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1.  188Re radiopharmaceuticals for radiosynovectomy: evaluation and comparison of tin colloid, hydroxyapatite and tin-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates 
Background
Radiosynovectomy is a therapy used to relieve pain and inflammation from rheumatoid arthritis and related diseases. In this study three 188Re particulate compounds were characterized according to their physico-chemical properties and their biological behavior in rabbits. The results were compared in order to establish which was the radiopharmaceutical that better fits the requirements of this kind of radiotherapy.
Methods
Three radiopharmaceutical formulations, tin colloid, hydroxyapatite particles (HA) and ferric hydroxide macroaggregates coated with tin colloid (FHMA), were physically characterized (number, volume and surface of the particles). For this purpose laser diffraction methodology was used. To evaluate cavity leakage of activity the following studies in New Zealand rabbits were performed: scintigraphic images for 48 hr after intraarticular injection of each radiopharmaceutical, biodistribution at 48 hr and urine samples collection during the first 24 hr post-radiopharmaceutical administration.
Results
Labeling procedures for 188Re-HA and 188Re-Sn-FHMA were labour intensive while 188Re-Sn was easily prepared. Furthermore, 188Re-Sn colloid offered the greatest surface area in the 2–10 microm range and was obtained with a radiochemical purity over 95%, while percentage of bound activity for 188Re-HA and 188Re-Sn-FHMA were 55% and 92% respectively. Stability was verified for the three radiopharmaceuticals for 24 hr. Scintigraphic studies and biodistribution in rabbits after intraarticular administration of the radiopharmaceuticals showed relevant activity only in the knee, this being over 90% of the residual activity in the whole body at 48 hr in every case. Renal elimination of 188Re-Sn colloid and 188Re-Sn-FHMA was detected by activity measurements in urine samples, during the first 12 hr post-radiopharmaceutical injection.
The percentage of activity retained in the knee was 69.1% for 188Re-Sn colloid, 55.1% for 188Re-Sn-FHMA and 33.6% for 188Re-HA.
Conclusion
The 188Re-Sn colloid was easy to prepare, minimum facilities were required, was stable for 24 hr and showed minimal leakage from the joint after intraarticular injection into the rabbit's knee. Furthermore, 188Re-Sn colloid has greater retention in the knee when it is compared with the other radiopharmaceuticals, so it could provide the best therapeutic effect/absorbed dose ratio for the patient.
doi:10.1186/1471-2385-4-1
PMCID: PMC373254  PMID: 15040807
2.  Physico-chemical characterisation and biological evaluation of 188-Rhenium colloids for radiosynovectomy 
Background
Radiosynovectomy is a type of radiotherapy used to relieve pain and inflammation from rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, 188-Rhenium (188Re) colloids were characterized by physical and biological methodologies. This was used to assess which parameters of the kit formulation would be the basis in the development of a more effective radiopharmaceutical for synovectomy. Intraarticular injection in knees of rabbits assessed cavity leakage of activity.
Methods
The physical characteristics of tin (Sn) and sulphur (S) colloids were determined to assess the formulation with suitable properties. Particles were grouped in three ranges for analyzing their distribution according to their number, volume and surface. The ideal particle size range was considered to be from 2 to 10 microns. Membrane filtration and laser diffraction characterization methodologies were used.
Results
While membrane filtration could give misleading data, laser diffraction proportions more reliable results. The Sn colloid showed a better distribution of particle volume and surface than S colloid, in the 2 to 10 microns range. The 188Re-Sn colloid was obtained with a radiochemical purity higher than 95% after 30 minutes of autoclaving. While Sn colloid kit stability was verified for 60 days, the 188Re-Sn preparation was stable in the first 24 hrs. No significant intrabatch variability (n = 3) was detected. Biodistribution and scintigraphic studies in rabbits after intraarticular injection showed relevant activity only in knee, being 90% at 48 hours.
Conclusion
The 188Re-Sn colloid is easy to prepare, is stable for 24 hours and shows minimal cavity leakage after intraarticular injection into rabbit knees, suggesting this radiotherapeutical agent has suitable physical properties for evaluation for joint treatment in humans.
doi:10.1186/1471-2385-2-1
PMCID: PMC134460  PMID: 12379158

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