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1.  Anatomic Variations of the Right Hepatic Duct: Results and Surgical Implications from a Cadaveric Study 
Anatomy Research International  2012;2012:838179.
Purpose. Thorough understanding of biliary anatomy is required when performing surgical interventions in the hepatobiliary system. This study describes the anatomical variations of right bile ducts in terms of branching and drainage patterns, and determines their frequency. Methods. We studied 73 samples of cadaveric material, focusing on the relationship of the right anterior and posterior segmental branches, the way they form the right hepatic duct, and the main variations of their drainage pattern. Results. The anatomy of the right hepatic duct was typical in 65.75% of samples. Ectopic drainage of the right anterior duct into the common hepatic duct was found in 15.07% and triple confluence in 9.59%. Ectopic drainage of the right posterior duct into the common hepatic duct was discovered in 2.74% and ectopic drainage of the right posterior duct into the left hepatic duct in 4.11%. Ectopic drainage of the right anterior duct into the left hepatic ductal system and ectopic drainage of the right posterior duct into the cystic duct was found in 1.37%. Conclusion. The branching pattern of the right hepatic duct was atypical in 34.25% of cases. Thus, knowledge of the anatomical variations of the extrahepatic bile ducts is important in many surgical cases.
doi:10.1155/2012/838179
PMCID: PMC3465866  PMID: 23056946
2.  In-hospital informal caregivers' needs as perceived by themselves and by the nursing staff in Northern Greece: A descriptive study 
BMC Nursing  2011;10:19.
Background
Informal care is common in many countries, especially in Greece, where families provide care in hospitals. Health education and informational needs are important factors for family members which are often underestimated by nursing staff. The aim of this study was to compare the perceptions of the nurses and the in-hospital informal caregivers about the in-hospital informal caregivers' knowledge and informational needs, as well as the factors that influence these perceptions.
Methods
This was a non-experimental descriptive study conducted in three general hospitals in Greece. The sample consisted of 320 nurses and 370 in-hospital informal caregivers who completed questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were analyzed using t-tests; group comparisons were conducted using ANOVA.
Results
The score of the questionnaire for health education and informational needs was significantly greater for informal caregivers (57.1 ± 6.9 and 26.6 ± 2.8) than for nurses (53.4 ± 5.7 and 22.4 ± 3.1) (p < 0.001). For the nursing staff, the factors that influence the informational needs of patients' caregivers were level of education and working experience, while for the caregivers the level of education was independently associated with the score for the health education needs. Finally, age, marital status, and level of education of informal caregivers' were independently associated with informational needs.
Conclusions
The in-hospital informal caregivers perceived that they have more educational and informational needs than the nurses did. The findings of this study also show that the nursing staff has to identify the needs of in-hospital informal caregivers in order to be able to meet these needs.
doi:10.1186/1472-6955-10-19
PMCID: PMC3200151  PMID: 21982344
health education needs; in-hospital care; informal caregivers; informational needs; nursing staff
3.  Body Composition in Severe Refractory Asthma: Comparison with COPD Patients and Healthy Smokers 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(10):e13233.
Background
Body composition is an important parameter for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) whereas the association between asthma and obesity is not fully understood. The impact of severe refractory asthma (SRA) on fat free mass (FFM) has not been investigated.
Methodology and Principal Findings
213 subjects (70 healthy smokers, 71 COPD patients and 72 asthma patients) without significant comorbidities were included in the study. In all patients, body composition assessment (using bioelectrical impendance analysis, skinfold and anthropometric measurements) and spirometry were performed. Differences in fat free mass index (FFMI) between groups were assessed and determinants of FFMI in asthma were evaluated. Patients with SRA had lower values of FFMI compared to patients with mild-to-moderate asthma [18.0(17.3–18.3)–19.5(18.4–21.5), p<0.001], despite the fact that they were more obese. The levels of FFMI in SRA were lower than those of GOLD stage I–III COPD and comparable to those of stage IV COPD patients [18.0(17.3–18.3)–18.8(17.8–20.1), p = ns]. These differences were present even after proper adjustments for sex, age, smoking status, daily dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and daily use of oral corticosteroids (OCS). In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of FFMI in asthmatic patients were age, use of OCS and the presence of SRA, but not smoking, sex or cumulative dose of ICS used.
Conclusions and Significance
SRA is related to the presence of low FFMI that is comparable to that of GOLD stage IV COPD. The impact of this observation on asthma mechanisms and outcomes should be further investigated in large prospective studies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013233
PMCID: PMC2950851  PMID: 20949085
4.  Fathers’ Feelings and Experience Related to their Wife/Partner’s Delivery in Northern Greece 
The Open Nursing Journal  2010;4:48-54.
Objectives:
The study aims at exploring the feelings and the experience of fathers about their wife/partner’s delivery.
Background:
During the last decades birth attendance by fathers is a common phenomenon across many countries. Fathers’ birth attendance may evoke both positive and negative feelings.
Methodology:
The study was conducted in a city of Northern Greece. The sample consisted of 417 fathers whose wife/partner had given birth during the previous one week to one year. Data were collected using the Kuopio Instrument for Fathers (KIF).
Results:
Father’s feelings about their wife or partner were very positive as nearly all (82.1%) of the participants were proud to become fathers and agree that they felt love and were grateful to their wife/partner. However, half of the fathers felt anxious and nervous. 40.7% quite agree that the staff was very professional, that they trusted the staff (45%) and that they were grateful to the staff (38.8%). There is correlation between the “feelings related to the wife/partner” and education (r=0.156, p=0.0047), “being afraid during the preparatory visit at the obstetric hospital” (r=-0.238, p=0.009), and “anxiety during the preparatory visit” (r=0.295 p=0.005). The subscale “feelings related to the environment and staff” correlates with “usefulness of preparatory visit” (r=-0.223, p=0.004) and the subscale of “experiences related to delivery” correlates with “usefulness of preparatory visit” (r=-0.357, p=0.001).
Conclusions:
Our results support the findings of previous studies, which indicated that birth attendance by fathers has evoked positive feelings about their wife/partner, the delivery, the staff and the hospital environment.
doi:10.2174/1874434601004010048
PMCID: PMC3043266  PMID: 21347210
Fathers; delivery; feelings; experiences; Greece; birth attendance; survey.

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