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2.  Guideline adaptation and implementation planning: a prospective observational study 
Background
Adaptation of high-quality practice guidelines for local use has been advanced as an efficient means to improve acceptability and applicability of evidence-informed care. In a pan-Canadian study, we examined how cancer care groups adapted pre-existing guidelines to their unique context and began implementation planning.
Methods
Using a mixed-methods, case-study design, five cases were purposefully sampled from self-identified groups and followed as they used a structured method and resources for guideline adaptation. Cases received the ADAPTE Collaboration toolkit, facilitation, methodological and logistical support, resources and assistance as required. Documentary and primary data collection methods captured individual case experience, including monthly summaries of meeting and field notes, email/telephone correspondence, and project records. Site visits, process audits, interviews, and a final evaluation forum with all cases contributed to a comprehensive account of participant experience.
Results
Study cases took 12 to >24 months to complete guideline adaptation. Although participants appreciated the structure, most found the ADAPTE method complex and lacking practical aspects. They needed assistance establishing individual guideline mandate and infrastructure, articulating health questions, executing search strategies, appraising evidence, and achieving consensus. Facilitation was described as a multi-faceted process, a team effort, and an essential ingredient for guideline adaptation. While front-line care providers implicitly identified implementation issues during adaptation, they identified a need to add an explicit implementation planning component.
Conclusions
Guideline adaptation is a positive initial step toward evidence-informed care, but adaptation (vs. ‘de novo’ development) did not meet expectations for reducing time or resource commitments. Undertaking adaptation is as much about the process (engagement and capacity building) as it is about the product (adapted guideline). To adequately address local concerns, cases found it necessary to also search and appraise primary studies, resulting in hybrid (adaptation plus de novo) guideline development strategies that required advanced methodological skills.
Adaptation was found to be an action element in the knowledge translation continuum that required integration of an implementation perspective. Accordingly, the adaptation methodology and resources were reformulated and substantially augmented to provide practical assistance to groups not supported by a dedicated guideline panel and to provide more implementation planning support. The resulting framework is called CAN-IMPLEMENT.
doi:10.1186/1748-5908-8-49
PMCID: PMC3668213  PMID: 23656884
Knowledge to action; Practice guidelines; Evidence-informed practice; Knowledge activation; Guideline adaptation; Implementation planning
3.  Cost-effectiveness of compression technologies for evidence-informed leg ulcer care: results from the Canadian Bandaging Trial 
Background
Venous leg ulcers, affecting approximately 1% of the population, are costly to manage due to poor healing and high recurrence rates. We evaluated an evidence-informed leg ulcer care protocol with two frequently used high compression systems: ‘four-layer bandage’ (4LB) and ‘short-stretch bandage’ (SSB).
Methods
We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis using individual patient data from the Canadian Bandaging Trial, a publicly funded, pragmatic, randomized trial evaluating high compression therapy with 4LB (n = 215) and SSB (n = 209) for community care of venous leg ulcers. We estimated costs (in 2009–2010 Canadian dollars) from the societal perspective and used a time horizon corresponding to each trial participant’s first year.
Results
Relative to SSB, 4LB was associated with an average 15 ulcer-free days gained, although the 95% confidence interval [−32, 21 days] crossed zero, indicating no treatment difference; an average health benefit of 0.009 QALYs gained [−0.019, 0.037] and overall, an average cost increase of $420 [$235, $739] (due to twice as many 4LB bandages used); or equivalently, a cost of $46,667 per QALY gained. If decision makers are willing to pay from $50,000 to $100,000 per QALY, the probability of 4LB being more cost effective increased from 51% to 63%.
Conclusions
Our findings differ from the emerging clinical and economic evidence that supports high compression therapy with 4LB, and therefore suggest another perspective on high compression practice, namely when delivered by trained registered nurses using an evidence-informed protocol, both 4LB and SSB systems offer comparable effectiveness and value for money.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00202267
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-12-346
PMCID: PMC3532083  PMID: 23031428
Randomized controlled trial; Cost-effectiveness; Leg ulcers; Compression therapy; Community care
4.  Following a natural experiment of guideline adaptation and early implementation: a mixed-methods study of facilitation 
Background
Facilitation is emerging as an important strategy in the uptake of evidence. However, it is not entirely clear from a practical perspective how facilitation occurs to help move research evidence into nursing practice. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer, also known as the 'Partnership,' is a Pan-Canadian initiative supporting knowledge translation activity for improved care through guideline use. In this case-series study, five self-identified groups volunteered to use a systematic methodology to adapt existing clinical practice guidelines for Canadian use. With 'Partnership' support, local and external facilitators provided assistance for groups to begin the process by adapting the guidelines and planning for implementation.
