We developed a conditional and inducible gene knockout methodology that allows effective gene deletion in mouse cardiomyocytes. This transgenic mouse line was generated by co-injection of two transgenes, a “reverse” tetracycline-controlled transactivator (rtTA) directed by a rat cardiac troponin T (Tnnt2) promoter and a Cre recombinase driven by a tetracycline-responsive promoter (TetO). Here, Tnnt2-rtTA activated TetO-Cre expression takes place in cardiomyocytes following doxycycline treatment. Using two different mouse Cre reporter lines, we demonstrated that expression of Cre recombinase was specifically and robustly induced in the cardiomyocytes of embryonic or adult hearts following doxycycline induction, thus, allowing cardiomyocyte-specific gene disruption and lineage tracing. We also showed that rtTA expression and doxycycline treatment did not compromise cardiac function. These features make the Tnnt2-rtTA;TetO-Cre transgenic line a valuable genetic tool for analysis of spatiotemporal gene function and cardiomyocyte lineage tracing during developmental and postnatal periods.
cardiomyocyte; Cre recombinase; doxycycline; rtTA; Tnnt2
Aberrant transcriptional regulation contributes to the pathogenesis of both congenital and adult forms of heart disease. While the transcriptional regulator friend of Gata 2 (FOG2) is known to be essential for heart morphogenesis and coronary development, its tissue-specific function has not been previously investigated. Additionally, little is known about the role of FOG2 in the adult heart. Here we used spatiotemporally regulated inactivation of Fog2 to delineate its function in both the embryonic and adult mouse heart. Early cardiomyocyte-restricted loss of Fog2 recapitulated the cardiac and coronary defects of the Fog2 germline murine knockouts. Later cardiomyocyte-restricted loss of Fog2 (Fog2MC) did not result in defects in cardiac structure or coronary vessel formation. However, Fog2MC adult mice had severely depressed ventricular function and died at 8–14 weeks. Fog2MC adult hearts displayed a paucity of coronary vessels, associated with myocardial hypoxia, increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and cardiac fibrosis. Induced inactivation of Fog2 in the adult mouse heart resulted in similar phenotypes, as did ablation of the FOG2 interaction with the transcription factor GATA4. Loss of the FOG2 or FOG2-GATA4 interaction altered the expression of a panel of angiogenesis-related genes. Collectively, our data indicate that FOG2 regulates adult heart function and coronary angiogenesis.
We hypothesized that the structure and function of the mature valves is largely dependent upon how these tissues are built during development, and defects in how the valves are built can lead to the pathological progression of a disease phenotype. Thus, we sought to uncover potential developmental origins and mechanistic underpinnings causal to myxomatous mitral valve disease. We focus on how filamin-A, a cytoskeletal binding protein with strong links to human myxomatous valve disease, can function as a regulatory interface to control proper mitral valve development.
Methods and results
Filamin-A-deficient mice exhibit abnormally enlarged mitral valves during foetal life, which progresses to a myxomatous phenotype by 2 months of age. Through expression studies, in silico modelling, 3D morphometry, biochemical studies, and 3D matrix assays, we demonstrate that the inception of the valve disease occurs during foetal life and can be attributed, in part, to a deficiency of interstitial cells to efficiently organize the extracellular matrix (ECM). This ECM organization during foetal valve gestation is due, in part, to molecular interactions between filamin-A, serotonin, and the cross-linking enzyme, transglutaminase-2 (TG2). Pharmacological and genetic perturbations that inhibit serotonin-TG2-filamin-A interactions lead to impaired ECM remodelling and engender progression to a myxomatous valve phenotype.
These findings illustrate a molecular mechanism by which valve interstitial cells, through a serotonin, TG, and filamin-A pathway, regulate matrix organization during foetal valve development. Additionally, these data indicate that disrupting key regulatory interactions during valve development can set the stage for the generation of postnatal myxomatous valve disease.
