To report the long term results of bifocal treatment in nonrefractive accommodative esotropia and to analyze the changes of accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio.
Sixteen patients treated with bifocal glasses for at least 5 years were evaluated retrospectively. Angle of deviation at near and distance, refractive error, and AC/A ratio by the lens gradient method were analyzed. The changes of AC/A ratios were also compared after dividing the patients according to continuation or cessation of bifocal therapy.
Six patients (38%; bifocal stop group, BSG) were able to stop using bifocal glasses at an average age of 10.8 years (range, 6.5 to 15.4 years) during their follow-up. However, the other ten patients (62%; bifocal continue group, BCG) had to continue using bifocal glasses until the final visit, which was 13.8 years on average (range, 11.3 to 18.5 years). The AC/A ratio decreased from time of bifocal prescription to the last visit in both groups, from 4.4 to 2.7 in the BSG and from 5.9 to 4.5 in the BCG. AC/A ratios were significantly higher (p = 0.03) in the BCG than that of the BSG from the beginning of bifocal treatment and this difference was persistent until the final visit (p = 0.03).
The AC/A ratio decreased with age in both groups but was significantly higher throughout the entire follow-up period in the BCG. AC/A ratio at bifocal prescription could be an important factor in predicting response to bifocal treatment.
Accommodation; Convergence; Esotropia
The changes of higher-order aberrations (HOAs) after bilateral lateral rectus muscle recession were evaluated. Forty eyes of 20 children were enrolled and their wavefront information was assessed until postoperative 3 months. Even though the root mean square (RMS) of total aberration was not changed, the RMS of HOA was transiently increased at postoperative 1 week and returned to baseline level after 1 month. Among individual Zernike coefficient, secondary astigmatism, quadrafoil, secondary coma, secondary trefoil, and pentafoil showed similar tendency with the RMS of HOA. However, coma, trefoil, and spherical aberration were not changed. Regarding recession amount, it did not correlate with any Zernike coefficient. In summary, our data imply that the HOAs are transiently increased after lateral rectus recession surgery. These results are in collusion with previous reports that strabismus surgery induced transient corneal astigmatism.
Astigmatism; higher-order aberrations; lateral rectus muscle recession
We report two cases of mirror image anomalies in two different pairs of monozygotic twins. In case 1, the twins exhibited mirroring of strabismus and refractive errors. Twin 1 had 35 prism diopters (PD) right intermittent exotropia at distant fixation and myopic anisometropia that was spherical 2.00 diopters more myopic in the right eye. Twin 2 had 35 PD left intermittent exotropia at distant fixation and her left eye was more myopic by - spherical 1.00 diopters. In case 2, the twins were diagnosed with infantile nystagmus with upbeat jerk. Twin 1 exhibited a habitual head turn of 30° to the left with dampening of her nystagmus in dextroversion. Twin 2 also exhibited abnormal head position, but in his case the habitual turn was 30° to the right. We believe that this is the first report describing mirror imaged intermittent exotropia with anisometropia and infantile nystagmus with opposite abnormal head positions in pairs of monozygotic twins.
Anisometropia; Identical twins; Infantile nystagmus; Intermittent exotropia; Mirror image anomaly
To evaluate the effect of acrylic refractive prism and Fresnel membrane prism on stereoacuity in intermittent exotropia.
Materials and Methods
Stereoacuities of fifty-two patients (mean age, 12.4 years; range 6 to 45 years) with intermittent exotropia were measured using the Titmus and TNO stereotests, while they wore prisms of varying power on nonfixating eye or evenly on each eye.
Stereoacuities were significantly reduced with increasing prism power for both prisms, ranging from 8 to 25 prism dipotres. The effects on stereoacuity in single acrylic prism and single Fresnel prism were similar, whereas spilt Fresnel prisms reduced stereoacuity more than spilt acrylic prisms. Spilt prisms were found to have much less effect on stereoacuity than single prisms for both acrylic and Fresnel prisms.
The use of acrylic refractive prism shared evenly on each eye would be optimal method to minimize the reduction of stereoacuity during the prismatic therapy for intermittent exotropia.
