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1.  Comparative Genomic Characterization of Three Streptococcus parauberis Strains in Fish Pathogen, as Assessed by Wide-Genome Analyses 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e80395.
Streptococcus parauberis, which is the main causative agent of streptococcosis among olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in northeast Asia, can be distinctly divided into two groups (type I and type II) by an agglutination test. Here, the whole genome sequences of two Japanese strains (KRS-02083 and KRS-02109) were determined and compared with the previously determined genome of a Korean strain (KCTC 11537). The genomes of S. parauberis are intermediate in size and have lower GC contents than those of other streptococci. We annotated 2,236 and 2,048 genes in KRS-02083 and KRS-02109, respectively. Our results revealed that the three S. parauberis strains contain different genomic insertions and deletions. In particular, the genomes of Korean and Japanese strains encode different factors for sugar utilization; the former encodes the phosphotransferase system (PTS) for sorbose, whereas the latter encodes proteins for lactose hydrolysis, respectively. And the KRS-02109 strain, specifically, was the type II strain found to be able to resist phage infection through the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas system and which might contribute valuably to serologically distribution. Thus, our genome-wide association study shows that polymorphisms can affect pathogen responses, providing insight into biological/biochemical pathways and phylogenetic diversity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080395
PMCID: PMC3832376  PMID: 24260382
2.  Evaluation of peripapillary choroidal thickness in patients with normal-tension glaucoma 
BMC Ophthalmology  2012;12:29.
Background
To compare peripapillary choroidal thickness measurements between normal and normal-tension glaucoma eyes.
Methods
Cross-sectional comparative study. 50 normal and 52 normal-tension glaucoma subjects were enrolled in the study. Peripapillary choroidal thickness was measured with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and enhanced depth imaging. After obtaining circular B-scans around the disc, choroidal thicknesses were calculated based on the exported segmentation values. Visual fields were measured using automated perimetry. Difference in peripapillary choroidal thickness between the normal subjects and the patients with normal-tension glaucoma was analyzed.
Results
There were no significant differences in age, axial length, or refraction between the two groups. Peripapillary choroidal thickness was inversely correlated with age in both the normal (r = −0.287, P = 0.04) and normal and normal-tension glaucoma (r = −0.322, P = 0.02) groups. Peripapillary choroidal thickness of inferonasal (125 vs 148 μm, P < 0.05), inferior (101 vs 122 μm, P < 0.05), or inferotemporal (100 vs 127 μm, P < 0.05) regions were significantly thinner in the normal-tension glaucoma group as compared to normal subjects. Superior visual hemifield defect was significantly worse than inferior visual hemifield defect in normal and normal-tension glaucoma patients.
Conclusion
As compared to normal subjects, peripapillary choroidal thickness was significantly thinner in the normal and normal-tension glaucoma patients, at least in some locations.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-12-29
PMCID: PMC3479055  PMID: 22839368
Peripapillary choroidal thickness; Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography; Normal-tension glaucoma
3.  Solitary pulmonary nodule of benign metastasizing leiomyoma associated with primary lung cancer: a case report 
Introduction
Benign metastasizing leiomyoma in the lung is a very rare disease characterized by the growth of uterine leiomyoma tissue. In most cases there is a previous history of hysterectomy for uterine leiomyoma.
Case presentation
A 50-year-old Asian woman underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy for uterine leiomyoma at the age of 37 years old. She was referred to our hospital because of sudden anterior chest pain. A chest computed tomography scan revealed a ground-glass opacity in her left S10 lung segment and a solitary small nodule in her left bronchial segment, S4. We performed a left lower lobectomy and an upper lung partial resection in order to make a definitive diagnosis and to enable us to determine a further therapeutic strategy. The ground-glass opacity in her left S10 was a primary lung adenocarcinoma, while the small nodule in her left S4 was diagnosed as a benign metastasizing leiomyoma. No additional therapy was done and our patient was followed up with chest computed tomography. Up to date, repetitive evaluation by chest computed tomography has shown no sign of benign metastasizing leiomyoma or lung cancer recurrence.
Conclusion
This is a very rare case of benign metastasizing leiomyoma of the lung associated with primary lung cancer. This comorbid association should be considered in the differential diagnosis when a solitary lung nodule is detected in a patient with a history of uterine leiomyoma.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-500
PMCID: PMC3192773  PMID: 21975297
4.  A second generation genetic linkage map of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) 
BMC Genomics  2010;11:554.
Background
Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is one of the most economically important marine species in Northeast Asia. Information on genetic markers associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL) can be used in breeding programs to identify and select individuals carrying desired traits. Commercial production of Japanese flounder could be increased by developing disease-resistant fish and improving commercially important traits. Previous maps have been constructed with AFLP markers and a limited number of microsatellite markers. In this study, improved genetic linkage maps are presented. In contrast with previous studies, these maps were built mainly with a large number of codominant markers so they can potentially be used to analyze different families and populations.
Results
Sex-specific genetic linkage maps were constructed for the Japanese flounder including a total of 1,375 markers [1,268 microsatellites, 105 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two genes]; 1,167 markers are linked to the male map and 1,067 markers are linked to the female map. The lengths of the male and female maps are 1,147.7 cM and 833.8 cM, respectively. Based on estimations of map lengths, the female and male maps covered 79 and 82% of the genome, respectively. Recombination ratio in the new maps revealed F:M of 1:0.7. All linkage groups in the maps presented large differences in the location of sex-specific recombination hot-spots.
Conclusions
The improved genetic linkage maps are very useful for QTL analyses and marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding programs for economically important traits in Japanese flounder. In addition, SNP flanking sequences were blasted against Tetraodon nigroviridis (puffer fish) and Danio rerio (zebrafish), and synteny analysis has been carried out. The ability to detect synteny among species or genera based on homology analysis of SNP flanking sequences may provide opportunities to complement initial QTL experiments with candidate gene approaches from homologous chromosomal locations identified in related model organisms.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-11-554
PMCID: PMC3091703  PMID: 20937088
5.  The relationship between facet joint osteoarthritis and disc degeneration of the lumbar spine: an MRI study 
European Spine Journal  1999;8(5):396-401.
Abstract
The role of MRI in assessing facet joint osteoarthritis is unclear. By developing a grading system for severity of facet joint osteoarthritis on MRI, the relationship between disc degeneration and facet joint osteoarthritis was determined. The accuracy of MRI in assessing facet joint osteoarthritis against CT was 94%. Under 40 years of age, the degree of disc degeneration varied among individuals. Over the age of 60, most of the discs were markedly degenerated. Under 40 years of age osteoarthritic changes in facet joints were minimal. Over the age of 60, variable degrees of facet joint osteoarthritis were observed but some facets did not show osteoarthritis. No facet joint osteoarthritis was found in the absence of disc degeneration and most facet joint osteoarthritis appeared at the intervertebral levels with advanced disc degeneration. Disc degeneration is more closely associated with aging than with facet joint osteoarthritis. The present study supports the hypothesis that “disc degeneration precedes facet joint osteoarthritis”, and also supports the concept that it may take 20 or more years to develop facet joint osteoarthritis following the onset of disc degeneration.
doi:10.1007/s005860050193
PMCID: PMC3611192  PMID: 10552323
Key words MRI; Disc; degeneration; Facet joint; Osteoarthritis; Lumbar spine

Results 1-5 (5)