Filamin-A; Serotonin; Myxomatous valve disease; Transglutaminase-2; Valve maturation
Characterizing the metabolic changes pertaining to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with liver cirrhosis is believed to contribute towards early detection, treatment, and understanding of the molecular mechanisms of HCC. In this study, we compare metabolite levels in sera of 78 HCC cases with 184 cirrhotic controls by using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF MS). Following data preprocessing, the most relevant ions in distinguishing HCC cases from patients with cirrhosis are selected by parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. Putative metabolite identifications for these ions are obtained through mass-based database search. Verification of the identities of selected metabolites is conducted by comparing their MS/MS fragmentation patterns and retention time with those from authentic compounds. Quantitation of these metabolites is performed in a subset of the serum samples (10 HCC and 10 cirrhosis) using isotope dilution by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) on triple quadrupole linear ion trap (QqQLIT) and triple quadrupole (QqQ) mass spectrometers. The results of this analysis confirm that metabolites involved in sphingolipid metabolism and phospholipid catabolism such as sphingosine-1-phosphate (S-1-P) and lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC 17:0) are up-regulated in sera of HCC vs. those with liver cirrhosis. Down-regulated metabolites include those involved in bile acid biosynthesis (specifically cholesterol metabolism) such as glycochenodeoxycholic acid 3-sulfate (3-sulfo-GCDCA), glycocholic acid (GCA), glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA), taurocholic acid (TCA), and taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDCA). These results provide useful insights into HCC biomarker discovery utilizing metabolomics as an efficient and cost-effective platform. Our work shows that metabolomic profiling is a promising tool to identify candidate metabolic biomarkers for early detection of HCC cases in high risk population of cirrhotic patients.
Metabolomics; biomarkers; liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; hepatocellular carcinoma; selected reaction monitoring
Objective. This study was to screen for the miRNAs differently expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of RA, to further identify the expression of miR-155 in RA PBMC and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), and to evaluate the function of miR-155 in RA-FLS. Methods. Microarray was used to screen for differentially expressed miRNAs in RA PBMC. miR-155 expression in PBMC and FLS of RA were identified by real-time PCR. Enforced overexpression and downexpression of miR-155 were used to investigate the function of miR-155 in RA-FLS. Expression of IKBKE which was previously identified as the actual target of miR-155 was examined by Western blot and real-time PCR in RA-FLS. Results. miR-155 levels were increased in both PBMC and FLS of RA and could be induced by TNF-α. Upregulation of miR-155 decreased MMP-3 levels and suppressed proliferation and invasion of RA-FLS. Inverse relationship between the expressions of miR-155 and the MMPs production-related protein IKBKE was found. Conclusion. An inflammatory milieu may alter miRNA expression profiles in rheumatoid arthritis. miR-155 is upregulated in RA-FLS, and it may be a protective factor against the inflammatory effect in part by attenuating expression of IKBKE.
Bortezomib therapy has proven successful for the treatment of relapsed/refractory, relapsed and newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM); however, dose-limiting toxicities and the development of resistance limit its long-term utility. Here we show that P5091 is an inhibitor of deubiquitylating enzyme USP7, which induces apoptosis in MM cells resistant to conventional and bortezomib therapies. Biochemical and genetic studies show that blockade of HDM2 and p21 abrogates P5091-induced cytotoxicity. In animal tumor model studies, P5091 is well tolerated, inhibits tumor growth, and prolongs survival. Combining P5091 with lenalidomide, HDAC inhibitor SAHA, or dexamethasone triggers synergistic anti-MM activity. Our preclinical study therefore supports clinical evaluation of USP7 inhibitor, alone or in combination, as a potential MM therapy.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can generate multiple end-stage mesenchymal cell types and constitute a promising population of cells for regenerative therapies. Additionally, there is increasing evidence supporting other trophic activities of MSCs, including the ability to enable formation of vasculature in vivo. Although MSCs were originally isolated from the bone marrow, the presence of these cells in the stromal vascular fraction of multiple adult tissues has been recently recognized. However, it is unknown whether the capacity to modulate vasculogenesis is ubiquitous to all MSCs regardless of their tissue of origin. Here, we demonstrated that tissue-resident MSCs isolated from four distinct tissues have equal capacity to modulate endothelial cell function, including formation of vascular networks in vivo. MSCs were isolated from four murine tissues, including bone marrow, white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and myocardium. In culture, all four MSC populations secreted a plethora of pro-angiogenic factors that unequivocally induced proliferation, migration, and tube formation of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs). In vivo, co-implantation of MSCs with ECFCs into mice generated an extensive network of blood vessels with ECFCs specifically lining the lumens and MSCs occupying perivascular positions. Importantly, there were no differences among all four MSCs evaluated. Our studies suggest that the capacity to modulate the formation of vasculature is a ubiquitous property of all MSCs, irrespective of their original anatomical location. These results validate multiple tissues as potential sources of MSCs for future cell-based vascular therapies.
