The present study explores whether photodynamic therapy (PDT)-induced apoptosis can increase the number of tolerogenic regulatory T cells (Treg) and limit collateral tissue damage.
BALB/c mice were vaccinated subcutaneously three times with PDT-induced apoptotic or thaw-frozen, necrotic non-infected autologous macrophages (MΦ). Two weeks after the last vaccination, mice were infected intradermally with 106 promastigotes of Leishmania major.
Mice that received PDT-induced apoptotic MΦ had fewer parasites and higher numbers of Treg than mice vaccinated with thaw-frozen necrotic MΦ or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-6 were significantly suppressed, while IL-10 was increased in mice that received the PDT-induced apoptotic MΦ. The role of Treg in this process was confirmed through Treg transfer from vaccinated to naïve mice. Mice receiving CD4+CD25+ cells from mice vaccinated with PDT-induced apoptotic MΦ showed smaller lesions 3 weeks after infection and lower parasitic burdens than mice that received Tregs from mice of thaw-frozen necrotic MΦ or PBS groups. These changes were mediated by the depletion of CD3+CD8+ and NKT cells and increased levels of IL-12p70 and interferon-γ, IL-10, and TGF-β in the cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions.
Vaccination with apoptotic MΦ-induced tolerogenic Treg cells that limited collateral tissue damage and diminished parasitic burden.
Leishmania; macrophage; tolerance; T regulatory cells; vaccination
Serum autoantibodies, directed against oncogenic proteins, have been frequently detected in the sera of breast cancer patients. It is unknown whether serum antibodies that are identified in patients with established disease could also be detected in patients with newly diagnosed disease or even predate the diagnosis of breast cancer. Using sera collected at the time of treatment, at the time of diagnosis, or prior to the time of diagnosis, the current study aimed to address the temporal relationship between breast cancer development and serum antibody response. Starting from serum antibodies to eight known breast cancer antigens, we first identified four serum antibodies, HER-2/neu, p53, CEA, and cyclin B1, which are significantly increased in the sera collected from breast cancer patients at the time of treatment. These antibodies were also elevated in breast cancer sera collected at the time of diagnosis. Lastly, comparison of antibody responses in pre-diagnostic samples from women prior to the development of breast cancer and in controls demonstrated that antibodies to the HER-2/neu and p53 can be detected in sera that were collected on average more than 150 days before a breast cancer diagnosis. These results demonstrated that serum autoantibodies commonly reported in sera from patients with established disease can also be detected in pre-diagnostic sera and may be useful for the early detection of breast cancer.
serum antibody; breast cancer; early detection
Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) are multipotent stem cells that may be used in transplantation medicine. In this study, AFSCs established from amniocentesis were characterized on the basis of surface marker expression and differentiation potential. To further investigate the properties of AFSCs for translational applications, we examined the cell surface expression of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) of these cells and estimated the therapeutic effect of AFSCs in parkinsonian rats. The expression profiles of HLA-II and transcription factors were compared between AFSCs and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) following treatment with γ-IFN. We found that stimulation of AFSCs with γ-IFN prompted only a slight increase in the expression of HLA-Ia and HLA-E, and the rare HLA-II expression could also be observed in most AFSCs samples. Consequently, the expression of CIITA and RFX5 was weakly induced by γ-IFN stimulation of AFSCs compared to that of BMMSCs. In the transplantation test, Sprague Dawley rats with 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning of the substantia nigra were used as a parkinsonian-animal model. Following the negative γ-IFN response AFSCs injection, apomorphine-induced rotation was reduced by 75% in AFSCs engrafted parkinsonian rats but was increased by 53% in the control group after 12-weeks post-transplantation. The implanted AFSCs were viable, and were able to migrate into the brain’s circuitry and express specific proteins of dopamine neurons, such as tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter. In conclusion, the relative insensitivity AFSCs to γ-IFN implies that AFSCs might have immune-tolerance in γ-IFN inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, the effective improvement of AFSCs transplantation for apomorphine-induced rotation paves the way for the clinical application in parkinsonian therapy.
Hemangiomas in the pancreas are very rare and only a few cases in adulthood have been reported in the literature. We describe a case of pancreatic hemangiomas in an adult with unique imaging findings. A 23-year-old woman visited the hospital for an incidentally detected pancreatic mass. CT and MRI revealed a multilocular cyst with fluid-fluid levels and no obvious enhancement. The patient underwent surgery and the mass was confirmed as a pancreatic hemangioma. The radiological features and differential diagnosis of this rare lesion are discussed.
Pancreas; Hemangioma; Computed tomography; Magnetic resonance imaging
Given the uncertainties regarding thyroid nodule assessment and management, physicians require systematically and transparently developed recommendations. This systematic review assesses the quality and consistency of the recommendations of international clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and cancer to assist physicians in making appropriate recommendations.
