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1.  Subtenon injection of natural leukocyte interferon α-2a in diabetic macular edema: a case report 
BMC Ophthalmology  2013;13:63.
Background
To report the effect of subtenon injections of natural leukocyte interferon α-2a (IFNα) on best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) in a patient with diabetic macular edema (DME).
Case presentation
A 66-year-old man affected by DME, with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at 6.9%, refractory to laser grid treatment and intravitreal injections of triamcinolone, was selected to receive a cycle of three subtenon injections/week of IFNα (1×106 IU/ml). BCVA and CMT, using spectral domain ocular coherence tomography (SD-OCT), were evaluated preoperatively and at 1 week, 1 month, 4 months, and 1 year postoperatively. BCVA and CMT were significantly improved at 1 week after the three injections (20/200 vs. 20/40 and 498 μm vs. 237 μm, respectively). BCVA remained stable during the 1-year follow-up. CMT was slightly increased, but was still lower than the baseline value (215 μm, 255 μm, and 299 μm during the follow-up visits). No adverse events were recorded, with the exception of mild subconjunctival hemorrhage at the injection site.
Conclusions
IFNα, with its immunomodulatory, anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic actions, was effective in improving BCVA and reducing CMT in refractory DME. Further randomized controlled studies are required to assess the effect of IFNα alone or in combination with other therapies for DME treatment.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-13-63
PMCID: PMC3829108  PMID: 24165224
Diabetic macular edema; Interferon; Subtenon injections; Central macular thickness; Spectral domain optical coherence tomography
2.  Frequency doubling technology, optical coherence technology and pattern electroretinogram in ocular hypertension 
BMC Ophthalmology  2012;12:33.
Background
To assess which of three methods, namely, optical coherence tomography (OCT), pattern electroretinogram (PERG) or frequency-doubling technology (FDT), is the most sensitive and specific for detecting early glaucomatous damage in ocular hypertension (OH).
Methods
Fifty-two patients with OH (24 men and 28 women, mean age of 56 ± 9.6 years) with an intraocular pressure (IOP) > 21 mmHg and fifty-two control patients (25 men and 27 women, mean age of 54.8 ± 10.4 years) with IOP < 21 mmHg, were assessed. All the patients had normal visual acuity, normal optic disk and normal perimetric indices.
All subjects underwent OCT, FDT and PERG. Data were analyzed with unpaired t-tests, Chi-square test and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analyses.
Results
In patients with OH, OCT showed retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinner than in control group in the superior quadrant (130.16 ± 10.02 vs 135.18 ± 9.27 μm, respectively; p < 0.011) and inferior quadrant (120.14 ± 11.0 vs 132.68 ± 8.03 μm; p < 0.001). FDT showed a significantly higher pattern standard deviation (PSD) (3.46 ± 1.48 vs 1.89 ± 0.7 dB; p < 0.001). With respect to PERG, only the amplitude showed significant differences (p < 0.044) between the two groups. ROC curve analysis revealed a sensitivity and specificity of 92% and 86%, respectively, for FDT-PSD (with an area under the ROC curve of 0.940), whereas with OCT, a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 74% was recorded in the inferior RNFL quadrant (with an area under the ROC curve of 0.806) finally with PERG amplitude we found a sensitivity of 52% and specificity of 77% (with an area under the ROC curve of 0.595).
Conclusions
FDT is the most sensitive and specific method for detecting early glaucomatous damage in eyes with OH, and together with OCT, can be useful in identifying those patients who may develop glaucoma.
Trial registration
ISRCT number: ISRCTN70295497
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-12-33
PMCID: PMC3444883  PMID: 22853436
Frequency-doubling technology; Ocular hypertension; Optical coherence tomography; Pattern electroretinogram; Retinal ganglion cells; Retinal nerve fiber layer
3.  Secondary IOL Implantation without Capsular Support: A Laser Flare Cell Meter Study 
ISRN Ophthalmology  2012;2011:653246.