Methods
To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the nature of facilitation, we conducted a mixed-methods study. Specifically, we examined the role and skills of individuals actively engaged in facilitation as well as the actual facilitation activities occurring within the 'Partnership.' The study was driven by and builds upon a focused literature review published in 2010 that examined facilitation as a role and process in achieving evidence-based practice in nursing. An audit tool outlining 46 discrete facilitation activities based on results of this review was used to examine the facilitation noted in the documents (emails, meeting minutes, field notes) of three nursing-related cases participating in the 'Partnership' case-series study. To further examine the concept, six facilitators were interviewed about their practical experiences. The case-audit data were analyzed through a simple content analysis and triangulated with participant responses from the focus group interview to understand what occurred as these cases undertook guideline adaptation.
Results
The analysis of the three cases revealed that almost all of the 46 discrete, practical facilitation activities from the literature were evidenced. Additionally, case documents exposed five other facilitation-related activities, and a combination of external and local facilitation was apparent. Individuals who were involved in the case or group adapting the guideline(s) also performed facilitation activities, both formally and informally, in conjunction with or in addition to appointed external and local facilitators.
Conclusions
Facilitation of evidence-based practice is a multifaceted process and a team effort. Communication and relationship-building are key components. The practical aspects of facilitation explicated in this study validate what has been previously noted in the literature and expand what is known about facilitation process and activity.
doi:10.1186/1748-5908-7-9
PMCID: PMC3296591  PMID: 22309743
facilitation; facilitator; evidence-based practice; nursing; guideline
5.  The Canadian Bandaging Trial: Evidence-informed leg ulcer care and the effectiveness of two compression technologies 
BMC Nursing  2011;10:20.
Background
Objective: To determine the relative effectiveness of evidence-informed practice using two high compression systems: four-layer (4LB) and short-stretch bandaging (SSB) in community care of venous leg ulcers. Design and Setting: Pragmatic, multi-centre, parallel-group, open-label, randomized controlled trial conducted in 10 centres. Cognitively intact adults (≥18 years) referred for community care (home or clinic) with a venous ulceration measuring ≥0.7cm and present for ≥1 week, with an ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) ≥0.8, without medication-controlled Diabetes Mellitus or a previous failure to improve with either system, were eligible to participate.
Methods
Consenting individuals were randomly allocated (computer-generated blocked randomization schedule) to receive either 4LB or SSB following an evidence-informed protocol. Primary endpoint: time-to- healing of the reference ulcer. Secondary outcomes: recurrence rates, health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain, and expenditures.
Results
424 individuals were randomized (4LB n = 215; SSB n = 209) and followed until their reference ulcer was healed (or maximum 30 months). An intent-to-treat analysis was conducted on all participants. Median time to ulcer healing in the 4LB group was 62 days [95% confidence interval (CI) 51 to 73], compared with 77 days (95% CI 63 to 91) in the SSB group. The unadjusted Kaplan-Meier curves revealed the difference in the distribution of cumulative healing times was not significantly different between group (log rank χ2 = 0.001, P = 0.98) nor ulcers recurrence (4LB, 10.1%; SSB, 13.3%; p = 0.345). Multivariable Cox Proportional Hazard Modeling also showed no significant between-bandage differences in healing time after controlling for significant covariates (p = 0.77). At 3-months post-baseline there were no differences in pain (no pain: 4LB, 22.7%; SSB, 26.7%; p = 0.335), or HRQL (SF-12 Mental Component Score: 4LB, 55.1; SSB, 55.8; p = 0.615; SF-12 Physical Component Score: 4LB, 39.0; SSB, 39.6; p = 0.675). The most common adverse events experienced by both groups included infection, skin breakdown and ulcer deterioration.
