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1.  Integrative species delimitation in photosynthetic sea slugs reveals twenty candidate species in three nominal taxa studied for drug discovery, plastid symbiosis or biological control 
DNA barcoding can highlight taxa in which conventional taxonomy underestimates species richness, identifying mitochondrial lineages that may correspond to unrecognized species. However, key assumptions of barcoding remain untested for many groups of soft-bodied marine invertebrates with poorly resolved taxonomy. Here, we applied an integrative approach for species delimitation to herbivorous sea slugs in clade Sacoglossa, in which unrecognized diversity may complicate studies of drug discovery, plastid endosymbiosis, and biological control. Using the mitochondrial barcoding COI gene and the nuclear histone 3 gene, we tested the hypothesis that three widely distributed “species” each comprised a complex of independently evolving lineages. Morphological and reproductive characters were then used to evaluate whether each lineage was distinguishable as a candidate species. The “circumtropical” Elysia ornata comprised a Caribbean species and four Indo-Pacific candidate species that are potential sources of kahalalides, anti-cancer compounds. The “monotypic” and highly photosynthetic Plakobranchus ocellatus, used for over 60 years to study chloroplast symbiosis, comprised 10 candidate species. Finally, six candidate species were distinguished in the Elysia tomentosa complex, including potential biological control agents for invasive green algae (Caulerpa spp.). We show that a candidate species approach developed for vertebrates effectively categorizes cryptic diversity in marine invertebrates, and that integrating threshold COI distances with non-molecular character data can delimit species even when common assumptions of DNA barcoding are violated.
doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.07.009
PMCID: PMC3788053  PMID: 23876292
barcoding; Caulerpa; candidate species; Elysia; Heterobranchia; kahalalides; kleptoplasty; Plakobranchus; Sacoglossa; species delimitation
2.  Effects of Cold Modality Application With Static and Intermittent Pneumatic Compression on Tissue Temperature and Systemic Cardiovascular Responses 
Sports Health  2013;5(1):27-33.
Background:
In the therapeutic setting, cryotherapy with varying levels of intermittent cyclical compression often replaces an ice bag and elastic wrap. However, little is known about the cardiovascular strain and tissue temperature decreases associated with cooling and intermittent compression.
Hypothesis:
The authors hypothesized that higher levels of intermittent compression will result in greater reductions of tissue temperature and that all cold modalities will cause acute increases in cardiovascular strain.
Design:
Experimental crossover repeated measure design.
Methods:
Ten healthy subjects (23 ± 3 years) volunteered for 4 cryotherapy sessions (30-minute treatments with 30-minute passive recovery). Treatments included ice with elastic wrap and Game Ready (GR) with no, medium (5-50 mmHg), and high compression (5-75 mmHg). Throughout the experiment, oral, skin surface, and intramuscular quadriceps temperatures were measured along with mean arterial pressure, heart rate, rate pressure product, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular conductance.
Results:
Mean arterial pressure increased up to 5 minutes (P < 0.05). Forearm blood flow and forearm vascular conductance decreased after baseline (P < 0.05), but there were no differences between treatments. Peak intramuscular changes from baseline were −14 ± 2°C (ice), −11 ± 6°C (GRHIGH), −10 ± 5°C (GRMED), and −7 ± 3°C (GRNO). Ice cooled the muscle the most, while GR with medium and high compression cooled more than GR without compression (P < 0.05).
Conclusions:
The application of cold and intermittent pneumatic compression using GR did not produce acute cardiovascular strain that exceeded the strain produced by standard ice bags/elastic wrap treatment. Greater temperature decreases are achieved with medium- and high-pressure settings when using the GR system.
Clinical Relevance:
Type of cold and amount of compression affect tissue cooling in healthy lean subjects. All tested cold modalities caused acute increases in cardiovascular strain; however, these increases are no more than what healthy subjects experience with the onset of exercise.
doi:10.1177/1941738112450863
PMCID: PMC3548661  PMID: 24381698
cryotherapy; blood pressure; blood flow
3.  A counterbalanced cross-over study of the effects of visual, auditory and no feedback on performance measures in a simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation 
BMC Nursing  2011;10:15.
