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1.  The Impact of Vision Impairment (IVI) Questionnaire; Validation of the Thai-Version and the Implementation on Vision-Related Quality of Life in Thai Rural Community 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(5):e0155509.
The objective of this study is to validate the Thai-version of the impact of vision impairment (IVI) questionnaire and to evaluate its impact on vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) in southern Thailand. The IVI questionnaire was translated into Thai according to WHO translation guidelines. In addition to the routine ophthalmological examinations, a Thai version of the IVI questionnaire was administered to all participants. A total of 120 patients with visual impairment who presented at Songklanagarind hospital, Songkhla province, were enrolled in the study; 30 had age-related macular degeneration (AMD), 30 had cataract, 30 had diabetic retinopathy, 30 had glaucoma, and 30 non-visually impaired individuals comprised the control group. Statistical analysis demonstrated the Thai-version IVI questionnaire is valid and reliable to evaluate the VRQoL of the Thai patients through three subscales: (i) mobility and independence, (ii) reading and accessing information, and (iii) emotional well-being. The results demonstrated high consistency in all subscales with Cronbach’s alpha ranging from 0.787 to 0.849. Rasch analysis revealed the validity of the Thai-version IVI to assess VRQoL through all three subscales. Test-retest reliability was also high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.96). The composite score of the IVI was significantly higher in participants with visual impairment compared with healthy participants. Moreover, the subscale scores of reading and accessing information, and emotional well-being were highest in participants with AMD. While the subscale scores of mobility and independence were highest among those with either cataracts or diabetic retinopathy. The symptoms of the common vision impairment diseases are associated with an adverse impact on VRQoL in a clinic-based population as demonstrated in this study.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155509
PMCID: PMC4871442  PMID: 27191960
2.  The normal choroidal thickness in southern Thailand 
Objective
To investigate the association between subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy southern Thailand volunteers and age, axial length, and refractive error.
Subjects and methods
This was a prospective cross-sectional case series. A total of 210 eyes of 105 healthy volunteers (86 women, age 23–83 years) in southern Thailand were examined with enhanced depth-imaging optical coherence tomography. Subjects with systemic diseases that may affect the choroidal vascular blood vessels, such as diabetes, impaired renal function, and hypertension, were excluded. Refractive error and axial length were measured by autorefractometry and an IOLMaster, respectively. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured from the outer border of the retinal pigment epithelium to the inner scleral border in the subfoveal area.
Results
The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 279.4±75.49 μm, and the mean age was 46.4±16.45 years. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was negatively correlated with age (r2=0.33, P<0.0001) and axial length (r2=0.02, P<0.02). Multivariable regression analysis showed subfoveal choroidal thickness was positively and negatively correlated with a spherical equivalent refractive error and axial length, respectively, when adjusted for age.
Conclusion
Age is the most important factor in choroidal thickness rather than axial length and refractive error. Subfoval choroidal thickness was decreased 2.67 μm every year and 14.59 μm with 1 mm increase in axial length.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S71343
PMCID: PMC4234160  PMID: 25419112
choroidal thickness; enhanced depth-imaging optical coherence tomography; swept-source optical coherence tomography
3.  Photoreceptor disruption in central serous chorioretinopathy treated by half-dose photodynamic therapy 
Background
To evaluate photoreceptor disruption in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) treated by half-dose photodynamic therapy (PDT).
Methods
A total of 29 patients with symptomatic CSC were recruited and underwent half-dose verteporfin PDT covering the leakage sites as observed via fundus fluorescein angiography. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients with the presence of photoreceptor disruption, and the secondary outcome was the correlation between photoreceptor disruption and visual results at the 1-year follow-up.
