 20 years (range, 9 to 34 years). Five of the 11 patients were female. Mean refractive error was -0.6 diopters (range, -3.5 to +0.25 diopters) and 8 of 11 patients (73%) had emmetropia (+0.50 to -0.50 diopters). No abnormalities were found in brain imaging tests. Refractive errors were not correlated with NPA or NPC (rho = 0.148, p = 0.511; rho = 0.319, p = 0.339; respectively). The correlation between age and NPA was not significant (rho = -395, p = 0.069). However, the correlation between age and NPC was negative (rho = -0.508, p = 0.016). Three of 11 patients were lost to follow-up, and 6 of 8 patients had permanent insufficiency of accommodation.
Conclusions
Accommodation insufficiency is most common in emmetropia, however, refractive errors and age are not correlated with accommodation insufficiency. Dysfunction of accommodation can be permanent in the isolated accommodation insufficiency.
doi:10.3341/kjo.2013.27.2.116
PMCID: PMC3596614  PMID: 23543051
Accommodation; Convergence; Diplopia
7.  Relationship of Hypertropia and Excyclotorsion in Superior Oblique Palsy 
Purpose
To evaluate the correlation between hypertropia and excyclotorsion in acquired superior oblique palsy (SOP).
Methods
Thirty-one patients with acquired unilateral SOP were recruited for this study. The torsional angle of each patient was assessed via one objective method (fundus photography) and two subjective methods (double Maddox rod test and major amblyoscope). The patient population was divided into two groups (concordance group, n = 19 and discordance group, n = 12) according to the correspondence between the hypertropic eye (paralytic eye) and the more extorted eye (non-fixating eye), which was evaluated by fundus photography.
Results
The mean value of objective torsion was 5.09° ± 3.84°. The subjective excyclotorsion degrees were 5.18° ± 4.11° and 3.65° ± 1.93° as measured by double Maddox rod test and major amblyoscope, respectively. Hypertropia and the excyclotorsional angle did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.257). Although no correlation was found in the discordance group, the concordance group showed a significant and positive correlation between hypertropia and excyclotorsion (p = 0.011).
Conclusions
Torsional deviation was not related to hypertropia. However, in the concordance patients in whom the hypertropic eye showed excyclotorsion, a significant positive correlation was found between hypertropia and excyclotorsion.
doi:10.3341/kjo.2013.27.1.39
PMCID: PMC3550310  PMID: 23372378
Major amblyoscope; Strabismus; Noncomitantsuperior oblique palsy; Torsion
8.  Effect of fibrin glue as an adjuvant to hang-back surgery 
BMC Ophthalmology  2012;12:14.
Background
The hang-back surgery is a useful technique in the field of strabismus surgery. The aim of this study is to determine the stabilizing effects of fibrin glue as an adjuvant to hang-back surgery.
Materials and methods
Four (4)-mm hang-back recessions of the superior rectus muscle was performed in 32 eyes of 16 rabbits. Only in the left eye of the 16 rabbits, fibrin glue was applied between the recessed muscle bed and the sclera at the end of hang-back surgery (fibrin glue group). After 6 weeks, we compared the stability of the recessed rectus muscle between the fibrin glue group and the control group by evaluating the displacement of the muscle.
Results
The frequency of stable insertion of the recessed muscle at the intended site was greater in the fibrin glue group (9 eyes) compared to the control group (3 eyes) (p = 0.028). In the control group, 5 eyes showed anterior displacement and 8 eyes showed posterior displacement and in the fibrin glue group, 1 eye showed anterior displacement, and 6 eyes showed posterior displacement. Anterior displacement was more common in the control group (6.3% Vs 31.3%). The control group and the fibrin glue group showed similar histological findings on microscopic examination.
Conclusions
Fibrin glue is effective in stabilizing the new rectus muscle insertion and decreasing the displacement in the hang-back surgery.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-12-14
PMCID: PMC3473302  PMID: 22677044
Fibrin glue; Hang-back surgery; Rabbit
9.  Postcardiac Injury Syndrome after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;51(2):284-286.
The post cardiac injury syndrome is characterized by the development of a fever, pleuropericarditis, and parenchymal pulmonary infiltrates in the weeks following trauma to the pericardium or myocardium. According to previous reports, almost all cases develop after major cardiac surgery or a myocardial infarction. Recently, a few reports have described post cardiac injury syndrome as a complication of endovascular procedures such as percutaneous cardiac intervention. Here we describe an unusual case of post cardiac injury syndrome after a percutaneous coronary intervention.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2010.51.2.284
PMCID: PMC2824878  PMID: 20191025
Post cardiac injury syndrome; percutaneous cardiac intervention
10.  A Case of Acute Myocardial Infarction with the Anomalous Origin of the Right Coronary Artery from the Ascending Aorta above the Left Sinus of Valsalva and Left Coronary Artery from the Posterior Sinus of Valsalva 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2009;50(1):164-168.
Coronary anomalies are rare angiographic findings. Moreover, there are few reports of cases of an anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left sinus of Valsalva and of the left coronary artery from the posterior sinus of Valsalva. Here, we report a case with an anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the ascending aorta above the left sinus of Valsalva and the left coronary artery from the posterior sinus of Valsalva. This was observed in a patient who was treated for a myocardial infarction of the inferior wall caused by a thrombus in the proximal right coronary artery. The patient was treated successfully with the implantation of a stent in the anomalous origin of the right coronary artery using a 6Fr Amplatz left 1 catheter.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2009.50.1.164
PMCID: PMC2649847  PMID: 19259366
Anomalous origin of coronary artery; myocardial infarction
11.  TGF-β-induced interleukin-6 participates in transdifferentiation of human Tenon’s fibroblasts to myofibroblasts 
Molecular Vision  2009;15:2123-2128.
Purpose
To gain a better understanding of the roles of interleukins (ILs) in subconjunctival fibrosis, we investigated their expression in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-stimulated Tenon’s fibroblasts and examined their association with the transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts.
Methods
After primary culture, fibroblasts derived from human Tenon’s capsule were exposed to TGF-β1. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) protein was assessed by western immunoblots and immunofluorescence. The mRNA levels of various ILs were also evaluated by multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Using the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) specific for IL-6 and IL-11 and the promoter deletion assay, the contributions of IL-6 and IL-11 to TGF-β1-induced induction of α-SMA were determined.
Results
In human Tenon’s fibroblasts, TGF-β1 stimulated the expression of α-SMA protein determined by western blot analysis and also increased the mRNA levels of IL-6 and IL-11 determined by multiplex RT-PCR. On the western immunoblots and immunofluorescence, the increased expression of α-SMA was attenuated only by the siRNAs specific for IL-6 but not by the siRNAs specific for IL-11. When the activator protein-1 binding sites of the IL-6 promoter region were deleted, the stimulation effects of TGF-β1 decreased.
Conclusions
Our data show that autocrine IL-6 may participate in the TGF-β1-induced transdifferentiation of human Tenon’s fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, which is known to be an essential step for subconjunctival fibrosis.
PMCID: PMC2765236  PMID: 19862334

Results 1-11 (11)