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author:("Joshi, lavish")
1.  Survey of policy for MRSA screening in English cataract surgical units and changes to practice after updated National guidelines 
BMC Ophthalmology  2013;13:80.
Background
National guidelines on MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) screening policy in England have changed on a number of occasions, but there is limited data on its influence at a local level. The aim of this study was to determine if changes in National policy influenced preoperative screening of cataract patients for MRSA.
Methods
A structured telephone survey was conducted on all 133 ophthalmology units in England in 2004 and again in 2007 for the initial responders, after a change in national policy.
Results
A total of 74 units (56%) responded in 2004 and 71 units (96% of initial respondents) in 2007. In 2004, 57% of units screened for MRSA. They screened groups at high risk of carriage, including patients with previous MRSA (93%) and patients from Nursing homes (21%). Swab sites included the nose (100%), eyes (31%) and perineum (62%). In 2007, there was no significant change in the number of units that screened for MRSA (57% vs 66%; p = 0.118; McNemar test). However, more units screened for MRSA in patients from nursing/residential homes (21% vs 51%; p = 0.004, McNemar test), and in patients who had recent admission to hospital (12% vs 36%; p = 0.003). In the second survey, 3 units (6%) now screened patients who were close relatives of MRSA carriers.
Conclusion
This survey has highlighted inconsistences in MRSA screening practice of day-case cataract surgery patients across England after 2 major national policy changes. A change in DoH policy only led to more units screening patients for MRSA from high risk groups.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-13-80
PMCID: PMC3909305  PMID: 24341357
Healthcare surveys; Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Phacoemulsification; Screening
2.  Uveitis as a Result of MAP Kinase Pathway Inhibition 
Case Reports in Ophthalmology  2013;4(3):279-282.
We report the case of a patient treated with dabrafenib and trametinib (mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway inhibitors) for stage 3b cutaneous melanoma who developed bilateral uveitis. Although there have been reports of ocular side effects with this class of drugs, uveitis has not been previously reported to the best of our knowledge. This case indicates the wide range of side effects that can be seen with the newer targeted biological therapies.
doi:10.1159/000357060
PMCID: PMC3901607  PMID: 24474928
Dabrafenib; Trametinib; Uveitis; Melanoma
3.  Local therapies for inflammatory eye disease in translation: past, present and future 
BMC Ophthalmology  2013;13:39.
Despite their side-effects and the advent of systemic immunosuppressives and biologics, the use of corticosteroids remains in the management of patients with uveitis, particularly when inflammation is associated with systemic disease or when bilateral ocular disease is present. The use of topical corticosteroids as local therapy for anterior uveitis is well-established, but periocular injections of corticosteroid can also be used to control mild or moderate intraocular inflammation. More recently, intraocular corticosteroids such as triamcinolone and steroid-loaded vitreal inserts and implants have been found to be effective, including in refractory cases. Additional benefits are noted when ocular inflammation is unilateral or asymmetric, when local therapy may preclude the need to increase the systemic medication.
Implants in particular have gained prominence with evidence of efficacy including both dexamethasone and fluocinolone loaded devices. However, an appealing avenue of research lies in the development of non-corticosteroid drugs in order to avoid the side-effects that limit the appeal of injected corticosteroids. Several existing drugs are being assessed, including anti-VEGF compounds such as ranibizumab and bevacizumab, anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha antibodies such as infliximab, as well as older cytotoxic medications such as methotrexate and cyclosporine, with varying degrees of success. Intravitreal sirolimus is currently undergoing phase 3 trials in uveitis and other inflammatory pathways have also been proposed as suitable therapeutic targets. Furthermore, the advent of biotechnology is seeing advances in generation of new therapeutic molecules such as high affinity binding peptides or modified high affinity or bivalent single chain Fab fragments, offering higher specificity and possibility of topical delivery.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-13-39
PMCID: PMC3750406  PMID: 23914773
4.  Combined Infliximab and Rituximab in Necrotising Scleritis 
Case Reports in Ophthalmology  2012;3(3):286-290.
We report a patient with necrotising scleritis in whom infliximab was used for short-term steroid-sparing while rituximab took effect. This enabled disease control without requiring an extended period of high-dose corticosteroid administration or the concurrent use of cyclophosphamide.
doi:10.1159/000342842
PMCID: PMC3530152  PMID: 23275790
Infliximab; Rituximab; Granulomatosis with polyangiitis; Scleritis
5.  Valacyclovir in the treatment of acute retinal necrosis 
BMC Ophthalmology  2012;12:48.
Background
To report the outcome of oral valacyclovir as the sole antiviral therapy for patients with acute retinal necrosis (ARN).
Methods
This study reports a retrospective, interventional case series of nine consecutive patients with ten eyes with newly diagnosed ARN treated with oral valacyclovir as the sole antiviral agent. Eight patients received oral valacyclovir 2 g tid (Valtrex, GlaxoSmithKline) and one patient with impaired renal function received oral 1 g tid. The main outcome measures were response to treatment, time to initial response to treatment, time to complete resolution of retinitis, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at final follow-up, retinal detachment and development of recurrent or second eye disease.
Results
Retinitis resolved in ten of ten (100%) affected eyes. The median time to initial detectable response was seven days and the median time to complete resolution was 21 days. A final BCVA of 20/40 or better was achieved in 6/10 (60%) of eyes. 3/10 eyes (30%) developed a retinal detachment. No patients developed either disease reactivation or second eye involvement over the course of the study (mean follow up 31 weeks, range 7 to 104 weeks).
Conclusions
Treatment with oral valacyclovir as the sole antiviral therapy resulted in complete resolution of retinitis. Final BCVA and retinal detachment rate were comparable with previously reported outcomes for intravenous acyclovir.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-12-48
PMCID: PMC3487766  PMID: 22947428
Acute retinal necrosis; Herpetic retinitis; Acyclovir; Valacyclovir
6.  Rhizobium radiobacter Endophthalmitis following Intravitreal Ranibizumab Injection 
Case Reports in Ophthalmology  2012;3(3):283-285.
We present the first reported case of acute endophthalmitis due to Rhizobium radiobacter after an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.
doi:10.1159/000342693
PMCID: PMC3530142  PMID: 23275789
Rhizobium radiobacter; Gram-negative organism; Intravitreal injection; Endophthalmitis

Results 1-6 (6)