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author:("Le, lihua")
1.  Impact of Conjunctivochalasis on Visual Quality of Life: A Community Population Survey 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e110821.
Conjunctivochalasis (Cch) is a very common ocular disorder, which can cause an unstable tear film and ocular discomfort. The study of vision-related quality of life (VR-QoL) in a community population with Cch can provide a better understanding of the impact of Cch on common people than objective clinical examinations alone. This cross-sectional comparative study enrolled 360 participants ≥40 years old living in Sanle Community, Shanghai. In the study, 198 subjects were diagnosed with Cch and 86 with dry eye syndrome (DES) without Cch. The remaining 76 subjects were normal controls. Socio-demographical data were collected, and Cch and related ocular symptoms and signs were evaluated. In addition, all participants were required to complete the Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) and Ocular Surface Disease Index Questionnaire (OSDI). Main outcome measures include the comparison on the OSDI score and VFQ-25 score among the subgroups, and the correlation of these scores with the socio-demographical and clinical data. The results revealed that subjects with Cch had significantly decreased tear film stability even compared with those with DES (P = 0.001). The participants with either Cch or DES reported significantly higher OSDI scores and lower VFQ-25 composite scores than the normal controls (P<0.001 and 0.007 respectively). Further comparisons among the subgroups of Cch revealed that the following factors were associated with higher OSDI scores and lower VFQ-25 composite scores: nasal-side Cch, chalasis folds higher than tear meniscus height, punctal occlusion, or increased extent of chalasis on digital pressure. In conclusion, Cch was associated with an adverse impact on VR-QoL in a community population, and the impairment in VR-QoL had a significant correlation with disease severity and tear film abnormalities.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0110821
PMCID: PMC4203838  PMID: 25330252
2.  Confocal Comparison of Corneal Reinnervation after Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE) and Femtosecond Laser In Situ Keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e81435.
Purpose
To evaluate corneal reinnervation, and the corresponding corneal sensitivity and keratocyte density after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and femtosecond laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK).
Methods
In this prospective, non-randomized observational study, 18 patients (32 eyes) received SMILE surgery, and 22 patients (42 eyes) received FS-LASIK surgery to correct myopia. The corneal subbasal nerve density and microscopic morphological changes in corneal architecture were evaluated by confocal microscopy prior to surgery and at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. A correlation analysis was performed between subbasal corneal nerve density and the corresponding keratocyte density and corneal sensitivity.
Results
The decrease in subbasal nerve density was less severe in SMILE-treated eyes than in FS-LASIK-treated eyes at 1 week (P = 0.0147), 1 month (P = 0.0243), and 3 months (P = 0.0498), but no difference was detected at the 6-month visit (P = 0.5277). The subbasal nerve density correlated positively with central corneal sensitivity in both groups (r = 0.416, P<0.0001, and r = 0.2567, P = 0.0038 for SMILE group and FS-LASIK group, respectively). The SMILE-treated eyes have a lower risk of developing peripheral empty space with epithelial cells filling in (P = 0.0005).
Conclusions
The decrease in subbasal nerve fiber density was less severe in the SMILE group than the FS-LASIK group in the first 3 months following the surgeries. The subbasal nerve density was correlated with central corneal sensitivity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081435
PMCID: PMC3857190  PMID: 24349069
3.  Impact of Dry Eye Syndrome on Vision-Related Quality of Life in a Non-Clinic-Based General Population 
BMC Ophthalmology  2012;12:22.
Background
Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common ocular disorder occurring in general population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of DES on vision-related quality of life (QoL) in a non-clinic-based general population.
Methods
This population-based cross-sectional study enrolled subjects older than 40 years, who took part in an epidemiological study on dry eye in Sanle Community, Shanghai. Apart from the collection of sociodemographics, dry eye symptoms, and other clinical data, a Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was administered to all subjects. Comparisons of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale item scores and composite score were made among subgroups divided according to the presence of dry eye symptoms or signs. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the clinical variables and the VFQ-25 composite score.