Mesenchymal stem cells; Endothelial cell; Vasculogenesis; Pericytes; Endothelial progenitor cells
Coronary arteries bring blood flow to the heart muscle. Understanding the developmental program of the coronary arteries provides insights into the treatment of coronary artery diseases. Multiple sources have been described as contributing to coronary arteries including the proepicardium, sinus venosus (SV), and endocardium. However, the developmental origins of coronary vessels are still under intense study. We have produced a new genetic tool for studying coronary development, an AplnCreER mouse line, which expresses an inducible Cre recombinase specifically in developing coronary vessels. Quantitative analysis of coronary development and timed induction of AplnCreER fate tracing showed that the progenies of subepicardial endothelial cells (ECs) both invade the compact myocardium to form coronary arteries and remain on the surface to produce veins. We found that these subepicardial ECs are the major sources of intramyocardial coronary vessels in the developing heart. In vitro explant assays indicate that the majority of these subepicardial ECs arise from endocardium of the SV and atrium, but not from ventricular endocardium. Clonal analysis of Apln-positive cells indicates that a single subepicardial EC contributes equally to both coronary arteries and veins. Collectively, these data suggested that subepicardial ECs are the major source of intramyocardial coronary arteries in the ventricle wall, and that coronary arteries and veins have a common origin in the developing heart.
coronary artery; origin; development; subepicardial endothelial cell; angiogenesis
Ziyuglycoside II is one of the major active compounds of Sanguisorba officinalis L., which has a wide range of clinical applications including hemostasis, antibiosis, anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation. This study investigated the effect of ziyuglycoside II on the growth of human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-435 cells for the first time. The results showed that ziyuglycoside II could significantly inhibit the growth of MDA-MB-435 cells through blocking cell cycle progression at G0/G1 and S phase as well as via inducing cell apoptosis. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in the progression of cell cycle arrest, which was associated with the increased expression of cell cycle regulating factors, p53 and p21. Subsequent apoptosis induced by ziyuglycoside II was accompanied with the activation of mitochondrial pathway, in particular a decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) as well as increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c release and the activity of caspase-3 and caspase-9. In conclusion, our study was the first to report that ziyuglycoside II has inhibitory effect on the growth of MDA-MB-435 cells, which might become a potential therapeutic approach of breast cancer in the future.
ziyuglycoside II; MDA-MB-435; cell cycle arrest; cell apoptosis
During mouse heart development, ventricular endocardial cells give rise to the coronary arteries by angiogenesis. Myocardially-derived vascular endothelial growth factor-a (Vegfa) regulates embryonic coronary angiogenesis through vascular endothelial growth factor-receptor 2 (Vegfr2) expressed in the endocardium. In this study, we investigated the role of endocardially-produced soluble Vegfr1 (sVegfr1) in the coronary angiogenesis. We deleted sVegfr1 in the endocardium of the developing mouse heart and found that this deletion resulted in a precocious formation of coronary plexuses. Using an ex vivo coronary angiogenesis assay, we showed that the Vegfr1-null ventricular endocardial cells underwent excessive angiogenesis and generated extensive endothelial tubular networks. We also revealed by qPCR analysis that expression of genes involved in the Vegf-Notch pathway was augmented in the Vegfr1-null hearts. We further showed that inhibition of Notch signaling blocked the formation of coronary plexuses by the ventricular endocardial cells. These results establish that Vegfr1 produced in the endocardium negatively regulates embryonic coronary angiogenesis, possibly by limiting the Vegf-Notch signaling.