Background
Previous research has demonstrated that trained rescuers have difficulties achieving and maintaining the correct depth and rate of chest compressions during both in and out of hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Feedback on rate and depth mitigate decline in performance quality but not completely with the residual performance decline attributed to rescuer fatigue. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of feedback (none, auditory only and visual only) on the quality of CPR and rescuer fatigue.
Methods
Fifteen female volunteers performed 10 minutes of 30:2 CPR in each of three feedback conditions: none, auditory only, and visual only. Visual feedback was displayed continuously in graphic form. Auditory feedback was error correcting and provided by a voice assisted CPR manikin. CPR quality measures were collected using SkillReporter® software. Blood lactate (mmol/dl) and perceived exertion served as indices of fatigue. One-way and two way repeated measures analyses of variance were used with alpha set a priori at 0.05.
Results
Visual feedback yielded a greater percentage of correct compressions (78.1 ± 8.2%) than did auditory (65.4 ± 7.6%) or no feedback (44.5 ± 8.1%). Compression rate with auditory feedback (87.9 ± 0.5 compressions per minute) was less than it was with both visual and no feedback (p < 0.05). CPR performed with no feedback (39.2 ± 0.5 mm) yielded a shallower average depth of compression and a lower percentage (55 ± 8.9%) of compressions within the accepted 38-50 mm range than did auditory or visual feedback (p < 0.05). The duty cycle for auditory feedback (39.4 ± 1.6%) was less than it was with no feedback (p < 0.05). Auditory feedback produced lower lactate concentrations than did visual feedback (p < 0.05) but there were no differences in perceived exertion.
Conclusions
In this study feedback mitigated the negative effects of fatigue on CPR performance and visual feedback yielded better CPR performance than did no feedback or auditory feedback. The perfect confounding of sensory modality and periodicity of feedback (visual feedback provided continuously and auditory feedback provided to correct error) leaves unanswered the question of optimal form and timing of feedback.
doi:10.1186/1472-6955-10-15
PMCID: PMC3162914  PMID: 21810239
4.  A randomized cross-over study of the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among females performing 30:2 and hands-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation 
BMC Nursing  2009;8:6.
Background
Hands-Only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is recommended for use on adult victims of witnessed out-of-hospital (OOH) sudden cardiac arrest or in instances where rescuers cannot perform ventilations while maintaining minimally interrupted quality compressions. Promotion of Hands-Only CPR should improve the incidence of bystander CPR and, subsequently, survival from OOH cardiac arrest; but, little is known about a rescuer's ability to deliver continuous chest compressions of adequate rate and depth for periods typical of emergency services response time. This study evaluated chest compression rate and depth as subjects performed Hands-Only CPR for 10 minutes. For comparison purposes, each also performed chest compressions with ventilations (30:2) CPR. It also evaluated fatigue and changes in body biomechanics associated with each type of CPR.
Methods
Twenty healthy female volunteers certified in basic life support performed Hands-Only CPR and 30:2 CPR on a manikin. A mixed model repeated measures cross-over design evaluated chest compression rate and depth, changes in fatigue (chest compression force, perceived exertion, and blood lactate level), and changes in electromyography and joint kinetics and kinematics.
Results
All subjects completed 10 minutes of 30:2 CPR; but, only 17 completed 10 minutes of Hands-Only CPR. Rate, average depth, percentage at least 38 millimeters deep, and force of compressions were significantly lower in Hands-Only CPR than in 30:2 CPR. Rates were maintained; but, compression depth and force declined significantly from beginning to end CPR with most decrement occurring in the first two minutes. Perceived effort and joint torque changes were significantly greater in Hands-Only CPR. Performance was not influenced by age.
Conclusion
Hands-Only CPR required greater effort and was harder to sustain than 30:2 CPR. It is not known whether the observed greater decrement in chest compression depth associated with Hands-Only CPR would offset the potential physiological benefit of having fewer interruptions in compressions during an actual resuscitation. The dramatic decrease in compression depth in the first two minutes reinforces current recommendations that rescuers take turns performing compressions, switching every two minutes or less. Further study is recommended to determine the impact of real-time feedback and dispatcher coaching on rescuer performance.
doi:10.1186/1472-6955-8-6
PMCID: PMC2715393  PMID: 19583851
5.  Surface Electromyographic Amplitude-to-Work Ratios During Isokinetic and Isotonic Muscle Actions 
Journal of Athletic Training  2006;41(3):314-320.