Results
A total of 229 participants were enrolled in the study, with an average age of (60.7 ±10.1) years old. Majority of these participants were female (59.8 %, 137/229). The total DES symptom scores (TDSS) in subjects either with definite DES or only with dry eye symptoms were significantly higher (F = 60.331, P < 0.001). The values of tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test were significantly lower in participants with DES and those with dry eye signs only (F = 55.158 and 40.778, P < 0.001). The composite score of the NEI VFQ-25 was significantly lower in subjects with DES (F = 4.901, P = 0.003). Moreover, the subscale scores of ocular pain and mental health were significantly lower in those with either DES or dry eye symptoms only (F = 10.962 and 7.362 respectively, both P < 0.001). The multiple regression analysis showed that the TDSS had a significant negative correlation with the VFQ-25 composite score as well as with the subscale score for ocular pain and mental health, even after the adjustment of all other factors (all P < 0.01).
Conclusions
The symptoms of dry eye are associated with an adverse impact on vision-related QoL in non-clinic-based general population, which is mainly represented as more ocular pain and discomfort, and impaired mental health as well. Apart from clinical examination, it is also important to refer to subjective symptoms and QoL scores when assessing the severity of DES.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-12-22
PMCID: PMC3437197  PMID: 22799274
Dry eye syndrome; NEI VFQ-25; Visual quality of life
4.  Analysis of medical expenditure and socio-economic status in patients with ocular chemical burns in East China: a retrospective study 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:409.
Background
Little has been known regarding the relationship between ocular chemical injury and victims’ medical expenditure, income loss and socio-economic status changes. So we conduct this retrospective cross-sectional study in patients with ocular chemical burns in East China.
Methods
Fifty-six patients were enrolled and required to complete a self-report questionnaire consisting of the following contents: entire expenditure on medical treatment; the victims’ personal and household per capita income, and income loss caused by the injury; and the changes of socioeconomic status as well.
Results
The median expense of medical treatment was CNY 40,000 (approximately US$5,900). The medical expenditure rose significantly with increased injury severity, prolonged hospital stay, and increased frequency of surgery. More than half victims (51.8 %, 29/56) paid all or the majority of medical expense by themselves. The expense of only 5 victims was mainly paid by medical insurance, accounting for less than ten percent (8.9 %, 5/56). The victims’ personal and household per capita income both decreased significantly after the injury, with the median reduction being CNY 24,000 and CNY 7,800 (approximately US$3600 and US$1200) per year respectively. The reduction amplitude of personal and household per capita income rose with increased injury severity and prolonged time of care required. The injury caused emotional depression or anxiety in 76.8 % (43/56) victims, and the relationship with their relatives got worse in 51.9 % (29/56) patients. Moreover, only 21.4 % (12/56) patients felt that the whole society gave them care and concern after the injury, whereas 46.4 % (26/56) and 28.6 % (16/56) felt indifference or discrimination from society as a whole (X2 = 16.916, P = 0.028).
Conclusions
The medical expense was a huge economic burden to most victims of ocular chemical burns, and personal and household per capita income of the victims decreased significantly after injury, both of which had a close relationship with the injury severity. Formal legislation was urgently needed to compel the employer to purchase injury or medical insurance and provide more compulsory protection to the population working in high risk occupations. In addition, psychological counseling and instruction shouldn’t be neglected in the aid and treatment of victims.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-409
PMCID: PMC3408343  PMID: 22672729
Burns, Chemical; Medical expenditure; Socio-economic status; China
5.  Heightened expression of MICA enhances the cytotoxicity of NK cells or CD8+T cells to human corneal epithelium in vitro 
BMC Ophthalmology  2012;12:6.
Background
Major-histocompatibility-complex class I-related chain A (MICA) antigens are the ligands of NKG2D, which is an activating or coactivating receptor expressed on human NK cells and CD8+T cells. We sought to determine whether MICA expression in human corneal epithelium (HCE) could affect the cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells or CD8+T cells.