Conclusions
The Canadian Bandaging Trial revealed that in the practice context of trained RNs using an evidence-informed protocol, the choice of bandage system (4LB and SSB) does not materially affect healing times, recurrence rates, HRQL, or pain. From a community practice perspective, this is positive news for patient-centred care allowing individual/family and practitioner choice in selecting compression technologies based on circumstances and context.
Trial registration
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00202267
doi:10.1186/1472-6955-10-20
PMCID: PMC3214126  PMID: 21995267
6.  Nurse clinic versus home delivery of evidence-based community leg ulcer care: A randomized health services trial 
Background
International studies report that nurse clinics improve healing rates for the leg ulcer population. However, these studies did not necessarily deliver similar standards of care based on evidence in the treatment venues (home and clinic). A rigorous evaluation of home versus clinic care is required to determine healing rates with equivalent care and establish the acceptability of clinic-delivered care.
Methods
Health Services RCT was conducted where mobile individuals were allocated to either home or nurse clinic for leg ulcer management. In both arms, care was delivered by specially trained nurses, following an evidence protocol. Primary outcome: 3-month healing rates. Secondary outcomes: durability of healing (recurrence), time free of ulcers, HRQL, satisfaction, resource use. Data were collected at base-line, every 3 months until healing occurred, with 1 year follow-up. Analysis was by intention to treat.
Results
126 participants, 65 randomized to receive care in their homes, 61 to nurse-run clinics. No differences found between groups at baseline on socio-demographic, HRQL or clinical characteristics. mean age 69 years, 68% females, 84% English-speaking, half with previous episode of ulceration, 60% ulcers at inclusion < 5 cm2 for < 6 months. No differences in 3-month healing rates: clinic 58.3% compared to home care at 56.7% (p = 0.5) or in secondary outcomes.
Conclusion
Our findings indicate that organization of care not the setting where care is delivered influences healing rates. Key factors are a system that supports delivery of evidence-based recommendations with care being provided by a trained nursing team resulting in equivalent healing rates, HRQL whether care is delivered in the home or in a community nurse-led clinic.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol Registration System: NCT00656383
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-8-243
PMCID: PMC2630316  PMID: 19036149
7.  Development and Evaluation of Evidence-Informed Clinical Nursing Protocols for Remote Assessment, Triage and Support of Cancer Treatment-Induced Symptoms 
Nursing Research and Practice  2013;2013:171872.
The study objective was to develop and evaluate a template for evidence-informed symptom protocols for use by nurses over the telephone for the assessment, triage, and management of patients experiencing cancer treatment-related symptoms. Guided by the CAN-IMPLEMENT© methodology, symptom protocols were developed by, conducting a systematic review of the literature to identify clinical practice guidelines and systematic reviews, appraising their quality, reaching consensus on the protocol template, and evaluating the two symptom protocols for acceptability and usability. After excluding one guideline due to poor overall quality, the symptom protocols were developed using 12 clinical practice guidelines (8 for diarrhea and 4 for fever). AGREE Instrument (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation) rigour domain subscale ratings ranged from 8% to 86% (median 60.1 diarrhea; 40.5 fever). Included guidelines were used to inform the protocols along with the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System questionnaire to assess symptom severity. Acceptability and usability testing of the symptom populated template with 12 practicing oncology nurses revealed high readability (n = 12), just the right amount of information (n = 10), appropriate terms (n = 10), fit with clinical work flow (n = 8), and being self-evident for how to complete (n = 5). Five nurses made suggestions and 11 rated patient self-management strategies the highest for usefulness. This new template for symptom protocols can be populated with symptom-specific evidence that nurses can use when assessing, triaging, documenting, and guiding patients to manage their-cancer treatment-related symptoms.
doi:10.1155/2013/171872
PMCID: PMC3588176  PMID: 23476759
8.  Leg ulcer nursing care in the community: a prospective cohort study of the symptom of pain 
BMC Nursing  2013;12:3.
Background
Chronic wounds are managed almost entirely by community nurses. Almost all individuals with leg ulcers report acute pain usually related to dressing change. Little is known about pain after healing. The purpose of this study was to explore the course of pain from baseline to time of healing of leg ulcers (venous or mixed etiology). In order to understand this phenomenon and develop implications for nursing practice, objectives included: 1) Measure incidence and prevalence of pain at baseline and healing; 2) Describe characteristics associated with leg ulcer pain at baseline; 3) Identify predictors of leg ulcer pain at healing.