The aim of the study is to dissect the cytotoxic mechanisms of 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4E-en-3-heptanone (compound 1) in SH-SY5Y cells and therefore to provide new insight into neuroblastoma chemotherapy.
9 diarylheptanoids were isolated from Alpinia officinarum by chromatography and their cytotoxicity was evaluated by an MTS assay. Flow cytometry, Brdu incorporation assay and fluorescence staining were employed to investigate cytostatic and apoptotic effects induced by the compound 1. In addition, western blot, qPCR and siRNA techniques were used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the cytotoxicity.
The study to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanisms of compound 1, the most potent diarylheptanoid showed that cell cycle related proteins cyclins, CDKs and CDKIs as well as two main apoptotic related families caspase and Bcl 2 were involved in S phase arrest and apoptosis in neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Furthermore, following the drug treatment, the protein expression of p53, phospho-p53 (Ser20) as well as the p53 transcriptional activated genes ATF3, puma and Apaf-1 were increased dramatically; MDM2 and Aurora A, the two p53 negative regulators were decreased; the p53 protein stability was enhanced whereas the p53 mRNA expression level slightly decreased and ATF3 mRNA expression apparently increased. In addition, the knockdown of ATF3 gene by siRNA partially suppressed p53, caspase 3, S phase arrest and apoptosis triggered by compound 1.
These results suggest that compound 1 induces S phase arrest and apoptosis via up regulation of ATF3 and stabilization of p53 in SH-SY5Y cell line. Therefore, compound 1 might be a promising lead structure for neuroblastoma therapy.
diarylheptanoid; cell cycle arrest; apoptosis; p53; ATF3
Metabolomics aims at identification and quantitation of small molecules involved in metabolic reactions. LC-MS has enjoyed a growing popularity as the platform for metabolomic studies due to its high throughput, soft ionization, and good coverage of metabolites. The success of LC-MS-based metabolomic study often depends on multiple experimental, analytical, and computational steps. This review presents a workflow of a typical LC-MS-based metabolomic analysis for identification and quantitation of metabolites indicative of biological/environmental perturbations. Challenges and current solutions in each step of the workflow are reviewed. The review intends to help investigators understand the challenges in metabolomic studies and to determine appropriate experimental, analytical, and computational methods to address these challenges.
A significant bottleneck in cardiovascular regenerative medicine is the identification of a viable source of stem/progenitor cells that could contribute new muscle after ischaemic heart disease and acute myocardial infarction1. A therapeutic ideal—relative to cell transplantation—would be to stimulate a resident source, thus avoiding the caveats of limited graft survival, restricted homing to the site of injury and host immune rejection. Here we demonstrate in mice that the adult heart contains a resident stem or progenitor cell population, which has the potential to contribute bona fide terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes after myocardial infarction. We reveal a novel genetic label of the activated adult progenitors via re-expression of a key embryonic epicardial gene, Wilm’s tumour 1 (Wt1), through priming by thymosin β4, a peptide previously shown to restore vascular potential to adult epicardium-derived progenitor cells2 with injury. Cumulative evidence indicates an epicardial origin of the progenitor population, and embryonic reprogramming results in the mobilization of this population and concomitant differentiation to give rise to de novo cardiomyocytes. Cell transplantation confirmed a progenitor source and chromosome painting of labelled donor cells revealed transdifferentiation to a myocyte fate in the absence of cell fusion. Derived cardiomyocytes are shown here to structurally and functionally integrate with resident muscle; as such, stimulation of this adult progenitor pool represents a significant step towards residentcell-based therapy in human ischaemic heart disease.
Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, up-regulation serves as an efficient mechanism to promote malignant transformation of colorectal cancer (CRC) and protect CRC cells against apoptosis. Recently, the analysis of GRP78 polymorphisms has already determined that GRP78 rs391957 polymorphism could predict clinical outcome in CRC patients. Thus, we tested whether GRP78 polymorphisms are related to the risk of CRC. In this study, we detected two GRP78 polymorphisms (rs391957 (C>T) and rs430397 (G>A)) in 414 CRC cases and 502 hospital-based cancer-free healthy controls in Southwest China using a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Compared with the CC genotype, carriers of CT and TT genotypes of rs391957 polymorphism had higher risks of CRC (odds ratio (OR) = 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06–1.83 for CT genotype and OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.06–4.14 for TT genotype, respectively). In CRC cases, the variant T allele was significantly associated with tumor invasion stage (P = 0.030), but not with status of lymph nodes metastasis (P = 0.052). Compared with the GG genotype, carriers of GA and AA genotypes of rs430397 polymorphism had higher risks of CRC (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.23–2.15 for GA genotype and OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.23–6.94 for AA genotype, respectively). The rs430397 polymorphism was not associated with the clinicopathological characteristics of CRC. These data provide the first evidence that GRP78 rs391957 and rs430397 polymorphisms could serve as markers to predict the risk of CRC.
The 2009/2010 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm) contains an avian-lineage PB2 gene that lacks E627K and D701N substitutions important in the pathogenesis and transmission of avian-origin viruses in humans or other mammals. Previous studies have shown that PB2-627K is not necessary because of a compensatory Q591R substitution. The role that PB2-701N plays in the H1N1pdm phenotype is not well understood. Therefore, PB2-D701N was introduced into an H1N1pdm virus (A/New York/1682/2009 (NY1682)) and analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Mini-genome replication assay, in vitro replication characteristics in cell lines, and analysis in the mouse and ferret models demonstrated that PB2-D701N increased virus replication rates and resulted in more severe pathogenicity in mice and more efficient transmission in ferrets. In addition, compared to the NY1682-WT virus, the NY1682-D701N mutant virus induced less IFN-λ and replicated to a higher titer in primary human alveolar epithelial cells. These findings suggest that the acquisition of the PB2-701N substitution by H1N1pdm viruses may result in more severe disease or increase transmission in humans.
Reverse genetics approaches that enable the generation of recombinant influenza A viruses entirely from plasmids are invaluable for studies on virus replication, morphogenesis, pathogenesis, or transmission. Furthermore, influenza virus reverse genetics is now critical for the development of new vaccines for this human and animal pathogen. Periodically, influenza gene segments are unstable within plasmids in bacteria. The PB2 gene segment of a highly pathogenic avian H5 influenza virus A/Turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 (Ty/Ont) was unstable in commonly available cloning plasmids (e.g., pcDNA3.1/V5-His-TOPO) and in standard influenza virus reverse genetics plasmids (e.g., pHH21), which contain high copy origins of replication. Thus, a low-copy influenza reverse genetics plasmid (pGJ3C3) was developed to enable rapid cloning of unstable influenza A virus genes using ligation-independent recombination-based cloning. The unstable Ty/Ont PB2 gene segment was efficiently cloned using the pGJ3C3 plasmid and this clone was used to rescue a recombinant Ty/Ont virus. This low copy reverse genetics plasmid will be useful for cloning other unstable segments of influenza A viruses in order to rescue recombinant viruses, which will facilitate basic studies and vaccine seed stock production.
Influenza; reverse genetics; ligation-independent cloning; recombination-based cloning; low copy plasmid; unstable gene
Whole genome sequencing of viruses and bacteriophages is often hindered because of the need for large quantities of genomic material. A method is described that combines single plaque sequencing with an optimization of Sequence Independent Single Primer Amplification (SISPA). This method can be used for de novo whole genome next-generation sequencing of any cultivable virus without the need for large-scale production of viral stocks or viral purification using centrifugal techniques.
