Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-5 (5)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Using qualitative mixed methods to study small health care organizations while maximising trustworthiness and authenticity 
The primary health care sector delivers the majority of health care in western countries through small, community-based organizations. However, research into these healthcare organizations is limited by the time constraints and pressure facing them, and the concern by staff that research is peripheral to their work. We developed Q-RARA—Qualitative Rapid Appraisal, Rigorous Analysis—to study small, primary health care organizations in a way that is efficient, acceptable to participants and methodologically rigorous.
Q-RARA comprises a site visit, semi-structured interviews, structured and unstructured observations, photographs, floor plans, and social scanning data. Data were collected over the course of one day per site and the qualitative analysis was integrated and iterative.
We found Q-RARA to be acceptable to participants and effective in collecting data on organizational function in multiple sites without disrupting the practice, while maintaining a balance between speed and trustworthiness.
The Q-RARA approach is capable of providing a richly textured, rigorous understanding of the processes of the primary care practice while also allowing researchers to develop an organizational perspective. For these reasons the approach is recommended for use in small-scale organizations both within and outside the primary health care sector.
PMCID: PMC4245737  PMID: 25407663
Primary health care; Organizations; Qualitative research; Qualitative analysis; Mixed method research
2.  Are “part-time” general practitioners workforce idlers or committed professionals? 
BMC Family Practice  2014;15(1):154.
The traditional view of general practice holds that only general practitioners (GPs) in full-time clinical practice can provide quality patient care. Nevertheless, increasing numbers of GPs are choosing to work sessionally, that is, ostensibly “part-time”. There are concerns about the health workforce’s ability to meet demand and also fears that patient care may be compromised. We sought answers to a) what activities do GPs undertake when not consulting patients, b) why do they choose to work sessionally, and c) does sessional general practice reflect a lack of commitment to patients and the profession?
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs who worked sessionally, (i.e. six or fewer sessions a week in clinical general practice, where a session comprises four consecutive hours of patient care). These data were analysed qualitatively and saturation was reached.
The majority of participants were in full-time paid employment, while part-time in clinical general practice. They reported that consultations increasingly required the management of patients with complex, chronic conditions who also required psychological management. Coupled with unrealistic patient expectations, these factors led GPs to be concerned about maintaining the quality patient care they considered professionally desirable. Many diversified their work activities to ensure that they retained their professional standards.
“Part-time” general practice is a misnomer that masks the contribution these GPs make as part of the health workforce. Sessional practice more accurately describes the nature of our participants’ clinical work. Their choice of sessional work is a professional response to the increasing demands within the consultation. It enables GPs to maintain their commitment to quality patient care and their profession, while attenuating the challenges of demanding consultations. Sessional general practitioners demonstrate strong commitment to their patients and the profession.
PMCID: PMC4262981  PMID: 25233955
General practitioners; General practice; Health workforce; Quality patient care; Part-time
3.  A spatial analysis of the expanding roles of nurses in general practice 
BMC Nursing  2012;11:13.
Changes to the workforce and organisation of general practice are occurring rapidly in response to the Australian health care reform agenda, and the changing nature of the medical profession. In particular, the last five years has seen the rapid introduction and expansion of a nursing workforce in Australian general practices. This potentially creates pressures on current infrastructure in general practice.
This study used a mixed methods, ‘rapid appraisal’ approach involving observation, photographs, and interviews.
Nurses utilise space differently to GPs, and this is part of the diversity they bring to the general practice environment. At the same time their roles are partly shaped by the ways space is constructed in general practices.
The fluidity of nursing roles in general practice suggests that nurses require a versatile space in which to maximize their role and contribution to the general practice team.
PMCID: PMC3488547  PMID: 22870933
General practice; Private practice nursing; Physicians office; Spatial analysis; Skill mix
4.  The patient and the computer in the primary care consultation 
Studies of the doctor–patient relationship have focused on the elaboration of power and/or authority using a range of techniques to study the encounter between doctor and patient. The widespread adoption of computers by doctors brings a third party into the consultation. While there has been some research into the way doctors view and manage this new relationship, the behavior of patients in response to the computer is rarely studied. In this paper, the authors use Goffman's dramaturgy to explore patients' approaches to the doctor's computer in the consultation, and its influence on the patient–doctor relationship.
Observational study of Australian general practice. 141 consultations from 20 general practitioners were videotaped and analyzed using a hermeneutic framework.
Patients negotiated the relationship between themselves, the doctor, and the computer demonstrating two themes: dyadic (dealing primarily with the doctor) or triadic (dealing with both computer and doctor). Patients used three signaling behaviors in relation to the computer on the doctor's desk (screen watching, screen ignoring, and screen excluding) to influence the behavior of the doctor. Patients were able to draw the doctor to the computer, and used the computer to challenge doctor's statements.
This study demonstrates that in consultations where doctors use computers, the computer can legitimately be regarded as part of a triadic relationship. Routine use of computers in the consultation changes the doctor–patient relationship, and is altering the distribution of power and authority between doctor and patient.
PMCID: PMC3116262  PMID: 21262923
Physician patient relationship; medical informatics; qualitative research; office visits; computers; patient-centered medicine
5.  Following the funding trail: Financing, nurses and teamwork in Australian general practice 
Across the globe the emphasis on roles and responsibilities of primary care teams is under scrutiny. This paper begins with a review of general practice financing in Australia, and how nurses are currently funded. We then examine the influence on funding structures on the role of the nurse. We set out three dilemmas for policy-makers in this area: lack of an evidence base for incentives, possible untoward impacts on interdisciplinary functioning, and the substitution/enhancement debate.
This three year, multimethod study undertook rapid appraisal of 25 general practices and year-long studies in seven practices where a change was introduced to the role of the nurse. Data collected included interviews with nurses (n = 36), doctors (n = 24), and managers (n = 22), structured observation of the practice nurse (51 hours of observation), and detailed case studies of the change process in the seven year-long studies.
Despite specific fee-for-service funding being available, only 6% of nurse activities generated such a fee. Yet the influence of the funding was to focus nurse activity on areas that they perceived were peripheral to their roles within the practice.
Interprofessional relationships and organisational climate in general practices are highly influential in terms of nursing role and the ability of practices to respond to and utilise funding mechanisms. These factors need to be considered, and the development of optimal teamwork supported in the design and implementation of further initiatives that financially support nursing in general practice.
PMCID: PMC3050696  PMID: 21329506

Results 1-5 (5)