Methods
Data were from one randomized controlled trial (2004-2008) of 424 individuals with leg ulcers in the community receiving evidence-informed nursing management. The primary outcome was pain at the time of healing. Predictive factors included demographic, circumstance of living, clinical and ulcer characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression identified the subset of predictors of pain at healing. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported.
Results
Eighty-two percent of participants reported pain at baseline and 32% at healing. Five percent with no pain at baseline reported pain at healing. Thirty-seven percent reported moderate to severe pain at baseline and 11% at healing. Twenty percent of all those who healed reported pain interfered with work moderately to extremely at time of healing. Being female (OR=1.64, 95% CI 1.00, 2.68, p=0.05), use of short-stretch vs. four-layer bandages (OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.06, 2.82, p=0.03), lower SF-12 PCS (OR=0.97, 95% CI 0.94, 0.99, p=0.02) and MCS (OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.00, p=0.04) scores, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (OR=2.28, 95% CI 1.06, 4.88, p=0.03), and tender pain (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.29, 3.66, p=<0.01) were associated with pain at time of healing.
Conclusions
Pain is an issue on admission for chronic wounds and at healing, yet 58% with moderate to severe pain on admission were not taking pain medication(s). Future studies should examine the role of pain at healing and at subsequent ulcer recurrence. Mobility and other factors that may contribute to pain at time of healing should also be assessed. Community nurses are encouraged to consider pain when planning care on admission and also after wound healing, when most patients are discharged from care.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00202267
doi:10.1186/1472-6955-12-3
PMCID: PMC3598712  PMID: 23388350
Pain; Health-related quality of life; Chronic conditions; Leg ulcers; Community care nursing; Longitudinal study, Canada
9.  Roadmap for a Participatory Research–Practice Partnership to Implement Evidence 
Background: Our research team has undertaken implementation of evidence in the form of practice guideline recommendations for populations in hospital, community, and long-term care settings with diverse provider and patient populations (people with chronic wounds, e.g., pressure and leg ulcers, heart failure, stroke, diabetes, palliative care, cancer, and maternity care). Translating evidence into clinical practice at the point of care is a complex and often overwhelming challenge for the health system as well as for individual practitioners.
Purpose: To ensure that best available evidence is integrated into practice, “local evidence” needs to be generated and this process accomplishes a number of things: it focuses all involved on the “same page,” identifies important facilitating factors as well as barriers, provides empirical support for planning, and in itself is a key aspect of implementation. In doing this work, we developed a roadmap, the Queen’s University Research Roadmap for Knowledge Implementation (QuRKI) that outlines three major phases of linked research and implementation activity: (1) issue identification/clarification; (2) solution building; and (3) implementation, evaluation, and nurturing the change.
In this paper, we describe our practical experience as researchers working at point-of-care and how research can be used to facilitate the implementation of evidence. An exemplar is used to illustrate the fluid interplay of research and implementation activities and present the range of supporting research.
Implications: QuRKI serves as a guide for researchers in the formation of a strategic alliance with the practice community for undertaking evidence-informed reorganization of care. Using this collaborative approach, researchers play an integral role in focusing on, and using evidence during all discussions. We welcome further evaluation of its usefulness in the field.
doi:10.1111/j.1741-6787.2012.00256.x
PMCID: PMC3791554  PMID: 22672620
evidence-based practice; activating knowledge; planned-action framework; engaged scholarship; action-research
10.  Additional Support for Simple Imputation of Missing Quality of Life Data in Nursing Research 
ISRN Nursing  2011;2011:752320.
Background. Missing data are a significant problem in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) research. We evaluated two imputation approaches: missing data estimation (MDE) and assignment of mean score (AMS). Methods. HRQOL data were collected using the Medical Outcomes Trust SF-12. Missing data were estimated using both approaches, summary statistics were produced for both, and results were compared using intraclass correlations (ICC). Results. Missing data were imputed for 21 participants. Mean values were similar, with ICC >.99 within both the Physical Component Summary and the Mental Component Summary when comparing the two methodologies. When imputed data were added into the full study sample, mean scores were identical regardless of methodology. Conclusion. Results support the use of a practical and simple imputation strategy of replacing missing values with the mean of the sample in cross-sectional studies when less than half of the required items of the SF-12 components are missing.
