The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates in delayed post-cataract surgery endophthalmitis. A retrospective review of 33 consecutive patients with culture proven delayed post-cataract surgery endophthalmitis was done from January 2006 to March 2013. There were 22 bacterial and eleven fungal cases. Common isolates were Streptococci (seven cases), coagulase-negative staphylococci (five), Gram-negative bacilli (seven), Nocardia (two), Aspergillus (five), Candida (five). Gram-positive cocci were most susceptible to vancomycin and gatifloxacin (91.7%). Gram-negative isolates were most susceptible to ofloxacin (85.7%). Fungi being slow growing organisms are an important cause of delayed post-cataract surgery endophthalmitis.
delayed endophthalmitis; microbiology; antibiotic sensitivity
Telemedicine is exchange of medical data by electronic telecommunications technology that allows a patient's medical problems evaluated and monitored by a remotely located physician. Over the years, telemedicine and telescreening have become important components in health care, in both disease detection and treatment. Highly visual and image intensive ophthalmology is uniquely suited for telemedicine. Because of rising disease burden coupled with high opportunity cost in detection, diabetic retinopathy is an ideal ophthalmic disease for telescreening and decision-making. It fits to Wilson and Jungner's all 10 criteria of screening for chronic diseases and the American Telehealth Association's 4 screening categories.
Diabetic Retinopathy; Screening; Telemedicine
To describe clinical presentation, antibiotic susceptibility, and outcomes in patients with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia endogenous endophthalmitis.
Retrospective case series.
Four eyes of four patients with S. maltophilia endogenous endophthalmitis.
Retrospective chart review of culture-positive S. maltophilia endogenous endophthalmitis treated at L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India, between January 2007 and December 2012, was done. Collected information included demographic, clinical, and microbiology data.
These four patients with S. maltophilia endogenous endophthalmitis cases accounted for 0.47% (4/836) of total bacterial endophthalmitis cases treated in this period. All patients were from a rural setting and younger than 40 years. Two of the four patients had a history of immune compromise or hospitalization. The visual acuity at presentation was less than 20/320 in all patients. Common presenting features were severe anterior and posterior segment inflammation and hypopyon. All patients underwent vitrectomy with injection of intravitreal antibiotics and dexamethasone. Direct microscopy of the vitreous sample was positive in all cases. All isolates were sensitive to fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol; sensitivity to aminoglycosides and third-generation cephalosporins was highly variable. The final visual acuity was 20/80 or more in three patients. The time to presentation did not seem to influence the visual or anatomical outcome.
S. maltophilia is a rare cause of endogenous endophthalmitis and usually occurs in young and apparently healthy individuals. Clinical presentation is moderate to severe, and recovery is variable. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol were the most sensitive antibiotics against S. maltophilia in this series of patients.
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; endogenous endophthalmitis; Pseudomonas maltophilia; Xanthomonas maltophilia
To study the optical coherence tomography (OCT) patterns in optic disc pit maculopathy and retinal changes after vitreous surgery.
Materials and Methods:
Retrospective review of consecutive cases with optic disc pit maculopathy seen at two tertiary eye institutes from January 2005 to June 2009.
Twenty-four eyes of 23 patients are included. The presenting visual acuity ranged from 20/400 to 20/20 (median:20/80). The median age at presentation was 24 years (range, 6-57 years). Optical coherence tomography demonstrated a combination of retinoschisis and outer layer detachment (OLD) in 19 (79.17%) eyes, OLD only in 3 (12.5%) eyes and retinoschisis only in 2 (8.33%) eyes. An obvious communication (outer layer hole) between the schisis and OLD was seen in 14 (73.68%) of the 19 eyes with both features. Of the 21 eyes with retinoschisis, schisis was present in multiple layers in 15 (71.43%) and single layer in 6 (28.57%) eyes. Eleven eyes underwent pars plana vitrectomy including creation of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD), fluid-air exchange, low intensity laser photocoagulation at the temporal edge of the optic disc pit and non-expansile perfluoropropane gas (14%) injection. Five (45.45%) of 11 eyes undergoing vitrectomy had complete resolution and 4 (36.36%) eyes had partial resolution of maculopathy. Visual acuity improved in 8 (72.72%) of 11 eyes.
Optical coherence tomography demonstrates multiple layer schisis and outer layer detachment as main features of optic disc pit maculopathy. Vitrectomy with PVD induction, laser photocoagulation and gas tamponade results in anatomical and visual improvement in most cases with optic disc pit maculopathy.
