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author:("elsts, Tor B")
1.  Bilateral macular thickening in mild unilateral anterior uveitis: is HLA-B27 involved? 
BMC Ophthalmology  2012;12:30.
Macular thickening (MT) without clinically recognized macular edema has been described in anterior uveitis (AU). Although fellow-eyes of patients have been used as controls in several studies, little is known about macular thickness in these eyes. We studied the rate and extent of MT in both AU-affected and quiescent fellow-eyes of phakic AU patients with good visual acuity (VA). We also assessed macular thickness related to HLA-B27 presence and to recurrence, since these issues have been almost unexplored by previous optical coherence tomography (OCT) studies.
Patients with AU were prospectively included and macular thickness was measured with OCT initially and on follow up. Macular thickness in patients’ affected eyes (n = 30) as well as in their quiet fellow-eyes (n = 28) was compared with eyes of age- and gender matched controls. Inter-ocular differences in macular thickness between AU affected eyes and their fellow-eyes were assessed in patients (n = 28), also in a subgroup with visual acuity ≥ 0.8 (n = 23) by one-sample Student’s t-tests. Inter-ocular differences were also assessed related to HLA-B27 presence and related to the status of current AU episode (initial or relapse).
Subclinical MT is present in both quiet fellow-eyes and AU-affected eyes of patients. MT was found in most cases of AU, even in phakic eyes with good VA. There was a larger increase in macular thickness in HLA-B27-positive than in HLA-B27-negative patients. No differences in macular thickness were found between patients with their first AU episode and patients with recurrent episodes.
MT probably reflects systemic immune-mediated response to the inflammatory disorder in AU, and it is possible that HLA-B27-related factors are involved in the pathogenesis of AU. These observations are in line with and extend the current understanding of the mechanisms behind MT in AU.
PMCID: PMC3479004  PMID: 22839430
2.  Macular thickness measurements in healthy Norwegian volunteers: an optical coherence tomography study 
BMC Ophthalmology  2010;10:13.
Ethnic, intersubject, interoperator and intermachine differences in measured macular thickness seem to exist. Our purpose was to collect normative macular thickness data in Norwegians and to evaluate the association between macular thickness and age, gender, parity, and contraception status.
Retinal thickness was measured by Stratus Optical Coherence Tomography in healthy subjects. Mean macular thickness (MMT) was analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA with three dependent regional MMT-variables for interaction with age, gender, parity and oral contraception use. Exploratory correlation with age by the Pearson correlation test, both before and after stratification by gender was performed. Differences in MMT between older and younger subjects, between oral contraception users and non-users, as well as parous and nulliparous women were studied by post-hoc Student's t-tests.
Central MMT in Norwegians was similar to values earlier reported in whites. MMT in central areas of 1 and 2.25 mm in diameter were higher in males than in females. In younger subjects (≤43 years) differences in MMT between genders were larger than in the mixed age group, whereas in older subjects (>43 years) the small differences did not reach the set significance level. No differences were found in minimal foveolar thickness (MMFT) between the genders in any age group.
Mean foveal thickness (1 mm in diameter) was positively associated with age in females (r = 0.28, p = 0.03). MMFT was positively associated with age in all groups and reached significance both in females and in mixed gender group (r = 0.20, p = 0.041 and r = 0.26, p = 0.044 respectively).
Mean foveal thickness and MMFT were significantly higher in parous than in nulliparous women, and age-adjusted ANOVA for MMFT revealed a borderline effect of parity.
Age and gender should be taken into consideration when establishing normal ranges for MMT in younger subjects. The gender difference in retinal thickness in young, but not older adults suggests a gonadal hormonal influence. The possible association between parity and retinal structure and its clinical relevance, should be studied further.
PMCID: PMC2885325  PMID: 20465801

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