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1.  Using qualitative mixed methods to study small health care organizations while maximising trustworthiness and authenticity 
Background
The primary health care sector delivers the majority of health care in western countries through small, community-based organizations. However, research into these healthcare organizations is limited by the time constraints and pressure facing them, and the concern by staff that research is peripheral to their work. We developed Q-RARA—Qualitative Rapid Appraisal, Rigorous Analysis—to study small, primary health care organizations in a way that is efficient, acceptable to participants and methodologically rigorous.
Methods
Q-RARA comprises a site visit, semi-structured interviews, structured and unstructured observations, photographs, floor plans, and social scanning data. Data were collected over the course of one day per site and the qualitative analysis was integrated and iterative.
Results
We found Q-RARA to be acceptable to participants and effective in collecting data on organizational function in multiple sites without disrupting the practice, while maintaining a balance between speed and trustworthiness.
Conclusions
The Q-RARA approach is capable of providing a richly textured, rigorous understanding of the processes of the primary care practice while also allowing researchers to develop an organizational perspective. For these reasons the approach is recommended for use in small-scale organizations both within and outside the primary health care sector.
doi:10.1186/s12913-014-0559-4
PMCID: PMC4245737  PMID: 25407663
Primary health care; Organizations; Qualitative research; Qualitative analysis; Mixed method research
2.  Modulation of body temperature and LH secretion by hypothalamic KNDy (kisspeptin, neurokinin B and dynorphin) neurons: A novel hypothesis on the mechanism of hot flushes 
Frontiers in neuroendocrinology  2013;34(3):10.1016/j.yfrne.2013.07.003.
Despite affecting millions of individuals, the etiology of hot flushes remains unknown. Here we review the physiology of hot flushes, CNS pathways regulating heat-dissipation effectors, and effects of estrogen on thermoregulation in animal models. Based on the marked changes in hypothalamic kisspeptin, neurokinin B and dynorphin (KNDy) neurons in postmenopausal women, we hypothesize that KNDy neurons play a role in the mechanism of flushes. In the rat, KNDy neurons project to preoptic thermoregulatory areas that express the neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R), the primary receptor for NKB. Furthermore, activation of NK3R in the median preoptic nucleus, part of the heat-defense pathway, reduces body temperature. Finally, ablation of KNDy neurons reduces cutaneous vasodilatation and partially blocks the effects of estrogen on thermoregulation. These data suggest that arcuate KNDy neurons relay estrogen signals to preoptic structures regulating heat-dissipation effectors, supporting the hypothesis that KNDy neurons participate in the generation of flushes.
doi:10.1016/j.yfrne.2013.07.003
PMCID: PMC3833827  PMID: 23872331
Menopause; Reproduction; Thermoregulation; Estrogen; LH; GnRH; Estrogen
3.  The Computerized Medical Record as a Tool for Clinical Governance in Australian Primary Care 
Background
Computerized medical records (CMR) are used in most Australian general practices. Although CMRs have the capacity to amalgamate and provide data to the clinician about their standard of care, there is little research on the way in which they may be used to support clinical governance: the process of ensuring quality and accountability that incorporates the obligation that patients are treated according to best evidence.
Objective
The objective of this study was to explore the capability, capacity, and acceptability of CMRs to support clinical governance.
Methods
We conducted a realist review of the role of seven CMR systems in implementing clinical governance, developing a four-level maturity model for the CMR. We took Australian primary care as the context, CMR to be the mechanism, and looked at outcomes for individual patients, localities, and for the population in terms of known evidence-based surrogates or true outcome measures.
Results
The lack of standardization of CMRs makes national and international benchmarking challenging. The use of the CMR was largely at level two of our maturity model, indicating a relatively simple system in which most of the process takes place outside of the CMR, and which has little capacity to support benchmarking, practice comparisons, and population-level activities. Although national standards for coding and projects for record access are proposed, they are not operationalized.
Conclusions
The current CMR systems can support clinical governance activities; however, unless the standardization and data quality issues are addressed, it will not be possible for current systems to work at higher levels.
doi:10.2196/ijmr.2700
PMCID: PMC3744386  PMID: 23939340
clinical governance; electronic health records; general practice; realist evaluation; quality assurance; health care
4.  Mortality and quality of life in the five years after severe sepsis 
Critical Care  2013;17(2):R70.
