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1.  Survey of Low Vision among Students Attending Schools for the Blind in Nigeria: A Descriptive and Interventional Study 
Purpose:
The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of low vision among students attending all the schools for the blind in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study set out to determine the proportion of students with low vision/severe visual impairment after best correction, to determine the causes of the low vision, to document the associated pathologies, to determine the types of treatment and visual aid devices required, and to provide the visual aids needed to the students in the schools.
Materials and Methods:
All schools students for the blind in Oyo State were evaluated between August 2007 and January 2008. All the students underwent a thorough ophthalmic examination that included measurement of visual acuity, retinoscopy and subjective refraction, tests for visual aids where indicated, and a structured questionnaire was administered.
Results:
A total of 86 students were included in the study and the mean age was 19.4 ± 8.19 years. Twenty six (30%) were under 16 years of age. The most common cause of blindness was bilateral measles keratopathy/vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in 25 students (29.1%). The most common site affected was the cornea in 25 students (29.1%), the lens in 23 (26.7%), and the retina/optic nerve in 16 (18.6%). Preventable blindness was mainly from measles keratopathy/VAD (29.1%). Eleven students benefited from refraction and correction with visual aids; two having severe visual impairment (SVI), and nine having visual impairment (VI) after correction.
Conclusion:
The prevalence of low vision in the schools for the blind in Oyo State is 2.3%, while the prevalence of visual impairment is 10.5%. These results suggest that preventable and treatable ocular conditions are the source of significant childhood blindness in Oyo State.
doi:10.4103/0974-9233.102744
PMCID: PMC3519125  PMID: 23248540
Blind; Childhood Blindness; Low Vision; Measles Keratopathy; Oyo State; Vitamin A Deficiency
2.  Profile of patients presenting at a low vision clinic in a developing country 
BMC Ophthalmology  2012;12:31.
Background
Low vision is an important public health problem; however, very few low vision clinics are available to address the needs of low vision patients in most developing countries. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients attending the low vision clinic of a Nigerian tertiary hospital.
Methods
This was a prospective cross sectional study of all new patients seen at the low vision clinic over a 36 month period. Patients were administered with a structured questionnaire, and were examined and tested with low vision devices by the attending low vision specialist. Information on the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients was recorded.
Results
A total of 193 new patients seen during the period were studied. The mean age was 41.4 years, and their ages ranged between 6 and 90 years with a male to female ratio of 1.9:1. Majority (58%) were aged below 50 years, 23.3% were children (≤15 years), while 21.8% were elderly patients (≥65 years). The commonest cause of low vision was retinitis pigmentosa (16.6%); 14.5% had age related macular degeneration (ARMD); 9.8% had albinism; while only 1% had diabetic retinopathy. ARMD (45.2%) was the commonest cause in the elderly patients, while albinism (24.4%) and optic atrophy (24.4%) were the commonest in children.
Conclusion
The demographic and clinical characteristics of low vision patients seen in this clinic are similar to that of patients in other developing countries, but different from those in developed countries. Elderly patients and females may be under-utilising low vision services. There is a need for further research into the determinants of low vision service utilisation in developing countries. This would further aid the planning and delivery of services to low vision patients in these countries.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-12-31
PMCID: PMC3466151  PMID: 22846399
Low vision; Patient characteristics; Developing countries
3.  Cataract Surgical Outcomes In Diabetic Patients: Case Control Study 
Purpose:
To determine the visual outcome of cataract surgery in diabetes mellitus with advanced cataract in a tertiary institution in Nigeria.
Design:
A retrospective case control study conducted at the University College Hospital, Ibadan Nigeria.
Subjects:
Twenty three consecutive patients with diabetes and 23 age and sex matched non-diabetic control patients who had extracapsular cataract extraction for advanced cataract between 2002-2005.
Main outcome:
Mean post operative visual acuity and surgical complications.
Results:
Twenty three patients with diabetes mellitus and 23 non diabetic controls were studied; mean duration of diabetes was 8.1 ± 7.2 years. The mean post operative visual acuity in diabetics was 0.11±0.38, 0.33±0.57 and 0.38±0.49 at one week, two months and six months compared with 0.23±0.19, 0.46±0.37 and 0.48±0.31 in non diabetics. (p=0.207, 0.403 and 0.465 respectively). Improvement in preoperative visual acuity was noted in 84.2% and 90% in diabetics and non-diabetics respectively. Poor visual outcome in diabetics was mainly due to diabetic retinopathy, maculopathy or diabetes related surgical complications.
Conclusion:
Visual improvement was seen following surgery for advanced cataract in diabetics in this study population. Post operative monitoring for treatment of diabetic retinopathy may enhance visual outcome.
doi:10.4103/0974-9233.53868
PMCID: PMC2813591  PMID: 20142968
Cataract; cataract extraction; diabetes mellitus; diabetic retinopathy; visual outcome
4.  Visual impairment from fibrous dysplasia in a middle-aged African man: a case report 
Introduction
Fibrous dysplasia is a benign tumour of the bones and is a disease of unknown aetiology. This report discusses a case of proptosis and visual deterioration with associated bony mass involving the right orbit.
Case presentation
A 32-year-old Nigerian man of Yoruba ethnic origin presented to the eye clinic of our hospital with right-eye proptosis and visual deterioration of 7-year duration. Presentation was preceded by a history of trauma. Proptosis was preceded by trauma but was non-pulsatile with no thrill or bruit but was associated with bony orbital mass. The patient reported no weight loss. Examination of his right eye showed visual acuity of 6/60 with relative afferent pupillary defect. Fundal examination revealed optic atrophy. Computed tomography showed an expansile bony mass involving all the walls of the orbit. The bony orbital mass was diagnosed histologically as fibrous dysplasia. Treatment included orbital exploration and orbital shaping to create room for the globe and relieve pressure on the optic nerve.
Conclusion
Fibrous dysplasia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of slowly developing proptosis with associated visual loss in young adults.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-3-14
PMCID: PMC2633003  PMID: 19144124

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