doi:10.5402/2011/752320
PMCID: PMC3236396  PMID: 22191054
11.  Canadian Thoracic Society: Presenting a new process for clinical practice guideline production 
A key mandate of the Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) is to promote evidence-based respiratory care through clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). To improve the quality and validity of the production, dissemination and implementation of its CPGs, the CTS has revised its guideline process and has created the Canadian Respiratory Guidelines Committee to oversee this process. The present document outlines the basic methodological tools and principles of the new CTS guideline production process. Important features include standard methods for choosing and formulating optimal questions and for finding, appraising, and summarizing the evidence; use of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system for rating the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations; use of the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation instrument for quality control during and after guideline development and for appraisal of other guidelines; use of the ADAPTE process for adaptation of existing guidelines to the local context; and use of the GuideLine Implementability Appraisal tool to augment implementability of guidelines. The CTS has also committed to develop guidelines in new areas, an annual guideline review cycle, and a new formal process for dissemination and implementation. Ultimately, it is anticipated that these changes will have a significant impact on the quality of care and clinical outcomes of individuals suffering from respiratory diseases across Canada.
PMCID: PMC2807796  PMID: 20011719
Clinical practice guideline; Evidence-based medicine; Guideline adherence; Practice guidelines
12.  A Community-Researcher Alliance to Improve Chronic Wound Care 
Healthcare Policy  2007;2(4):72-78.
A partnership between health services researchers from Queen’s University and the University of Ottawa, a community nursing agency and a home care authority in Ottawa led to major improvements in the quality of care for people with leg ulcers. The synthesis of both external and local evidence played a key role in the adoption of an evidence-based protocol and provided the critical context to support a significant reorganization of the existing service delivery model. This case demonstrates that, with a collaborative partnership approach, systematic and transparent research processes can be rapidly developed to support policy change.
PMCID: PMC2585464  PMID: 19305734
13.  Advancing theories, models and measurement for an interprofessional approach to shared decision making in primary care: a study protocol 
Background
Shared decision-making (SDM) is defined as a process by which a healthcare choice is made by practitioners together with the patient. Although many diagnostic and therapeutic processes in primary care integrate more than one type of health professional, most SDM conceptual models and theories appear to be limited to the patient-physician dyad. The objectives of this study are to develop a conceptual model and propose a set of measurement tools for enhancing an interprofessional approach to SDM in primary healthcare.
Methods/Design
An inventory of SDM conceptual models, theories and measurement tools will be created. Models will be critically assessed and compared according to their strengths, limitations, acknowledgement of interprofessional roles in the process of SDM and relevance to primary care. Based on the theory analysis, a conceptual model and a set of measurements tools that could be used to enhance an interprofessional approach to SDM in primary healthcare will be proposed and pilot-tested with key stakeholders and primary healthcare teams.
Discussion
This study protocol is informative for researchers and clinicians interested in designing and/or conducting future studies and educating health professionals to improve how primary healthcare teams foster active participation of patients in making health decisions using a more coordinated approach.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-8-2
PMCID: PMC2265696  PMID: 18173848
14.  Leg-ulcer care in the community, before and after implementation of an evidence-based service 
Background
Leg ulcers usually occur in older patients, a growing population for which increasing health care resources are required. Treatment is mainly provided in patients' homes; however, patients often receive poorly integrated services in multiple settings. We report the results of a prospective study of a community-based care strategy for leg ulcers.
Methods
International practice recommendations and guidelines were adapted to make a new clinical protocol. The new model, for a dedicated service staffed by specially trained registered nurses, established initial and ongoing assessment time frames and provided enhanced linkages to medical specialists. Data were collected for 1 year before and after implementation; outcome measures included 3-month healing rates, quality of life and resource usage.
Results
Three-month healing rates more than doubled between the year before implementation (23% [18/78]) and the year afterward (56% [100/180]). The number of nursing visits per case declined, from a median of 37 to 25 (p = 0.041); the median supply cost per case was reduced from $1923 to $406 (p = 0.005).
Interpretation
Reorganization of care for people with leg ulcers was associated with improved healing and a more efficient use of nursing visits.
doi:10.1503/cmaj.1041441
PMCID: PMC557980  PMID: 15911859
15.  Knowledge and attitudes regarding care of leg ulcers. Survey of family physicians. 
Canadian Family Physician  2003;49:896-902.