Strabismus; stereoacuity; Fresnel prism; acrylic prism
Heat shock protein 47 (Hsp47) is a well-known molecular chaperone in collagen synthesis and maturation. The aim of this study is to investigate its putative role in the transdifferentiation of Tenon’s fibroblasts to myofibroblasts.
Primary cultured human Tenon’s fibroblasts were exposed to transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) for up to 48 hours. The mRNA levels of Hsp47 and α smooth muscle actin (αSMA) were determined by quantitative real time RT-PCR. After delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules targeting Hsp47 into the cells, the expression of Hsp47 and αSMA proteins was determined by western immunoblotting.
TGF-β1 increased the mRNA expressions of both Hsp47 and αSMA in human Tenon’s fibroblasts, as determined by quantitative real time RT-PCR. However, it induced the protein expression of only αSMA but not Hsp47, as determined by western immunoblots. When siRNAs specific for Hsp47 were introduced into those cells, the TGF-β1-induced expression of αSMA was significantly attenuated on western immunoblots; after 48 hours of exposure to TGF-β1, the relative densities of immunobands were 11.58 for the TGF-β1 only group and 2.75 for the siRNA treatment group, compared with the no treatment control group (p < 0.001).
Our data suggest that Hsp47 may be related to the TGF-β1-induced transdifferentiation of human Tenon’s fibroblasts to myofibroblasts.
Fibroblast; Fibrosis; Heat shock protein; Myofibroblast; Transforming growth factor-β
To investigate the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as reported by parents in children with intermittent exotropia [X(T)] and to determine whether strabismus surgery for X(T) affects ADHD symptoms.
Materials and Methods
Fifty-one consecutive children undergoing muscle surgery for X(T) were prospectively recruited. One parent of each child completed the ADHD rating scale IV (ADHD RS-IV) assessment consecutively before and one year after surgery. Patients whose preoperative scores were above the cut-off point, the 90th percentile based on a Korean sample, were regarded as demonstrating the ADHD trait. The impact of muscle surgery on ADHD symptoms was assessed by comparing the preoperative scores with the post-operative scores.
Eight (15.7%) of the 51 patients demonstrated the ADHD trait. ADHD RS-IV scores following strabismus surgery significantly decreased in patients with the ADHD trait (p=0.014), while they did not differ in patients without the ADHD trait. Seven (87.5%) of the 8 patients with the ADHD trait showed improvement in their ADHD RS-IV scores after surgery. There was no difference in surgical success rates between X(T) patients with and without the ADHD trait.
The ADHD trait was relatively common in children with X(T), and the parent-reported symptoms of the children with the ADHD trait improved after strabismus surgery. These results suggest that childhood X(T) may be one contributing factor to ADHD-related symptoms.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; intermittent exotropia; strabismus surgery
The aim of this study was to demonstrate and assess C-reactive protein (CRP) changes in dogs with induced bacterial cystitis with or without antibiotics. We also evaluated availability of CRP levels to serve as an indicator for monitoring or diagnosing bacterial cystitis. Serial CRP concentrations in dogs with induced bacterial cystitis were higher than those of controls (p < 0.001). CRP concentrations peaked on day 7 and gradually decreased thereafter. In the treatment group, CRP concentrations decreased after medication compared to the untreated group (p = 0.032). CRP levels had a linear correlation with urine white blood cell counts among all groups (r = 0.837, p < 0.001, n = 140). Compared to the negative urine culture group, dogs with positive urine culture results had higher CRP concentrations (median 43.8 mg/L vs. 5.9 mg/L; p < 0.001). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.955; when cut-off value was 12.2 mg/L, CRP measurements were found to have a sensitivity of 92.3% and specificity of 86.4%. This result indicates that rapid increases of CRP occurred after inducing bacterial cystitis and CRP may be a useful indicator for monitoring or diagnosing canine bacterial cystitis together with sediment urinalysis and urine bacterial culture.
bacterial cystitis; C-reactive protein; dog; Proteus mirabilis; urine WBC
To investigate the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation of human Tenon's fibroblasts.