Introduction
Severe sepsis is associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality, placing a high burden on healthcare resources. We aimed to study outcomes in the five years after severe sepsis.
Methods
This was a cohort study using data from a prospective audit in 26 adult ICUs in Scotland. Mortality was measured using clinical databases and quality of life using Short Form 36 (SF-36) at 3.5 and 5 years after severe sepsis.
Results
A total of 439 patients were recruited with a 58% mortality at 3.5 years and 61% mortality at 5 years. A total of 85 and 67 patients responded at 3.5 and 5 years follow-up, respectively. SF-36 physical component score (PCS) was low compared to population controls at 3.5 years (mean 41.8 (SD 11.8)) and at 5 years (mean 44.8 (SD 12.7)). SF-36 mental component score (MCS) was slightly lower than population controls at 3.5 years (mean 47.7 (SD 14.6)) and at 5 years after severe sepsis (mean 48.8 (SD 12.6)). The majority of patients were satisfied with their current quality of life (QOL) (80%) and all patients would be willing to be treated in an ICU again if they become critically ill despite many having unpleasant memories (19%) and recall (29%) of ICU events.
Conclusions
Patients with severe sepsis have a high ongoing mortality after severe sepsis. They also have a significantly lower physical QOL compared to population norms but mental QOL scores were only slightly below population norms up to five years after severe sepsis. All survivors would be willing to be treated in an ICU again if critically ill. Mortality and QOL outcomes were broadly similar to other critically ill cohorts throughout the five years of follow-up.
doi:10.1186/cc12616
PMCID: PMC4057306  PMID: 23587132
5.  A spatial analysis of the expanding roles of nurses in general practice 
BMC Nursing  2012;11:13.
Background
Changes to the workforce and organisation of general practice are occurring rapidly in response to the Australian health care reform agenda, and the changing nature of the medical profession. In particular, the last five years has seen the rapid introduction and expansion of a nursing workforce in Australian general practices. This potentially creates pressures on current infrastructure in general practice.
Method
This study used a mixed methods, ‘rapid appraisal’ approach involving observation, photographs, and interviews.
Results
Nurses utilise space differently to GPs, and this is part of the diversity they bring to the general practice environment. At the same time their roles are partly shaped by the ways space is constructed in general practices.
Conclusion
The fluidity of nursing roles in general practice suggests that nurses require a versatile space in which to maximize their role and contribution to the general practice team.
doi:10.1186/1472-6955-11-13
PMCID: PMC3488547  PMID: 22870933
General practice; Private practice nursing; Physicians office; Spatial analysis; Skill mix
6.  Following the funding trail: Financing, nurses and teamwork in Australian general practice 
Background
Across the globe the emphasis on roles and responsibilities of primary care teams is under scrutiny. This paper begins with a review of general practice financing in Australia, and how nurses are currently funded. We then examine the influence on funding structures on the role of the nurse. We set out three dilemmas for policy-makers in this area: lack of an evidence base for incentives, possible untoward impacts on interdisciplinary functioning, and the substitution/enhancement debate.
Methods
This three year, multimethod study undertook rapid appraisal of 25 general practices and year-long studies in seven practices where a change was introduced to the role of the nurse. Data collected included interviews with nurses (n = 36), doctors (n = 24), and managers (n = 22), structured observation of the practice nurse (51 hours of observation), and detailed case studies of the change process in the seven year-long studies.
Results
Despite specific fee-for-service funding being available, only 6% of nurse activities generated such a fee. Yet the influence of the funding was to focus nurse activity on areas that they perceived were peripheral to their roles within the practice.
Conclusions
Interprofessional relationships and organisational climate in general practices are highly influential in terms of nursing role and the ability of practices to respond to and utilise funding mechanisms. These factors need to be considered, and the development of optimal teamwork supported in the design and implementation of further initiatives that financially support nursing in general practice.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-11-38
PMCID: PMC3050696  PMID: 21329506

Results 1-6 (6)