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1.  Capacity building of nurses providing neonatal care in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: methods for the POINTS of care project to enhance nursing education and reduce adverse neonatal outcomes 
BMC Nursing  2012;11:3.
Background
Increased survival of preterm infants in developing countries has often been accompanied by increased morbidity. A previous study found rates of severe retinopathy of prematurity varied widely between different neonatal units in Rio de Janeiro. Nurses have a key role in the care of high-risk infants but often do not have access to ongoing education programmes. We set out to design a quality improvement project that would provide nurses with the training and tools to decrease neonatal mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this report is to describe the methods and make the teaching package (POINTS of care--six modules addressing Pain control; optimal Oxygenation; Infection control; Nutrition interventions; Temperature control; Supportive care) available to others.
Methods/Design
Six neonatal units, caring for 40% of preterm infants in Rio de Janeiro were invited to participate. In Phase 1 of the study multidisciplinary workshops were held in each neonatal unit to identify the neonatal morbidities of interest and to plan for data collection. In Phase 2 the teaching package was developed and tested. Phase 3 consisted of 12 months data collection utilizing a simple tick-sheet for recording. In Phase 4 (the Intervention) all nurses were asked to complete all six modules of the POINTS of care package, which was supplemented by practical demonstrations. Phase 5 consisted of a further 12 months data collection. In Phase 1 it was agreed to include inborn infants with birthweight ≤ 1500 g or gestational age of ≤ 34 weeks. The primary outcome was death before discharge and secondary outcomes included retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Assuming 400-450 infants in both pre- and post-intervention periods the study had 80% power at p = < 0.05 to detect an increase in survival from 68% to 80%; a reduction in need for supplementary oxygen at 36 weeks post menstrual age from 11% to 5.5% and a reduction in retinopathy of prematurity requiring treatment from 7% to 2.5%.
Discussion
The results of the POINTS of Care intervention will be presented in a separate publication.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN83110114
doi:10.1186/1472-6955-11-3
PMCID: PMC3395837  PMID: 22409747
Brazil; Neonatal care; Neonatal nursing; Quality improvement; Neonatal mortality; Premature infant; Retinopathy of prematurity; Education; Continual professional development
2.  An Exploratory Investigation of Some Statistical Summaries of Oximeter Oxygen Saturation Data from Preterm Babies 
ISRN Pediatrics  2011;2011:296418.
Aim. To explore the potential usefulness of the mean, standard deviation (SD), and coefficient of variation (CV = SD/mean) of oximeter oxygen saturations in the clinical care of preterm babies. Methods. This was an exploratory investigation involving 31 preterm babies at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. All babies were healthy, but two were considered to be clinically unstable and required greater attention. Each baby's oxygen saturations were recorded using an oximeter and summarized by the mean, SD, and CV. The potential usefulness of each measure was assessed by its ability to distinguish the two unstable babies from the others. This was achieved using box plots and hierarchical clustering together with the Calinski-Harabasz (CH) index to quantify clustering performance (higher CH index indicates stronger clustering outcome). Results. The box plots flagged both unstable babies as outliers and none of the other babies. Successful clustering of the stable and unstable babies was achieved using the CV (CH = 72.8) and SD (CH = 63.3) but not with the mean. Conclusion. Taking the box plots and clustering results together, it seems plausible that variability might be more effective than mean level for detecting instability in oxygen saturation in preterm babies and that the combination of variability and level through the CV might be even better.
doi:10.5402/2011/296418
PMCID: PMC3263575  PMID: 22389774
3.  NeOProM: Neonatal Oxygenation Prospective Meta-analysis Collaboration study protocol 
BMC Pediatrics  2011;11:6.
Background
The appropriate level of oxygenation for extremely preterm neonates (<28 weeks' gestation) to maximise the greatest chance of survival, without incurring significant morbidity, remains unknown. Infants exposed to lower levels of oxygen (targeting oxygen saturations of <90%) in the first weeks of life are at increased risk of death, cerebral palsy, patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary vascular resistance and apnoea, whilst those maintained in higher levels of oxygen (targeting oxygen saturations of >90%) have been reported to have greater rates of morbidity including retinopathy of prematurity and chronic lung disease. In order to answer this clinical dilemma reliably, large scale trial evidence is needed.
Methods/Design
To detect a small but important 4% increase in death or severe disability in survivors, over 5000 neonates would need to be recruited. As extreme prematurity affects 1% of births, such a project undertaken by one trial group would be prohibitively lengthy and expensive. Hence, the Neonatal Oxygenation Prospective Meta-analysis (NeOProM) Collaboration has been formed. A prospective meta-analysis (PMA) is one where studies are identified, evaluated, and determined to be eligible before the results of any included studies are known or published, thereby avoiding some of the potential biases inherent in standard, retrospective meta-analyses. This methodology provides the same strengths as a single large-scale multicentre randomised study whilst allowing greater pragmatic flexibility. The NeOProM Collaboration protocol (NCT01124331) has been agreed prior to the results of individual trials being available. This includes pre-specifying the hypotheses, inclusion criteria and outcome measures to be used. Each trial will first publish their respective results as they become available and the combined meta-analytic results, using individual patient data, will be published when all trials are complete. The primary outcome to be assessed is a composite outcome of death or major disability at 18 months - 2 years corrected age. Secondary outcomes include several measures of neonatal morbidity. The size of the combined dataset will allow the effect of the interventions to be explored more reliably with respect to pre-specified patient- and intervention-level characteristics.
Discussion
Results should be available by 2014.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-11-6
PMCID: PMC3025869  PMID: 21235822
4.  Comparison of the Mycoplasma Duo Test with PCR for Detection of Ureaplasma Species in Endotracheal Aspirates from Premature Infants 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2005;43(1):509-510.
We compared the Mycoplasma Duo kit (Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur) with PCR for detection of Ureaplasma spp. in endotracheal aspirates from 60 premature neonates. The overall agreement between the two tests was 96%. The Mycoplasma Duo assay is a useful alternative to culture and PCR for detection of neonatal Ureaplasma infection.
doi:10.1128/JCM.43.1.509-510.2005
PMCID: PMC540135  PMID: 15635030

Results 1-4 (4)