Methods
Cell cultures of HCE were harvested from human donor eyes. Flow cytometric analysis and ELISA was performed to determine the levels of MICA expression on HCE. Then, HCE was transfected with a lentivirus vector expressing MICA and GFP. Flow cytometric analysis, RT-PCR, western blot and ELISA were performed to check the levels of MICA expression. For cytotoxicity testing, allogeneic NK cells and CD8+T cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers by magnetic cell sorting. The cytolytic activity of NK cells and CD8+T cells was assessed against MICA-transfected HCE (NK cells: E:T ratio = 3:1; CD8+T cells: E:T ratio = 10:1) using the nonradioactive cytotoxicity detection kit lactate deshydrogenase.
Results
Surface expression of MICA on corneal epithelium was identified at a low level. A cell line of stable human MICA-transfected corneal epithelium was successfully established. Heightened expression of MICA on HCE was found to promote the cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells or CD8+T cells, which could be blocked by an anti-MICA antibody.
Conclusion
MICA molecules may contribute to cytotoxic responses mediated by activated immune effector cells in corneal epithelium immunity.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-12-6
PMCID: PMC3733519  PMID: 22475346
6.  Efficient Generation of Lens Progenitor Cells from Cataract Patient–Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(3):e32612.
The development of a technique to induce the transformation of somatic cells to a pluripotent state via the ectopic expression of defined transcription factors was a transformational event in the field of regenerative medicine. The development of this technique also impacted ophthalmology, as patient-specific induced pluripotent stemcells (iPSCs) may be useful resources for some ophthalmological diseases. The lens is a key refractive element in the eye that focuses images of the visual world onto the retina. To establish a new model for drug screening to treat lens diseases and investigating lens aging and development, we examined whether human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) could be induced into iPSCs and if lens-specific differentiation of these cells could be achieved under defined chemical conditions. We first efficiently reprogrammed HLECs from age-related cataract patients to iPSCs with OCT-4, SOX-2, and KLF-4. The resulting HLEC-derived iPS (HLE-iPS) colonies were indistinguishable from human ES cells with respect to morphology, gene expression, pluripotent marker expression and their ability to generate all embryonic germ-cell layers. Next, we performed a 3-step induction procedure: HLE-iPS cells were differentiated into large numbers of lens progenitor-like cells with defined factors (Noggin, BMP and FGF2), and we determined that these cells expressed lens-specific markers (PAX6, SOX2, SIX3, CRYAB, CRYAA, BFSP1, and MIP). In addition, HLE-iPS-derived lens cells exhibited reduced expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers compared with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and fibroblast-derived iPSCs. Our study describes a highly efficient procedure for generating lens progenitor cells from cataract patient HLEC-derived iPSCs. These patient-derived pluripotent cells provide a valuable model for studying the developmental and molecular biological mechanisms that underlie cell determination in lens development and cataract pathophysiology.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032612
PMCID: PMC3293838  PMID: 22403680
7.  NGF promotes cell cycle progression by regulating D-type cyclins via PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk activation in human corneal epithelial cells 
Molecular Vision  2012;18:758-764.
Purpose
Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays an important role in promoting the healing of corneal wounds. However, the molecular mechanism by which NGF functions is unknown. We investigated the possible effects of NGF on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) pathways and cell growth in human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs).
Methods
We examined the effect of NGF on cell cycle and proliferation in HCECs by flow cytometry and cell proliferation assay, respectively. The levels of D-type cyclins in NGF-treated HCECs were determined by western blot. The tyrosine kinase A (TrkA), PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk pathways were then checked in cells stimulated with NGF for different time periods or cells undergoing a dose-dependent treatment. Furthermore, HCECs were treated with pathway inhibitors, LY294002 or PD98059, to confirm NGF-induced activations.
Results
We found that NGF had a positive effect on the growth of HCECs, and D-type cyclins, and it was correlated with the percentage of the G1 to S progression. We also observed a time-dependent and dose-dependent effect of NGF on the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk pathways. Furthermore, NGF affected cell cycle progression of HCECs by regulating cyclin D through Akt and Erk activation upon treatment with the pathway inhibitors, LY294002 for Akt or PD98059 for Erk pathways.
Conclusions
NGF stimulation could promote cell proliferation and cell cycle progression of HCECs by activation of cyclin D via the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk signaling pathways.
PMCID: PMC3324366  PMID: 22509106

Results 1-7 (7)