Primary cultured human Tenon's fibroblasts were exposed to TGF-β1 for up to 48 hours. The mRNA levels of FAK, α smooth muscle actin (αSMA), and β-actin were determined by quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The protein levels of collagen type I, FAK, phospho-FAK, αSMA, and β-actin were determined by Western immunoblots. After the small interfering RNA targeting FAK (siRNAFAK) molecules were delivered into the cells, the expressions of αSMA proteins were determined by Western immunoblots.
In human Tenon's fibroblasts, TGF-β1 significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of αSMA. However, when the action of FAK was inhibited using siRNAFAK, the TGF-β1-induced expression of αSMA was attenuated.
Our data suggest that FAK may be associated with the TGF-β1-induced transdifferentiation of human Tenon's fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, which is the essential step of subconjunctival fibrosis.
Fibroblast; Focal adhesion protein-tyrosine kinases; Myofibroblast; Transforming growth factors
In this case series study, we assessed the effects of recession-resection surgery augmented with botulinum toxin A chemodenervation for patients with chronic paralytic horizontal strabismus. In addition, we compared these effects with those of full tendon transposition (FTT) augmented with posterior intermuscular suture (PIMS). Ten patients who underwent strabismus surgery due to paralytic horizontal strabismus were retrospectively reviewed. They received a recession-resection surgery augmented with botulinum toxin A chemodenervation (type I surgery) or a FTT augmented with PIMS (type II surgery). The preoperative angle of deviation (AOD) and postoperative improvement in AOD were compared according to the type of procedure. The preoperative AOD was 60.00 ± 28.50 prism diopters (PD) for type I surgery and 68.00 ± 27.06 PD for type II (p = 0.421). Improvement in AOD was 53.20 ± 25.01 PD for type I surgery and 44.20 ± 18.74 PD for type II (p = 0.548). Recession-resection surgery augmented with botulinum toxin A chemodenervation is a concise and effective procedure for treating paralytic horizontal strabismus.
Botulinum toxins type A; Paralytic strabismus; Recession-resection surgery
This report describes cases of central nervous system (CNS) relapse that occurred during chemotherapy in 3 dogs with lymphoma. Diagnosis was made by a combination of clinical signs and cytology of cerebrospinal fluid. The suspected risk factors, clinical features common to the 3 dogs, and treatment options are discussed.
In cases of extropia with an exodeviation angle over 50 prism diopter (PD), a 3- or 4-muscle surgery is a rational option. But, in patients with sensory exotropia, there is usually a strong preference for a monocular procedure to avoid surgery on the single seeing eye. Thus, we confined surgery to visually poor eyes, and performed a medial rectus muscle resection with a mean of 10.3 mm (range, 9-11 mm) and a lateral rectus muscle recession with a mean of 12.8 mm (range, 10-14 mm) in 4 adult sensory exotropia patients who had a mean deviation of 82.3 PD (range, 75-90 PD). The mean postoperative angle of exodeviation was 2.0 PD (range, ortho-8 PD). The limitation on abduction was not disfiguring. Other expected disfigurements, such as narrowing of the palpebral fissure or enophthalmos, were not conspicuous. The mean follow-up period was 4.5 months (range, 3-7 months). In large-angle sensory exotropia, instead of additive surgery on the seeing eye, supermaximal medial rectus resection and lateral rectus recession only on the visually poor eye is a clinically feasible surgical option.
Large sensory exotropia; Recession and resection; Supermaximal
This study was conducted to investigate the role of the pattern visual evoked potential (pVEP) as a predictor of occlusion therapy for patients with strabismic, anisometropic, and isometropic amblyopia. The secondary aim was to compare the characteristics of pVEP between strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia.
This retrospective comparative case series included 120 patients who had received occlusion therapy or a glasses prescription for correction of strabismic, anisometropic, and isometropic amblyopia (20 patients had strabismic amblyopia, 41 patients had anisometropic amblyopia, and 59 patients had isometropic amblyopia). For each patient, the value of the P100 latency on pVEP at the time of the initial diagnosis of amblyopia was collected. Subsequently, the P100 latency was compared according to types of amblyopia. Fifty of 120 patients (7 patients with strabismic amblyopia, 21 patients with anisometropic amblyopia, and 22 patients with isometropic amblyopia) who were followed-up for longer than 6 months were divided into two groups based on the value of their P100 latency (Group 1, P100 latency 120 msec or less; Group 2, P100 latency longer than 120 msec.) The amount of visual improvement after occlusion therapy or glasses was compared between two study groups.