Optical coherence tomography; optic disc pit; retinal detachment; retinoschisis
Background & objectives:
Geographical variations are known to influence different aspects of endophthalmitis. We report the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological profile of patients with infectious endophthalmitis presented to a tertiary eye care centre in Odisha, India, and compare the results with published reports from other parts of India.
Retrospective review of medical records of 107 patients, seen between December 2006 and January 2009 was done. All patients had undergone parsplana vitrectomy with intraocular antibiotics and the management was based on microbiological analysis of the vitreous fluid.
Forty six (43.0%) patients had post-operative (PO), 43 had post-traumatic (PT) and 18 (16.8%) had endogenous (EG) endophthalmitis. Males were predominant in all three types of endophthalmitis. Significantly younger individuals constituted PT group. While culture established microbial diagnosis in 45 patients (42%), direct microscopy was positive in 38 patients (35.5%). Fungal aetiology was found in 13 patients (PO-7, PT-4, EG-2) and bacteria accounted for 32. Similar to studies from north, central and south India, fungi and Gram-negative bacteria accounted for a large number of PO endophthalmitis cases. Two PT patients had polymicrobial infection. All Gram-positive bacteria were susceptible to vancomycin. Susceptibility to ceftazidime was variable among the Gram-negative bacteria. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at presentation was less than 20/200 in majority (93%) of the patients. While the treatment outcome was variable in fungal and sterile endophthalmitis, the BCVA was either unchanged or improved in 100 per cent of bacterial endophthalmitis patients.
Interpretation & conclusions:
The spectrum of infection and outcome of infectious endophthalmitis in Odisha was similar to other parts of the country. Fungi and bacteria were involved in all three types of endophthalmitis. Empirical use of standard intravitreal therapy is recommended while emphasizing on vitreous biopsy for culture and sensitivity whenever possible.
Diagnosis; endogenous; endophthalmitis; Odisha; post-operative; post-traumatic; treatment
The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiologic spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates in post-traumatic endophthalmitis and compare with our earlier published report. A retrospective review was conducted on 581 consecutive patients with culture-proven post-traumatic endophthalmitis at L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, India, from January 2006 to March 2013.
A total of 620 isolates from 581 patients were identified (565 bacteria and 55 fungi). The most common isolate was Bacillus spp. (106/620, 17.1%) closely followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (105/620, 16.9%), and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (97/620, 15.6%). In our earlier report, the commonest bacteria included Streptococcus spp. (30/139, 21.6%) and gram-positive coagulase-negative micrococci (26/139, 18.7%). Gram-positive isolates were usually susceptible to vancomycin (98.2%). Gram-negative isolates were generally susceptible to gatifloxacin (92.9%), ofloxacin (89.4%), chloramphenicol (88.6%, Pseudomonas isolates were often resistant), amikacin (83.5%), and ceftazidime (77.2%). Fourteen years ago, the most sensitive antibiotic was ciprofloxacin for both gram-positive bacteria (95.12%) and gram-negative bacteria (100%).
The microbiological spectrum of post-traumatic endophthalmitis has remained unchanged over the last 14 years, and Bacillus spp. continues as the most common infecting organism. Vancomycin is the drug of choice for empiric coverage of gram-positive bacteria. Susceptibility of gram-negative bacteria to commonly used antimicrobials (amikacin and ciprofloxacin) has decreased by 10% - 15% and to ceftazidime has increased by 10.5%.
Open globe injury; Endophthalmitis; Microbiology
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility in patients with scleral buckle infection. Medical records of all the patients diagnosed as buckle infection at L. V. Prasad Eye Institute between July 1992 and June 2012 were reviewed in this non-comparative, consecutive, retrospective case series.
A total of 132 eyes of 132 patients underwent buckle explantation for buckle infection during the study period. The incidence of buckle infection at our institute during the study period was 0.2% (31 out of 15,022). A total of 124 isolates were identified from 102 positive cultures. The most common etiological agent isolated was Staphylococcus epidermidis (27/124, 21.77%) followed by Mycobacterium sp. (20/124, 16.13%) and Corynebacterium sp. (13/124, 10.48%). The most common gram negative bacilli identified was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9/124, 7.26%). The median interval between scleral buckling surgery and onset of symptoms of local infection was 30 days. All eyes underwent buckle explantation and median time interval between primary SB surgery and explantation was 13 months. Recurrent retinal detachment was observed in two cases at 7 and 48 months, respectively, after buckle explantation. Gram positive, gram negative, and acid-fast organisms isolated from 2003 to 2012 were most commonly susceptible to vancomycin (100%), ciprofloxacin (100%), and amikacin (89%). Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin during the same time period was observed in 75% (15/20), 100% (13/13), and 87% (7/8) of gram positive, gram negative, and acid-fast isolates, respectively.