OBJECTIVE: To determine family physicians' perceptions of and attitudes toward leg ulcer care and awareness of effective treatments for venous leg ulcers. DESIGN: Self-administered, cross-sectional faxed and mailed survey. SETTING: Ottawa-Carleton, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: All physicians in the region who were members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada. RESULTS: Response rate was 62%. During 1 month, 107 physicians reported having 226 patients with leg ulcers; only a few patients had had ultrasound assessment. Few physicians (16%) were confident about managing leg ulcers; 61% reported not knowing enough about wound-care products. More than 50% were unaware that compression is effective treatment for venous ulcers. Problems reported were lack of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for leg ulcer care (82%); absence of evidence-based protocols in home-care agencies (72%); lack of access to wound-care products (69%) and wound-care centres (66%); and poor communication among health care workers (60%). CONCLUSION: Better access to diagnostic assessments and use of compression therapy for venous leg ulcers would improve care.
PMCID: PMC2214258  PMID: 12901487
16.  Interprofessionalism and shared decision-making in primary care: a stepwise approach towards a new model 
Most shared decision-making (SDM) models within healthcare have been limited to the patientphysician dyad. As a first step towards promoting an interprofessional approach to SDM in primary care, this article reports how an interprofessional and interdisciplinary group developed and achieved consensus on a new interprofessional SDM model. The key concepts within published reviews of SDM models and interprofessionalism were identified, analysed, and discussed by the group in order to reach consensus on the new interprofessional SDM (IP-SDM) model. The IP-SDM model comprises three levels: the individual (micro) level and two healthcare system (meso and macro) levels. At the individual level, the patient presents with a health condition that requires decision-making and follows a structured process to make an informed, value-based decision in concert with a team of healthcare professionals. The model acknowledges (at the meso level) the influence of individual team members' professional roles including the decision coach and organizational routines. At the macro level it acknowledges the influence of system level factors (i.e. health policies, professional organisations, and social context) on the meso and individual levels. Subsequently, the IP-SDM model will be validated with other stakeholders.
doi:10.3109/13561820.2010.490502
PMCID: PMC3018136  PMID: 20795835
Interprofessionalism; shared decision-making; conceptual models; theories; primary care
17.  Turning Knowledge Into Action at the Point-of-Care: The Collective Experience of Nurses Facilitating the Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice 
Background: Facilitation is considered a way of enabling clinicians to implement evidence into practice by problem solving and providing support. Practice development is a well-established movement in the United Kingdom that incorporates the use of facilitators, but in Canada, the role is more obtuse. Few investigations have observed the process of facilitation as described by individuals experienced in guideline implementation in North America.
AimTo describe the tacit knowledge regarding facilitation embedded in the experiences of nurses implementing evidence into practice.
Methods: Twenty nurses from across Canada were purposively selected to attend an interactive knowledge translation symposium to examine what has worked and what has not in implementing evidence in practice. This study is an additional in-depth analysis of data collected at the symposium that focuses on facilitation as an intervention to enhance evidence uptake. Critical incident technique was used to elicit examples to examine the nurses’ facilitation experiences. Participants shared their experiences with one another and completed initial data analysis and coding collaboratively. The data were further thematically analyzed using the qualitative inductive approach of constant comparison.
Results: A number of factors emerged at various levels associated with the successes and failures of participants’ efforts to facilitate evidence-based practice. Successful implementation related to: (a) focus on a priority issue, (b) relevant evidence, (c) development of strategic partnerships, (d) the use of multiple strategies to effect change, and (e) facilitator characteristics and approach. Negative factors influencing the process were: (a) poor engagement or ownership, (b) resource deficits, (c) conflict, (d) contextual issues, and (e) lack of evaluation and sustainability.
Conclusions: Factors at the individual, environmental, organizational, and cultural level influence facilitation of evidence-based practice in real situations at the point-of-care. With a greater understanding of factors contributing to successful or unsuccessful facilitation, future research should focus on analyzing facilitation interventions tailored to address barriers and enhance facilitators of evidence uptake.
doi:10.1111/wvn.12009
PMCID: PMC3883090  PMID: 23796066
facilitation; evidence-based practice; evidence-informed practice; evidence uptake; knowledge translation; best practice; nursing; critical incident technique; implementation

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