The CPGs on the management of thyroid nodules and cancer published before June 2013 were retrieved. All the reviewed guidelines were in English. Four reviewers independently assessed the rigor of guideline development by using the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation II (AGREE-II) instrument, and their reported evidence was evaluated.
Ten eligible guidelines were included: nine had been developed by professional organizations, and the remaining guideline was endorsed by an independent regional body. Three guidelines achieved a score of greater than 50% in all six AGREE-II domains. Guidelines scored highest on the measurement of ‘scope and purpose’ (≥61.1% for eight CPGs) and lowest on the measurement of ‘applicability’ (≤38.5% for five CPGs). The overall quality ranged from 3.0 to 6.25 on a seven-point scale on the AGREE-II tool. Most CPG recommendations on the management of thyroid cancer were relatively consistent. Guidelines varied regarding the indication of fine-needle aspiration for thyroid nodules, as well as in their suggestions for postoperative radioiodine ablation.
Our analysis showed that the current CPGs varied in methodological quality. More effort is needed to improve the quality of recommendations on the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and cancer.
Clinical practice guidelines; Thyroid cancer; Thyroid nodule; Systematic review
CD4+ T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells both can cause autoimmune diseases either alone or collaboratively, if left unchecked. However, what determines the dominant Th effector phenotype in a specific autoimmune disease remains ill understood. Our present investigation shows that null mutation of immediate early response gene X-1 (IEX-1) promotes differentiation of Th17 cells, but compromising the survival of Th1 cells. The differential effect gave rise to a greater number of Th17 cells, a higher level of IL-17 production, and severer arthritis in IEX-1 knockout (KO) mice than in wild type (WT) mice after immunizations with collagen. IEX-1 deficiency-facilitated Th17 cell differentiation was mediated by increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at mitochondria following T cell activation, as suggested by marked inhibition of Th17 induction with ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or mitoquinone (MitoQ), a specific inhibitor for mitochondrial ROS production. Mitochondrial ROS augmented the expression of B-cell activating transcription factor (Batf) that may contribute to increased IL-17 production in the absence of IEX-1 in light of its importance in IL-17 transcription. The results demonstrate that mitochondrial ROS contribute significantly to the dominant Th effector phenotype in autoimmunity in addition to the milieu of cytokines.
Th1/17 cell balance; mitochondria; ROS; IEX-1; arthritis
Hirschsprung’s disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder of the enteric nervous system and is characterized by an absence of enteric ganglion cells in terminal regions of the gut during development. Dishevelled (DVL) protein is a cytoplasmic protein which plays pivotal roles in the embryonic development. In this study, we explore the cause of HSCR by studying the expression of DVL-1 and DVL-3 genes and their proteins in the aganglionic segment and the ganglionic segment of colon in HSCR patients. Materials and Methods: Specimen of aganglionic segment and ganglionic segment of colon in 50 cases of HSCR patients. Expression levels of mRNA and proteins of DVL-1 and DVL-3 were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blot and immunohistochemistry staining between the aganglionic segment and the ganglionic segment of colon in HSCR patients. Results: The mRNA expression of DVL-1 and DVL-3 were 2.06 fold and 3.12 fold in the aganglionic segment colon tissues compared to the ganglionic segment, respectively. Similarly, the proteins expression of DVL-1 and DVL-3 were higher (39.71 ± 4.53 vs and 53.90 ± 6.79 vs) in the aganglionic segment colon tissues than in the ganglionic segment (15.01 ± 2.66 and 20.13 ± 3.63) by western blot. Besides, immunohistochemical staining showed that DVL-1 and DVL-3 have a significant increase in mucous and submucous layers from aganglionic colon segments compared with ganglionic segments. Conclusion: The study showed an association of DVL-1 and DVL-3 with HSCR, it may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HSCR.
Hirschsprung’s disease; dishevelled-1 and dishevelled-3; gene and protein; expression
To investigate the effects of treatment with Multi component Chinese Medicine Jinzhida (JZD) on behavioral deficits in diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD) rats and verify our hypothesis that JZD treatment improves cognitive function by suppressing the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and improving insulin signaling transduction in the rats’ hippocampus.
A rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was established using high fat diet and streptozotocin (30 mg/kg, ip). Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by the oral glucose tolerance test and the insulin tolerance test. After 7 weeks, the T2DM rats were treated with JZD. The step-down test and Morris water maze were used to evaluate behavior in T2DM rats after 5 weeks of treatment with JZD. Levels of phosphorylated proteins involved in the ERS and in insulin signaling transduction pathways were assessed by Western blot for T2DM rats’ hippocampus.