Scleral buckle infection is relatively rare and has a delayed clinical presentation. It is most commonly caused by gram positive cocci. Based on the current antimicrobial susceptibility, ciprofloxacin can be used as empirical therapy in the management of scleral buckle infections.
Buckle infection; Scleral buckle; Buckle; Sponge
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and visual acuity outcome of acute-onset postoperative Gram-negative bacterial endophthalmitis cases resistant to both ceftazidime and amikacin seen between 2005 and 2010 at L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, a tertiary care ophthalmic Centre in South India. Medical records of all patients with Gram-negative bacterial endophthalmitis resistant to both amikacin and ceftazidime between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2010 were reviewed in this non-comparative, consecutive, retrospective case series. Favorable outcome was defined as a best-corrected visual acuity of ≥20/200.
Sixty five (39.6%) of 164 culture-positive postoperative endophthalmitis were caused by Gram-negative organisms. Among these 65 isolates, 32 (49%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 37% to 61%) were resistant to ceftazidime, 17 (26%; 95% CI 15% to 37%) to amikacin, and 12 (18.5%; 95% CI 9% to 27%) to both ceftazidime and amikacin. Eight Pseudomonas isolates, three Enterobacter isolates, and one Haemophilus isolate were resistant to both ceftazidime and amikacin. The isolates were sensitive to fluoroquinolones (42%) and imipenem (50%). Presenting visual acuity was light perception in 10 (83.3%) cases. A final visual acuity ≥20/200 was achieved in 5/12 (41.7%) of these patients.
In the current study, Pseudomonas was the most common Gram-negative bacteria resistant to both amikacin and ceftazidime. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria causing endophthalmitis is a matter of concern in India. Alternative antibiotics like imipenem or fluoroquinolones may be considered for the management of these resistant organisms.
Antibiotics; Antibiotic resistance; Endophthalmitis; Gram-negative organisms; Amikacin; Ceftazidime; Vitrectomy
The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence, causative organisms, and visual acuity outcome in patients with culture-proven polymicrobial endophthalmitis. The method used in this study is the non-comparative, consecutive case series using a retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with polymicrobial endophthalmitis for the period 2000 to 2010.
Polymicrobial endophthalmitis was identified in 43/1,107 (3.88%) patients. Forty-two patients had two isolates, and one patient had grown three isolates, yielding a total of 87 isolates. Gram-positive cocci were the most common isolate (n = 53; 60.9%) including Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 14/53; 16.1%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 13/53; 13.8%). The etiologies included posttraumatic (n = 31/43; 72.1%) and postoperative (n = 9/43; 20.9%) endophthalmitis. Antibiotic susceptibilities among Gram-positive bacteria were vancomycin (100%) and chloramphenicol (96%). Susceptibilities among Gram-negative bacteria were ciprofloxacin (86.4%) and ofloxacin (81.2%). A maximum number of secondary interventions were done in traumatic cases (38.7%) and cases having coinfection with Gram-negative bacteria and fungus (66.7%). Visual acuity (VA) < 20/200 was more frequently observed in posttraumatic cases (n = 27/31; 87.1%) as compared with postoperative cases (n = 4/9; 44.4%). Of the 43 patients, only 9 patients (20.9%) achieved a VA ≥ 20/200 on final follow-up. Four out of twelve patients (33.3%), with fungus as one of the isolates, had a VA ≥ 20/200.
Although polymicrobial infection in endophthalmitis is uncommon, it is generally associated with poor visual acuity outcomes especially in eyes with open-globe injuries. Coinfection with Gram-negative bacteria or fungi was associated with most unfavorable visual outcome.
Polymicrobial; Endophthalmitis; Antibiotic susceptibilities
To report atypical features on Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a case of non-familial pure adult nanophthalmos.
A 39 year old male hyperope was found to have biometric and fundus findings typical of nanophthalmos. The additional atypical features included serous pigment epithelial detachment (PED) in right eye and a cuff of subretinal fluid with underlying yellow deposits along superotemporal arcade in the left eye. Fundus flourescein angiogram showed hyperfluorescence due to window defect, dye pooling due to serous PED in right eye and leak superior to disc in right eye and superotemporally in left eye. Cirrus-SD OCT horizontal line scan passing through the fovea showed extensive inner limiting membrane corrugations causing distorted foveal contour in both eyes. A large juxtafoveal serous PED and a small extrafoval PED were seen with folds in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choriocapillary layer in the right eye.
