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1.  Don't ask don't tell: Battered women living in Sweden encounter with healthcare personnel and their experience of the care given 
In recent years there has been increased intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women. Research on the care provided to victims of IPV is limited. The purpose of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women's lived experience of IPV and their encounters with healthcare professionals, social workers, and the police following IPV. A phenomenological hermeneutic method inspired by the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur was used. The method is based on text interpretation and gives voice to women's lived experience. Twelve women living at a women's shelter in Sweden narrated their IPV experiences. The study revealed that the women experienced retraumatization, uncaring behaviors, and unendurable suffering during their encounter with healthcare professionals. They were disappointed, dismayed, and saddened by the lack of support, care, and empathy. Nurses and other healthcare professionals must understand and detect signs of IPV as well as provide adequate care, as these women are vulnerable. IPV victims need to feel that they can trust healthcare professionals. Lack of trust can lead to less women reporting IPV and seeking help.
PMCID: PMC3937531  PMID: 24576461
nursing; intimate partner violence; emergency; uncaring; suffer
2.  Meanings of Being Critically Ill in a Sound-Intensive ICU Patient Room - A Phenomenological Hermeneutical Study 
The Open Nursing Journal  2012;6:108-116.
The aim of this study was to illuminate the meanings of being critically ill in a sound-intensive ICU patient room, as disclosed through patients’ narratives. Patient rooms in ICUs are filled with loud activity and studies have revealed sound levels comparable to those of a busy road above the patient’s head. There is a risk that the sound or noise is disturbing and at worst a major problem for the patient, but there is a lack of knowledge concerning the patients’ own experiences. Thirteen patients were asked to narrate their experiences of the sound environment in ICU patient rooms. The interviews were analyzed using a phenomenological- hermeneutical method inspired by the philosophy of Ricoeur. Six themes emerged from the analysis. Conclusion: The meanings of being a patient in a sound- intensive environment were interpreted as never knowing what to expect next regarding noise, but also of being situated in the middle of an uncontrollable barrage of noise, unable to take cover or disappear. This condition is not to be seen as static; for some patients there is movement and change over time. The meanings indicate that the unpredictable shifts between silence and disturbing sounds stress the critically ill patient and impede sleep and recovery. Our findings indicate the need to reduce disturbing and unexpected sounds and noise around critically ill patients in high-tech environments in order to facilitate wellbeing, sleep and recovery. Nurses have a vital role in developing such an environment.
PMCID: PMC3439833  PMID: 22977654
Critical illness; health facility environment; patients’ experiences; phenomenological hermeneutic; sound.
3.  First time pregnant women's experiences in early pregnancy 
There are few studies focusing on women's experiences of early pregnancy. Medical and psychological approaches have dominated the research. Taking women's experiences seriously during early pregnancy may prevent future suffering during childbirth.
To describe and understand women's first time experiences of early pregnancy.
Qualitative study using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Data were collected via tape-recorded interviews in two antenatal care units in Sweden. Twelve first time pregnant women in week 10–14, aged between 17 and 37 years participated.
To be in early pregnancy means for the women a life opening both in terms of life affirming and suffering. The central themes are: living in the present and thinking ahead, being in a change of new perspectives and values and being in change to becoming a mother.
The results have implications for the midwife's encounter with the women during pregnancy. Questions of more existential nature, instead of only focusing the physical aspects of the pregnancy, may lead to an improvement in health condition and a positive experience for the pregnant woman.
PMCID: PMC3077216  PMID: 21499449
Early pregnancy; midwifery and pregnancy; maternity care; experiences of pregnancy; phenomenological hermeneutic
4.  Memories of being injured and patients' care trajectory after physical trauma 
BMC Nursing  2008;7:8.
The purpose of this study was to acquire a deeper understanding of patients' memories of being injured and the trajectory of care before, during and after their Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay.
Interviews were conducted with eighteen informants who after physical trauma had been cared for in the ICU. The interviews were analyzed by using a phenomenological hermeneutical method.
The memories of injury during the trajectory of care are illustrated in a figure in which the injured informants have memories from five scenes; the scene of the accident, emergency unit, ICU, nursing ward and of coming home. Twelve subthemes were abstracted and four themes emerged; a surrealistic world, an injured body, care, and gratitude for life. After the accident, a "surrealistic world" appeared along with bad memories of being in a floating existence where plans had to be changed. This world was unfamiliar, sometimes including delusional and fragmentary memories from the ICU, and it was experienced as uncontrollable. They felt connected to an "injured body", experiencing bad memories from the ICU of being injured, from the nursing ward of simply enduring and of being in a No Man's Land when coming home; their lives had become limited. At the same time they were "connected to care" with good memories of receiving attention from others at the scene of the accident, being taken cared of at the emergency unit and cared for in the ICU. This care made them realise that people are responsible for each other, and they felt comforted but also vulnerable. Finally, they experienced "gratitude for life". This included good memories of being loved together with support from their families at the ICU, wanting to win life back at the nursing ward and acceptance when returning home. The support from their families made them realise that they fit in just as they are.
When bad memories of a surrealistic world and of being injured are balanced by good ones of care and love with a gratitude for life, there are more possibilities to move on despite an uncertain future following the injury.
PMCID: PMC2443793  PMID: 18559089

Results 1-4 (4)