A single viral plaque of a variant of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 human Influenza A virus was isolated and amplified using the optimized SISPA protocol. The sensitivity of the SISPA protocol presented here was tested with bacteriophage F_HA0480sp/Pa1651 DNA. The amplified products were sequenced with 454 and Illumina HiSeq platforms. Mapping and de novo assemblies were performed to analyze the quality of data produced from this optimized method.
Analysis of the sequence data demonstrated that from a single viral plaque of Influenza A, a mapping assembly with 3590-fold average coverage representing 100% of the genome could be produced. The de novo assembled data produced contigs with 30-fold average sequence coverage, representing 96.5% of the genome. Using only 10 pg of starting DNA from bacteriophage F_HA0480sp/Pa1651 in the SISPA protocol resulted in sequencing data that gave a mapping assembly with 3488-fold average sequence coverage, representing 99.9% of the reference and a de novo assembly with 45-fold average sequence coverage, representing 98.1% of the genome.
The optimized SISPA protocol presented here produces amplified product that when sequenced will give high quality data that can be used for de novo assembly. The protocol requires only a single viral plaque or as little as 10 pg of DNA template, which will facilitate rapid identification of viruses during an outbreak and viruses that are difficult to propagate.
SISPA; Sequencing; Virus; Single plaques; Bacteriophage
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common type of congenital heart disease, which is defined as any communication through atrial septum. Several studies have revealed that genetic factors may influence the susceptibility of ASD. Recent studies have shown that reticulon 4 (RTN4) gene might be involved in some processes relevant to heart development, such as regulation of cell migration and vascular remodeling. This study aimed to evaluate RTN4 gene polymorphisms of CAA and TATC insertion/deletion in relation to the risk of ASD in Chinese Han population. A total of 175 ASD patients and 308 unrelated healthy controls were successfully investigated. The polymorphisms of patients were determined by polymerase chain reaction–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. There was no significant difference in the allele frequencies of CAA and TATC insertion/deletion in RNT4 gene between ASD patients and controls. The same results were seen in their genotypes. The present study suggests that CAA and TATC insertion/deletion polymorphisms of RNT4 gene may not be a useful marker to predict the susceptibility of ASD in Chinese Han population.
Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality world-wide. Whether endogenous repair and regenerative ability could be augmented by drug administration is an important issue for generation of novel therapeutic approach. Recently it was reported that in mice pretreated with thymosin beta 4 (TB4) and subsequently subjected to experimental MI, a subset of epicardial cells differentiated into cardiomyocytes. In clinical settings, epicardial priming with TB4 prior to MI is impractical. Here we tested if TB4 treatment after MI could reprogram epicardium into cardiomyocytes and augment the epicardium’s injury response. Using epicardium genetic lineage trace line Wt1CreERT2/+ and double reporter line Rosa26mTmG/+, we found post-MI TB4 treatment significantly increased the thickness of epicardium and coronary capillary density. However, epicardium-derived cells did not adopt cardiomyocyte fate, nor did they migrate into myocardium to become coronary endothelial cells. Our result thus indicates that TB4 treatment after MI does not alter epicardial cell fate to include the cardiomyocyte lineage, providing both cautions and insights for the full exploration of the potential benefits of TB4 in the clinical settings. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Possible Editorial’.
