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1.  Subtenon injection of natural leukocyte interferon α-2a in diabetic macular edema: a case report 
BMC Ophthalmology  2013;13:63.
Background
To report the effect of subtenon injections of natural leukocyte interferon α-2a (IFNα) on best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) in a patient with diabetic macular edema (DME).
Case presentation
A 66-year-old man affected by DME, with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at 6.9%, refractory to laser grid treatment and intravitreal injections of triamcinolone, was selected to receive a cycle of three subtenon injections/week of IFNα (1×106 IU/ml). BCVA and CMT, using spectral domain ocular coherence tomography (SD-OCT), were evaluated preoperatively and at 1 week, 1 month, 4 months, and 1 year postoperatively. BCVA and CMT were significantly improved at 1 week after the three injections (20/200 vs. 20/40 and 498 μm vs. 237 μm, respectively). BCVA remained stable during the 1-year follow-up. CMT was slightly increased, but was still lower than the baseline value (215 μm, 255 μm, and 299 μm during the follow-up visits). No adverse events were recorded, with the exception of mild subconjunctival hemorrhage at the injection site.
Conclusions
IFNα, with its immunomodulatory, anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic actions, was effective in improving BCVA and reducing CMT in refractory DME. Further randomized controlled studies are required to assess the effect of IFNα alone or in combination with other therapies for DME treatment.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-13-63
PMCID: PMC3829108  PMID: 24165224
Diabetic macular edema; Interferon; Subtenon injections; Central macular thickness; Spectral domain optical coherence tomography
2.  Frequency doubling technology, optical coherence technology and pattern electroretinogram in ocular hypertension 
BMC Ophthalmology  2012;12:33.
Background
To assess which of three methods, namely, optical coherence tomography (OCT), pattern electroretinogram (PERG) or frequency-doubling technology (FDT), is the most sensitive and specific for detecting early glaucomatous damage in ocular hypertension (OH).
Methods
Fifty-two patients with OH (24 men and 28 women, mean age of 56 ± 9.6 years) with an intraocular pressure (IOP) > 21 mmHg and fifty-two control patients (25 men and 27 women, mean age of 54.8 ± 10.4 years) with IOP < 21 mmHg, were assessed. All the patients had normal visual acuity, normal optic disk and normal perimetric indices.
All subjects underwent OCT, FDT and PERG. Data were analyzed with unpaired t-tests, Chi-square test and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analyses.
Results
In patients with OH, OCT showed retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinner than in control group in the superior quadrant (130.16 ± 10.02 vs 135.18 ± 9.27 μm, respectively; p < 0.011) and inferior quadrant (120.14 ± 11.0 vs 132.68 ± 8.03 μm; p < 0.001). FDT showed a significantly higher pattern standard deviation (PSD) (3.46 ± 1.48 vs 1.89 ± 0.7 dB; p < 0.001). With respect to PERG, only the amplitude showed significant differences (p < 0.044) between the two groups. ROC curve analysis revealed a sensitivity and specificity of 92% and 86%, respectively, for FDT-PSD (with an area under the ROC curve of 0.940), whereas with OCT, a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 74% was recorded in the inferior RNFL quadrant (with an area under the ROC curve of 0.806) finally with PERG amplitude we found a sensitivity of 52% and specificity of 77% (with an area under the ROC curve of 0.595).
Conclusions
FDT is the most sensitive and specific method for detecting early glaucomatous damage in eyes with OH, and together with OCT, can be useful in identifying those patients who may develop glaucoma.
Trial registration
ISRCT number: ISRCTN70295497
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-12-33
PMCID: PMC3444883  PMID: 22853436
Frequency-doubling technology; Ocular hypertension; Optical coherence tomography; Pattern electroretinogram; Retinal ganglion cells; Retinal nerve fiber layer
3.  Efficacy of two-month treatment with Xiloial® eyedrops for discomfort from disposable soft contact lenses 
Purpose:
To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of Xiloial® monodose eyedrops in the treatment of patients suffering from subjective symptoms of discomfort related to disposable soft contact lens (dSCL) wear.
Methods:
Fifteen (12 female, three male, medium age 39 ± 9 years) dSCL wearers were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were Ocular Surface Disease Index (ODSI) symptom questionnaire score >12, tear film break-up time (TFBUT) <10 sec, Schirmer test I >10 mm over five minutes, mild punctuate keratopathy, and conjunctival staining (Oxford grading ≤4). Monodose Xiloial eyedrops were administered three times daily for a two-month period. Patients were evaluated at enrollment, after three days of washout (baseline), and after one and two months of treatment, by OSDI score, Schirmer test I, TFBUT, ferning test, ocular surface damage (Oxford grade), and serum albumin in tears (index of passive exudation related to serum leakage).
Results:
At endpoint versus baseline, respectively, the mean ± standard deviation of all variables improved as follows: OSDI (8.5 ± 3 versus 20.2 ± 1.6); TFBUT (9.6 ± 1.1 versus 7.1 ± 1.0); Oxford grading (0.5 ± 0.1 versus 3.6 ± 0.8); ferning test (2 ± 1 versus 2.4 ± 0.5); and Schirmer test I (14.6 ± 1.1 versus 12 ± 2.1), with P < 0.05 for all variables (Friedman and Wilcoxon tests). Tolerability was high, with no adverse events noted.
Conclusions:
A two-month treatment with Xiloial showed good tolerance and appeared to reduce ocular surface damage and symptoms of discomfort.
PMCID: PMC2946994  PMID: 20922039
discomfort; dry eye; disposable contact lens; biopolymer tamarind seed polysaccharide–hyaluronic acid

Results 1-3 (3)