Structural disruptions in the RPE-choriocapillary complex in the form of folds or juxtafoveal serous PED and RPE folds can be atypical features of nanophthalmic macula better discerned on high resolution OCT.
Purpose. We investigated acute endophthalmitis incidence following cataract surgery vis-a-vis the current technological and postoperative care changes in higher and lower socioeconomic categories of patients in South India. Methods. In a retrospective case control study, we analyzed 62 cases of acute endophthalmitis and 5 controls for each endophthalmitis case from 46,095 cataract surgeries done between years 1993 and 1998. The time period covered the transition of surgical technique and after care. In addition, we analyzed systemic diseases, surgeon factor, habitat, and socioeconomic status. Results. Clinical and culture positive endophthalmitis incidence were 0.13% and 0.07%, respectively. Differential incidence of 0.10% and 0.17% for in- and ambulatory care surgeries, respectively, was close to statistical significance (P = 0.054). Lower economy category ambulatory patients had higher risk of infection. Conclusion. Ambulatory cataract surgery carried additional risk for post-operative infection in lower socioeconomic group. Improved health education could ensure greater safety.
We report the use of DNA chip technology in the identification of Toxoplasma gondii as the etiological agent in two patients with recurrent intermediate uveitis (IU). Both patients had recurrent episodes of vitritis (with no focal retinochoroidal lesion) over varying time intervals and were diagnosed to have IU. The tuberculin test was negative in both. Blood counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and serum angiotensin convertase enzyme levels were normal. In both cases, the vitreous fluid tested positive for the T. gondii DNA sequence by using a uveitis DNA chip (XCyton Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, India). It contained complimentary sequences to “signature genes” of T. gondii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. chelonae, and M. fortuitum. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detected elevated serum antitoxoplasma IgG levels in both. They responded to the antitoxoplasma therapy with oral co-trimoxazole (and additional intravitreal clindamycin in patient 1), with no recurrence during follow-ups of 6 and 8 months, respectively.
Intermediate uveitis; Toxoplasma gondii; polymerase chain reaction
In India, refractive errors are a major cause of treatable blindness. Population surveys in southern
India have shown prevalence of high myopia to be 4.32-4.54%. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for choroidal
neovascularization (CNV) caused by pathologic myopia is beneficial.
To report the 24 months outcome of PDT with verteporfin for subfoveal CNV caused by pathologic
myopia in Indian eyes
Settings and Design:
Prospective case series
Materials and Methods:
Review of prospectively collected data of Indian patients with pathologic myopia
and subfoveal CNV treated with verteporfin therapy between 2001 and 2005 using standard regimen for
Statistical Analysis Used:
Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to see the difference in the mean letter acuity
at intervals compared to baseline. Kaplan Meier Survival analysis was done to estimate the success rate of
verteporfin therapy for CNV caused by pathologic myopia.
Fifteen patients (15 eyes) treated with standard fluence PDT and who had completed 24 months
follow-up were analyzed. The mean spherical equivalent was -13.36 ± 5.88 diopter. Five out of 15 eyes in six
months, three out of 15 eyes at 12 months and four eyes out of 15 at 24 months had improved vision by > 10
letters. The mean number of treatment session was 2.2 in two years.
PDT with verteporfin for subfoveal CNV caused by pathologic myopia in Indian eyes is
Choroidal neovascularization; pathologic myopia; photodynamic therapy; subfoveal; verteporfin
An observational case series was used to study the virulence characteristics and genotypes of paired Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates cultured from intraocular samples and from periocular environment of patients with postcataract surgery endophthalmitis.
Eight S. epidermidis isolates were obtained from three patients (2 from patients #1 and 2 and 4 from patient #3) whose vitreous and/or anterior chamber (AC) specimens and preoperative lid/conjunctiva samples were culture positive. Cultures were identified by API-Staph phenotypic identification system and genotypically characterized by Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (FAFLP) and checked for their antimicrobial susceptibility. The isolates were tested for biofilm-production and methicillin-resistance (MR) by PCR amplification of icaAB and mecA gene respectively.
Four out of eight S. epidermidis strains showed multiple drug resistance (MDR). All the eight strains were PCR positive for mecA gene whereas seven out of eight strains were positive for icaAB genes. In all three patients FAFLP typing established vitreous isolates of S. epidermidis strains to be indistinguishable from the strains isolated from the patient's conjunctival swabs. However, from patient number three there was one isolate (1030b from lid swab), which appeared to be nonpathogenic and ancestral having minor but significant differences from other three strains from the same patient. This strain also lacked icaAB gene. In silico analysis indicated possible evolution of other strains from this strain in the patient.