Results
Photoreceptor disruption was identified in 13 eyes (44.8%) 12 months after treatment. Twenty-seven patients experienced best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improvement after PDT, while two patients showed stable BCVA. The mean BCVA in patients with photoreceptor disruption at the baseline and every follow-up visit was significantly lower than that of patients without photoreceptor disruption. However, there was no correlation between the presence or absence of photoreceptor disruption and the improvement of visual acuity because the BCVA gain at the last follow-up visit between the two groups was not significant (P = 0.69). No potential ocular complication was encountered in the study.
Conclusion
Photoreceptor disruption was found in about 45% of CSC patients treated by PDT, which ultimately resulted in poor visual outcomes. However, a half-dose PDT might not affect or modify the photoreceptor function because it gave the same pattern of visual recovery in patients with and without photoreceptor cell loss.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S39584
PMCID: PMC3548438  PMID: 23345962
photoreceptor disruption; central serous chorioretinopathy; photodynamic therapy
4.  High-dose antioxidants for central serous chorioretinopathy; The randomized placebo-controlled study 
BMC Ophthalmology  2012;12:20.
Background
To determine the efficacy of high-dose antioxidants in the acute stage of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).
Methods
This was a randomized placebo-controlled study. The patients with acute CSC (onset within 6 weeks) were randomized to receive either high-dose antioxidant tablets (study group A) or placebo tablets (control group B) for 3 months or until the complete resolution of subretinal fluid. After 3 months, additional treatment with laser or photodynamic therapy (PDT) was considered if any fluorescein leakage persisted. The outcomes measured were the changes in visual acuity (VA) and central macular thickness (CMT), the number of patients with subretinal fluid at each follow-up time, the number of patients with fluorescein leakage at the end of the 3rd month and patients who received additional treatments.
Results
Fifty-one of 58 patients (88%) completed the follow-up criteria. The baseline demographic data were comparable in both groups. At the end of the 3rd month, the VA and CMT showed no statistical difference between the groups but the patients in group A has less fluorescein leakage and additional treatments than in group B (p = 0.027 and 0.03).
Conclusion
The high-dose antioxidants for acute CSC did not show any benefits in VA and CMT. However, the drugs might decrease the chance for fluorescein leakage and additional treatments at the end of the 3rd month.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-12-20
PMCID: PMC3410804  PMID: 22800086
Antioxidants; Central serous chorioretinopathy
5.  Electrophysiologic changes after intravitreal ranibizumab injection for the treatment of choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM) 
Purpose:
To determine the pattern of electroretinographic change after an intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis®) injection for the treatment of choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM).
Patients and methods:
A prospective interventional case series of patients treated by intravitreal ranibizumab injection. Best corrected visual acuity, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) were assessed prior to treatment, and 2 weeks, 1 and 3 months after treatment. Primary outcome was the functional change in amplitude and implicit time by mfERG and secondary outcome was the structural change in macular thickness by optical coherence tomography (OCT).
Results:
Twenty-six eyes from 25 consecutive patients were enrolled. At 3 months after treatment, the mean visual acuity (VA) improved from 1.06 to 0.84 logMAR (P = 0.034) and the mean macular thickness decreased from 389.7 to 264.4 microns (P = 0.003). The mean implicit time of the central zone showed an improvement at 3 months after treatment when compared with the response at baseline (P = 0.024) and at 1 month (P = 0.013) but the mean amplitude showed no significant change. In subgroup analysis, the eyes with initial visual acuity (VA) ≥ 20/200 had a significant improvement in mean implicit time of the peripheral zone at 2 weeks after treatment (P = 0.028). The OCT revealed a significant decrease (P < 0.003) in macular thickness at 1 and 3 months postoperatively.
Conclusion:
The mean implicit time of the central zone improved significantly at 3 months after treatment, whereas the mean amplitude showed no significant change. The macular thickness decreased significantly after the treatment, while VA improved to a lesser extent.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S19485
PMCID: PMC3096619  PMID: 21607026
choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM); intravitreal injection; multifocal electroretinography (mfERG); optical coherence tomography (OCT); ranibizumab

Results 1-5 (5)