Epicardium; Thymosin beta 4; Cardiomyocytes; Myocardial infarction; Reprogram
The licensed live attenuated influenza A vaccine (LAIV) in the United States is created by making a reassortant containing six internal genes from a cold-adapted master donor strain (ca A/AA/6/60) and two surface glycoprotein genes from a circulating/emerging strain (e.g., A/CA/7/09 for the 2009/2010 H1N1 pandemic). Technologies to rapidly create recombinant viruses directly from patient specimens were used to engineer alternative LAIV candidates that have genomes composed entirely of vRNAs from pandemic or seasonal strains. Multiple mutations involved in the temperature-sensitive (ts) phenotype of the ca A/AA/6/60 master donor strain were introduced into a 2009 H1N1 pandemic strain rA/New York/1682/2009 (rNY1682-WT) to create rNY1682-TS1, and additional mutations identified in other ts viruses were added to rNY1682-TS1 to create rNY1682-TS2. Both rNY1682-TS1 and rNY1682-TS2 replicated efficiently at 30°C and 33°C. However, rNY1682-TS1 was partially restricted, and rNY1682-TS2 was completely restricted at 39°C. Additionally, engineering the TS1 or TS2 mutations into a distantly related human seasonal H1N1 influenza A virus also resulted pronounced restriction of replication in vitro. Clinical symptoms and virus replication in the lungs of mice showed that although rNY1682-TS2 and the licensed FluMist®-H1N1pdm LAIV that was used to combat the 2009/2010 pandemic were similarly attenuated, the rNY1682-TS2 was more protective upon challenge with a virulent mutant of pandemic H1N1 virus or a heterologous H1N1 (A/PR/8/1934) virus. This study demonstrates that engineering key temperature sensitive mutations (PB1-K391E, D581G, A661T; PB2-P112S, N265S, N556D, Y658H) into the genomes of influenza A viruses attenuates divergent human virus lineages and provides an alternative strategy for the generation of LAIVs.
Influenza A virus; live attenuated vaccine; temperature sensitive; RNA polymerase; heterologous protection
Colony-forming units – fibroblast (CFU-Fs), analogous to those giving rise to bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are present in many organs, although the relationship between BM and organ-specific CFU-Fs in homeostasis and tissue repair is unknown. Here we describe a population of adult cardiac-resident CFU-Fs (cCFU-Fs) that occupy a perivascular, adventitial niche and show broad trans-germ layer potency in vitro and in vivo. CRE lineage tracing and embryo analysis demonstrated a proepicardial origin for cCFU-Fs. Furthermore, in BM transplantation chimeras, we found no interchange between BM and cCFU-Fs after aging, myocardial infarction, or BM stem cell mobilization. BM and cardiac and aortic CFU-Fs had distinct CRE lineage signatures, indicating that they arise from different progenitor beds during development. These diverse origins for CFU-Fs suggest an underlying basis for differentiation biases seen in different CFU-F populations, and could also influence their capacity for participating in tissue repair.
Semilunar valve malformations are common human congenital heart defects. Bicuspid aortic valves occur in 2-3 percent of the population, and pulmonic valve stenosis constitutes 10% of all congenital heart disease in adults (Brickner et al., 2000). Semilunar valve defects cause valve regurgitation, stenosis, or calcification, leading to endocarditis or congestive heart failure. These complications often require prolonged medical treatment or surgical intervention. Despite the medical importance of valve disease, the regulatory pathways governing semilunar valve development are not entirely clear. In this report we investigated the spatiotemporal role of calcineurin/Nfatc1 signaling in semilunar valve development. We generated conditional knockout mice with calcineurin gene disrupted in various tissues during semilunar valve development. Our studies showed that calcineurin/Nfatc1 pathway signals in the secondary heart field (SHF) but not in the outflow tract myocardium or neural crest cells to regulate semilunar valve morphogenesis. Without SHF calcineurin/Nfatc1 signaling, the conal endocardial cushion-- the site of prospective semilunar valve formation-- first develop and then regress due to apoptosis, resulting in a striking phenotype with complete absence of the aortic and pulmonic valves, severe valve regurgitation, and perinatal lethality. This role of calcineurin/Nfatc1 signaling in the SHF is different from the requirement of calcineurin/Nfatc1 in the endocardium for semilunar valve formation (Chang et al., 2004), indicating that calcineurin/Nfatc1 signals in multiple tissues to organize semilunar valve development. Also, our studies suggest distinct mechanisms of calcineurin/Nfat signaling for semilunar and atrioventricular valve morphogenesis. Therefore, we demonstrate a novel developmental mechanism in which calcineurin signals through Nfatc1 in the secondary heart field to promote semilunar valve morphogenesis, revealing a new supportive role of the secondary heart field for semilunar valve formation.