Methicillin-resistant biofilm positive S. epidermidis strains colonizing the conjunctiva and eyelid were responsible for postoperative endophthalmitis (POE).
Investigation of two independent outbreaks of post cataract surgery endophthalmitis identified the reservoir of epidemic strains of P. aeruginosa.
Patient isolates cultured from vitreous fluid of all the nine cases and from the peripheral devices of phacoemulsification machine were subjected to high-resolution Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (FAFLP) analysis.
FAFLP based genotyping of the isolates confirmed nosocomial transmission. Although biochemical characterization and antibiotic susceptibility profiles grouped all the isolates together, FAFLP based genotyping revealed that, all the outbreak isolates were derived from 2 different strains, with independent origins. One group of isolates was traced to phacoprobe and the second one to the internal tubing system of the phacoemulsification machine used in cataract surgery. In silico analysis indicated possible evolution in both the clusters of P. aeruginosa isolates due to genetic polymorphisms. The polymorphisms were mapped to gene products (cell envelope, outer membrane proteins) possibly having significant role in pathogenesis.
The present study is probably the first one to apply FAFLP typing successfully to investigate outbreaks of postoperative endophthalmitis (POE) in an ophthalmic setting, which was able to identify the source, and helped to make rational decisions on sterilization procedures that halted more cases of infection in these hospitals.
To report the 12 months follow up results of verteporfin therapy for subretinal neovascularization (SRNV) associated with type 2A parafoveal telangiectasia (PFT).
A Prospective interventional case series. Patients who completed 12 months follow up following photodynamic dynamic therapy with verteporfin for subretinal neovascularistion with Type 2A PFT were studied. All patients underwent visual acuity assessment with ETDRS letter acuity chart at 4 meters, slit lamp biomicroscopy, fundus fluorescein angiography and photography. Treatment protocol of TAP study was followed. The follow up schedule was every month for 3 months and then every 3 months thereafter until 12 months. Primary outcome measure was the change in visual acuity and secondary outcome measure was the mean treatment rate. Improvement was defined as ≥ 10 letters gain, stabilization as ± 10 letters and deterioration as > 10 letters loss.
Twelve eyes of 7 patients received photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for SRNV with Type 2A PFT. Initial mean letter acuity was 25.4 and 23.4 at 12months (p = 0.7). At 12 months, one eye had > 10 letters gain, 2 eyes had ≥ 10 letters loss and 9 had stabilized vision (± 10 letters). The mean number of treatment was 2.6. Ten (83.3%) of 12 eyes had retinal pigment epithelial collateral change, observed at the end 12 months.
Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin is effective in stabilization of vision in SRNV associated with type 2A PFT.
subretinal neoveascularisation; verteporfin; photodynamic therapy; parafoveal telangiectasia
To assess prevalence, potential risk factors and population attributable risk percentage (PAR%) for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
A population-based study, using a stratified, random, cluster, systematic sampling strategy, was conducted in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India during 1996 and 2000. Participants from 94 clusters in one urban and three rural areas representative of the population of Andhra Pradesh, underwent a detailed interview and a comprehensive dilated ocular evaluation by trained professionals. DR was defined according to the international classification and grading system. For subjects more than or equal to 30 years of age, we explored associations of DR with potential risk factors using bivariable and multivariable analyses. Population attributable risk percent was calculated using Levin’s formula.
Diabetic retinopathy was present in 39 of 5586 subjects, an age-gender-area-adjusted prevalence of 0.72% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49%–0.93%) among subjects aged ≥ 30 years old, and 0.27% (95% CI: 0.17%–0.37%) for all ages. Most of the DR was either mild (51.3%) or moderate (35.9%) non-proliferative type; one subject (2.6%) had proliferative retinopathy. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing age, adjusted odds ratio (OR); 4.04 (95% CI: 1.88–8.68), middle and upper socioeconomic status group (OR); 2.34 (95% CI: 1.16–4.73), hypertension (OR); 3.48 (95% CI: 1.50–8.11) and duration of diabetes ≥ 15 years (OR); 8.62 (95% CI: 2.63–28.29) were significantly associated with increasing risk of DR. The PAR % for hypertension was 50%; it was 10% for cigarette smokers.
Extrapolating the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in our sample to the Indian population suggests that there may be an estimated 2.77 million people with DR, approximately 0.07 million people with severe DR. As the population demographics change towards aging, this number is likely to increase further. Health care programs in India need to examine strategies to prevent diabetes and DR, as well as create the infrastructure required to manage this condition.
diabetic retinopathy; risk factors; population attributable risk percent; population based cross-sectional study; southern India