The mean P100 latency was 119.7±25.2 msec in eyes with strabismic amblyopia and 111.9±17.8 msec in eyes with non-strabismic (anisometropic or isometropic) amblyopia (p=0.213). In Group 1, the mean visual improvement after occlusion therapy or glasses was 3.69±2.14 lines on Dr. Hahn's standard test chart; in Group 2, the mean improvement was 2.27±2.21 lines (p=0.023).
The P100 latency on pVEP at the time of initial diagnosis was significantly related to the visual improvement after occlusion therapy or glasses in patients with strabismic, anisometropic, and isometropic amblyopia. Therefore, it was presumed that patients with a delayed P100 latency might have less visual improvement after occlusion therapy or glasses. In addition, there was no apparent difference in P100 latency between patients with strabismic and non-strabismic (anisometropic or isometropic) amblyopia.
Amblyopia; P100 latency; Visual evoked potential
We evaluated the one-stage intraoperative adjustment strabismus surgery with adjustable suture under topical anesthesia. Medical records of the patients who had intraoperative adjustment surgery under topical anesthesia for horizontal or vertical strabismus in our hospital from March 1997 to March 2003 with follow-up of 6 months were analyzed retrospectively. Of the 71 patients, 48 patients had exotropia, 16 had esotropia, and 7 had hyper- or hypotropia. The overall success rates were 85.9% at 1 week, 83% at 1 month, 78.9% at 3 months, and 76.1% at 6 months after surgery. The procedure was not stopped in any patients, and no serious intra-operative or postoperative complications were noted. Intraoperative adjustment strabismus surgery under topical anesthesia is a simple, well-tolerated and effective procedure.
Intraoperative adjustment; topical anesthesia
We characterized and compared the characteristics of Ca2+ movements through the sarcoplasmic reticulum of inferior oblique muscles in the various conditions including primary inferior oblique overaction (IOOA), secondary IOOA, and controls, so as to further understand the pathogenesis of primary IOOA. Of 15 specimens obtained through inferior oblique myectomy, six were from primary IOOA, 6 from secondary IOOA, and the remaining 3 were controls from enucleated eyes. Ryanodine binding assays were performed, and Ca2+ uptake rates, calsequestrins and SERCA levels were determined. Ryanodine bindings and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake rates were significantly decreased in primary IOOA (p<0.05). Western blot analysis conducted to quantify calsequestrins and SERCA, found no significant difference between primary IOOA, secondary IOOA, and the controls. Increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration due to reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake may play a role in primary IOOA.
Calcium; calsequestrin; inferior oblique overaction; ryanodine receptor; sarcoplasmic reticulum; sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 1
To verify the changes of mesopic and photopic contrast sensitivity function of sound eye whose visual acuity was kept the same after occlusion therapy in the amblyopic children. Fourteen sound eyes of amblyopic children (mean; 7.67 years; S.D., 1.50 years) who kept their visual acuity the same after the occlusion therapy were tested. The children had 6 hours of part-time patch therapy for 3 months prior to this examination. Among 14 amblyopic children, 8 were anisometric and 6 were strabismic amblyopes. Using the visual capacity analyzer which measures the minimal contrast level at from low to high spatial frequencies, the contrast sensitivity of sound eye was measured, under both photopic and mesopic condition, before and after 3 months of occlusion therapy. Comparing the contrast sensitivity of sound eye after the occlusion therapy to that before the occlusion, there was no statistical difference in photopic condition. When it comes to mesopic condition, the contrast sensitivity decreased at the intermediate spatial frequency level (3-13 c.p.d, p=0.028) after the occlusion therapy. The occlusion caused statistically significant decrease in mesopic contrast sensitivity, when the visual acuity was not changed after the occlusion therapy. It may indicate that mesopic contrast sensitivity can be considered as a useful tool for early detection of hidden occlusion amblyopia.
Amblyopia; intermediate spatial frequencies; mesopic contrast sensitivity function