Phacoemulsification and the contemporary implantation of intraocular lens (IOL) within the capsular bag represent the standard of care in cataract surgery, but sometimes a primary IOL implant is not possible due to intraoperative complications or preexisting conditions so that a secondary implantation of IOL within the anterior or posterior chamber is necessary. The aim of our study was to assess the degree of inflammation due to a secondary implant of claw lenses, angle-supported IOLs, and scleral-fixated IOLs by means of an objective, repeatable, and noninvasive device, the laser flare cell meter, which evaluates aqueous flare and cells within the anterior chamber in vivo and to show the contribution of the single IOLs to the genesis of inflammation.
doi:10.5402/2011/653246
PMCID: PMC3912603  PMID: 24533188
4.  Multifocal electroretinogram and Optical Coherence tomography spectral-domain in arc welding macular injury: a case report 
BMC Ophthalmology  2011;11:40.
Background
the purpose of this study was to report a binocular photic retinal injury induced by plasma arc welding and the follow-up after treatment with vitamin supplements for a month. In our study, we used different diagnostic tools such as fluorescein angiography (FA), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG).
Case presentation
in the first visit after five days from arc welding injury in the left eye (LE) the visual acuity was 0.9 and 1.0 in the right eye (RE). FA was normal in both eyes. OCT in the left eye showed normal profile and normal reflectivity and one month later, a hyperreflectivity appeared in the external limiting membrane (ELM). The mfERG signal in the LE was 102.30 nV/deg2 five days after the injury and 112.62 nV/deg2 after one month and in the RE respectively 142.70 nV/deg2 and 159.46 nV/deg2.
Conclusions
in cases of retinal photo injury it is important for the ophthalmologist to evaluate tests such as OCT and the mfERG in the diagnosis and follow-up of the patient because the recovery of visual acuity cannot exclude the persistence of phototoxic damage charged to the complex inner-outer segment of photoreceptors.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-11-40
PMCID: PMC3274443  PMID: 22208163
5.  Corneoscleral graft in Mooren's ulcer: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:180.
Introduction
Mooren's ulcer is a rare disorder of unknown etiology that is refractory to treatment. It can affect not just the cornea but also the scleral tissue and can involve both eyes.
Case presentation
We report a case of a 74-year-old man with a history of bilateral and malignant Mooren's ulcer. The patient had undergone an exenteratio bulbi of the left eye because of the perforation of a Mooren's corneal ulcer. The perforated Mooren's corneal ulcer also presented in the right eye and involved the adjacent scleral tissue. It was decided to perform a corneal-scleral graft to preserve the anatomical integrity of the eye.
Conclusion
This report highlights how a corneal-scleral graft followed by systemic and local immunosuppressive treatment should be considered in monocular patients with malignant Mooren's ulcer where there is serious damage to the corneal and scleral tissue.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-2-180
PMCID: PMC2783135  PMID: 19946490
6.  Matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors after selective laser trabeculoplasty in pseudoexfoliative secondary glaucoma 
BMC Ophthalmology  2008;8:20.
Background
The aim of this study was to assess changes in metalloproteinases (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-2) following selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) in patients with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEXG).
Methods
We enrolled 15 patients with PEXG and cataracts (PEXG-C group) and good intraocular pressure (IOP) controlled with β-blockers and dorzolamide eye drops who were treated by cataract phacoemulsification and 15 patients with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEXG-SLT group). The PEXG-SLT patients underwent a trabeculectomy for uncontrolled IOP in the eye that showed increased IOP despite the maximum drug treatment with β-blockers and dorzolamide eye drops and after ineffective selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT). The control group consisted of 15 subjects with cataracts. Aqueous humor was aspirated during surgery from patients with PEXG-C, PEXG-SLT and from matched control patients with cataracts during cataract surgery or trabeculectomy. The concentrations of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in the aqueous humor were assessed with commercially available ELISA kits.