calcineurin; Nfatc1; secondary heart field; semilunar valve
The effect of the washing aid T-128 (generally recognized as safe [GRAS] formulation, composed mainly of phosphoric acid and propylene glycol) on inactivation of Salmonella and Pseudomonas populations in biofilms on stainless steel was evaluated under conditions of increasing organic matter loads in chlorinated wash solutions dominated by hypochlorous acid. Biofilms were formed statically on stainless steel coupons suspended in 2% lettuce extract after inoculation with Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson or Newport or with Pseudomonas fluorescens. Coupons with biofilms were washed in chlorine solutions (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, or 20 mg/liter at pH 6.5, 5.0 and 2.9), with or without T-128, and with increasing loads of organic matter (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1.0% lettuce extract). Cell populations on coupons were dispersed using intermittent, pulsed ultrasonication and vortexing and enumerated by colony counts on XLT-4 or Pseudomonas agars. Cell responses to fluorescent viability staining of biofilm treatment washing solutions were examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results showed that 0.1% T-128 (without chlorine) reduced P. fluorescens biofilm populations by 2.5 log10 units but did not reduce Salmonella populations. For both Salmonella and Pseudomonas, the sanitizing effect of free chlorine (1.0 to 5.0 mg/liter) was enhanced (P < 0.05) when it was combined with T-128. Application of T-128 decreased the free chlorine depletion rate caused by increasing organic matter in wash waters and significantly (P < 0.05) augmented inactivation of bacteria in biofilms compared to treatments without T-128. Image analysis of surfaces stained with SYTO and propidium iodide corroborate the cultural assay results showing that T-128 can aid in reducing pathogen viability in biofilms and thus can aid in sanitizing stainless steel contact surfaces during processing of fresh-cut produce.
Endocardial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT) is a fundamental cellular process required for heart valve formation. Notch, Wnt and Bmp pathways are known to regulate this process. To further address how these pathways coordinate in the process, we specifically disrupted Notch1 or Jagged1 in the endocardium of mouse embryonic hearts and showed that Jagged1-Notch1 signaling in the endocardium is essential for EMT and early valvular cushion formation. qPCR and RNA in situ hybridization assays reveal that endocardial Jagged1-Notch1 signaling regulates Wnt4 expression in the atrioventricular canal (AVC) endocardium and Bmp2 in the AVC myocardium. Whole embryo cultures treated with Wnt4 or Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1) show that Bmp2 expression in the AVC myocardium is dependent on Wnt activity; Wnt4 also reinstates Bmp2 expression in the AVC myocardium of endocardial Notch1 null embryos. Furthermore, while both Wnt4 and Bmp2 rescue the defective EMT resulting from Notch inhibition, Wnt4 requires Bmp for its action. These results demonstrate that Jagged1-Notch1 signaling in endocardial cells induces the expression of Wnt4, which subsequently acts as a paracrine factor to upregulate Bmp2 expression in the adjacent AVC myocardium to signal EMT.
Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), a new kind of persistent organic pollutants, was selected to investigate its influence on population growth and inter-specific competition between two species of marine bloom-forming microalgae, Heterosigma akashiwo and Karenia mikimotoi. (1)BDE-209 showed acute toxic effects on both microalgae and H. akashiwo was more sensitive from view of 96 h-EC50 and the ultrastructure variation. (2)The microalgal population growth patterns in mono-culture were density-dependent and the growth of both species in the normal co-culture was significantly depressed by competition (P<0.05) with different initial biomass ratios. BDE-209 exposure significantly changed the growth. (3) Lotka-Volterra competition model was used to simulate the interaction between the microalgae. BDE-209 exposure broke the competitive balance to make competition gradually shift in favor of H. akashiwo. Results suggested BDE-209 did have toxic effects on either microalgal growth or the inter-specific competition, which was quite different from previous reports. Further exploration of the mechanism is needed.