Context: Isokinetic and isotonic resistance training exercises are commonly used to increase strength during musculoskeletal rehabilitation programs. Our study was designed to examine the efficacy of isokinetic and isotonic muscle actions using surface electromyographic (EMG) amplitude-to-work ratios (EMG/WK) and to extend previous findings to include a range of isokinetic velocities and isotonic loads.
Objective: To examine work (WK), surface EMG amplitude, and EMG/WK during concentric-only maximal isokinetic muscle actions at 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300°/s and isotonic muscle actions at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% of the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque during leg extension exercises.
Design: A randomized, counterbalanced, cross-sectional, repeated-measures design.
Setting: A university-based human muscle physiology research laboratory.
Patients or Other Participants: Ten women (mean age = 22.0 ± 2.6 years) and 10 men (mean age = 20.8 ± 1.7 years) who were apparently healthy and recreationally active.
Intervention(s): Using the dominant leg, each participant performed 5 maximal voluntary concentric isokinetic leg extension exercises at randomly ordered angular velocities of 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300°/s and 5 concentric isotonic leg extension exercises at randomly ordered loads of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% of the isometric MVIC.
Main Outcome Measure(s): Work was recorded by a Biodex System 3 dynamometer, and surface EMG was recorded from the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles (vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and vastus medialis) during the testing and was normalized to the MVIC. The EMG/WK ratios were calculated as the quotient of EMG amplitude (μVrms) and WK (J) during the concentric phase of each exercise.
Results: Isotonic EMG/WK remained unchanged ( P > .05) from 10% to 50% MVIC, but isokinetic EMG/WK increased ( P < .05) from 60 to 300°/s. Isotonic EMG/WK was greater ( P < .05) than isokinetic EMG/WK for 50% MVIC versus 60°/s, 40% MVIC versus 120°/s, and 30% MVIC versus 180°/s; however, no differences were noted ( P > .05) between 20% MVIC versus 240°/s or 10% MVIC versus 300°/s. An 18% decrease in active range of motion was seen for the isotonic muscle actions, from 10% to 50% MVIC, and a 3% increase in range of motion for the isokinetic muscle actions from 60 to 300°/s was also observed. Furthermore, the peak angular velocities for the isotonic muscle actions ranged from 272.9 to 483.0°/s for 50% and 10% MVIC, respectively.
Conclusions: When considering EMG/WK, peak angular velocity, and range of motion together, our data indicate that maximal isokinetic muscle actions at 240°/s or controlled-velocity isotonic muscle actions at 10%, 20%, or 30% MVIC may maximize the amount of muscle activation per unit of WK done during the early stages of musculoskeletal rehabilitation. These results may be useful to allied health professionals who incorporate open-chain resistance training exercises during the early phases of rehabilitation and researchers who use isotonic or isokinetic modes of resistance exercise to examine muscle function.
PMCID: PMC1569550  PMID: 17043700
range of motion; angular velocity; muscle activation; leg extension; rehabilitation
6.  A Model for a Policy on HIV/AIDS and Athletics 
Journal of Athletic Training  1996;31(4):356-357.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected athletes exist at the collegiate level and are engaging in competitive sports, as was revealed by a 1993 NCAA survey. Unfortunately, there is a void when the issue of policy for the HIV- positive athlete and his or her participation rights at the collegiate level is addressed. Given the controversial nature of opinion on HIV and the resultant acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), it is recommended that a policy be in place for an HIV-infected athlete before it is needed. Ithaca College has recently developed such a policy, and it is offered here to other educational institutions as a model. It is emphasized throughout the policy that HIV-positive athletes should not be restricted from athletic participation for the reason of infection alone, that strict confidentiality guidelines should be followed, and that mandatory testing of athletes for HIV is not justified.
PMCID: PMC1318922  PMID: 16558424
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); policy for athletic participation

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