Results
In PEXG-SLT group in the first 10 days after SLT treatment a significant reduction in IOP was observed: 25.8 ± 1.9 vs 18.1.0 ± 1.4 mm/Hg (p < 0.001), but after a mean time of 31.5 ± 7.6 days IOP increased and returned to pretreatment levels: 25.4 ± 1.6 mm/Hg (p < 0.591). Therefore a trabeculectomy was considered necessary.
The MMP-2 in PEXG-C was 57.77 ± 9.25 μg/ml and in PEXG-SLT was 58.52 ± 9.66 μg/ml (p < 0.066). TIMP-2 was 105.19 ± 28.53 μg/ml in PEXG-C and 105.96 ± 27.65 μg/ml in PEXG-SLT (p < 0.202). The MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio in the normal subjects was 1.11 ± 0.44. This ratio increase to 1.88 ± 0.65 in PEXG-C (p < 0.001) and to 1.87 ± 0.64 in PEXG-SLT (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between the PEXG-C and PEXG-SLT ratios (p < 0.671).
Conclusion
This case series suggest that IOP elevation after SLT can be a serious adverse event in some PEXG patients. The IOP increase in these cases would be correlated to the failure to decrease the TIMP-2/MMP-2 ratio.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN79745214
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-8-20
PMCID: PMC2575190  PMID: 18939999
7.  Intravitreal vs. subtenon triamcinolone acetonide for the treatment of diabetic cystoid macular edema 
BMC Ophthalmology  2008;8:5.
Background
To assess the efficacy of the intravitreal (IVT) injection of Triamcinolone Acetonide (TA) as compared to posterior subtenon (SBT) capsule injection for the treatment of cystoid diabetic macular edema.
Methods
Fourteen patients with type II diabetes mellitus and on insulin treatment, presenting diffuse cystoid macular edema were recruited. Before TA injection all focal lakes were treated by laser photocoagulation. In the same patients one eye was assigned to 4 mg IVT injection of TA and the fellow eye was then treated with 40 mg SBT injection of TA. Before and one, three and six months after treatment we measured visual acuity with ETDRS chart as well as thickness of the macula with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP).
Results
The eyes treated with an IVT injection displayed significant improvement in visual acuity, both after one (0.491 ± 0.070; p < 0.001) and three months (0.500 ± 0.089; p < 0.001) of treatment. Significant improvement was displayed also in eyes treated with an SBT injection, again after one (0.455 ± 0.069; p < 0.001) and three months (0.427 ± 0.065; p < 0.001). The difference between an IVT injection (0.809 ± 0.083) and SBT injection (0.460 ± 0.072) becomes significant six months after the treatment (p < 0.001).
Macular thickness of the eyes treated with IVT injection was significantly reduced both after one (222.7 ± 13.4 μm; p < 0.001) and after three months (228.1 ± 10.6 μm; p < 0.001) of treatment. The eyes treated with SBT injection displayed significant improvement after one (220.1 ± 15.1 μm; p < 0.001) and after three months (231.3 ± 10.9 μm; p < 0.001). The difference between the eyes treated with IVT injection (385.2 ± 11.3 μm) and those treated with SBT injection (235.4 ± 8.7 μm) becomes significant six months after the treatment (p < 0.001).
Intraocular pressure of the eyes treated with IVT injection significantly increased after one month (17.7 ± 1.1 mm/Hg; p < 0.020), three (18.2 ± 1.2 mm/Hg; p < 0.003) and six month (18.1 ± 1.3 mm/Hg; p < 0.007) when compared to baseline value (16.1 ± 1.402 mm/Hg). In the SBT injection eyes we didn't display a significant increase of intraocular pressure after one (16.4 ± 1.2 mm/Hg; p < 0.450), three (16.3 ± 1.1 mm/Hg; p < 0.630) and six months (16.2 ± 1.1 mm/Hg; p < 0.720) when compared to baseline value (16.2 ± 1.3 mm/Hg).
Conclusion
The parabulbar subtenon approach can be considered a valid alternative to the intravitreal injection.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN67086909
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-8-5
PMCID: PMC2277375  PMID: 18366650

Results 1-7 (7)