Compared to healthy control rats, T2DM rats initially showed insulin resistance and had declines in acquisition and retrieval processes in the step-down test and in spatial memory in the Morris water maze after 12 weeks. Performance on both the step-down test and Morris water maze tasks improved after JZD treatment. In T2DM rats, the ERS was activated, and then inhibited the insulin signal transduction pathways through the Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK) mediated. JZD treatment suppressed the ERS, increased insulin signal transduction, and improved insulin resistance in the rats’ hippocampus.
Treatment with JZD improved cognitive function in the T2DM rat model. The possible mechanism for DACD was related with ERS inducing the insulin signal transduction dysfunction in T2DM rats’ hippocampus. The JZD could reduce ERS and improve insulin signal transduction and insulin resistance in T2DM rats’ hippocampus and as a result improved the cognitive function.
Diabetes; Cognitive decline; Step down test; Morris water; Immunobloting analysis; Hippocampus
Deregulated expression of DNA polymerase beta (pol β) has been implicated in genomic instability that leads to tumorigenesis, yet the mechanisms underlying the pol β-mediated genetic instability remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the roles of deregulated expression of pol β in spontaneous and xenobiotic-induced genetic instability using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) that express distinct pol β levels (wild-type, null and over-expression) as a model system. Three genetic instability endpoints, DNA strand breaks, chromosome breakage and gene mutation, were examined under various expression levels of pol β by comet assay, micronuclei test and hprt mutation assay. Our results demonstrate that neither pol β deficiency nor pol β over-expression is sufficient for accumulation of spontaneous DNA damage that promotes a hyper-proliferation phenotype. However, pol β null cells exhibit increased sensitivity to exogenous DNA damaging agents with increased genomic instability compared with pol β wild-type and over-expression cells. This finding suggests that a pol β deficiency may underlie genomic instability induced by exogenous DNA damaging agents. Interestingly, pol β over-expression cells exhibit less chromosomal or DNA damage, but display a higher hprt mutation frequency upon methyl methanesulfonate exposure compared with the other two cell types. Our results therefore indicate that an excessive amount of pol β may promote genomic instability, presumably through an error-prone repair response, although it enhances overall BER capacity for induced DNA damage.
Base excision repair; DNA polymerase beta; genomic instability; DNA damage and repair
SRC-3/AIB1 (steroid receptor coactivator 3/amplified in breast cancer 1) is an authentic oncogene that contributes to the development of drug resistance and poor disease-free survival in cancer patients. Autophagy is also an important cell death mechanism that has tumor suppressor function. In this study, we identified macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) as a novel target gene of SRC-3 and demonstrated its importance in cell survival. Specifically, we showed that MIF is a strong suppressor of autophagic cell death. We further showed that suppression of MIF, in turn, induced autophagic cell death, enhanced chemosensitivity and inhibited tumorigenesis in a xenograft mouse tumorigenesis model. Our study demonstrated that regulation of MIF expression and suppression of autophagic cell death is a potent mechanism by which SRC-3 contributes to increased chemoresistance and tumorigenicity.
SRC-3; MIF; autophagy; tumorigenesis; chemosensitivity
The immediate early response gene X-1 (IEX-1) is involved in regulation of various cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis in part by controlling homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at mitochondria. The present study demonstrates reduced inflammatory responses and colorectal cancer in IEX-1 knockout (KO) mice treated with azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). However, DSS induced worse colitis in RAG−/−IEX-1−/− double KO mice than in RAG and IEX-1 single KO mice, underscoring an importance of T cells in IEX-1 deficiency-induced protection against colon inflammation. Lack of IEX-1 promoted the differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells, concomitant with up regulation of Gαi2 expression, a gene that is well-documented for its role in the control of inflammation in the colon. In accordance with this, Th17 cell differentiation was compromised in the absence of Gαi2, and deletion of Gαi2 in T cells alone aggravated colon inflammation and colorectal cancer development after AOM/DSS treatment. Null mutation of IEX-1 also enhanced both proliferation and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) after injury. A potential impact of this altered IEC turnover on colon inflammation and cancer development is discussed. These observations provide a linkage of IEX-1 and Gαi2 expression in the regulation of Th17 differentiation and suggest a previously unappreciated role for IEX-1 in the control of colon epithelial homeostasis.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a heterogeneous group of B-cell neoplasm. CLL is typically sensitive to a variety of cytotoxic agents, but relapse frequently occurs with conventional approaches. The treatment of CLL is evolving rapidly with the introduction of novel drugs, such as bendamustine, ofatumumab, lenalidomide, ibrutinib, idelalisib, veltuzumab, XmAb5574, navitoclax, dasatinib, alvespimycin, and TRU-016. This review summarizes the most current clinical experiences with these agents in the treatment of CLL.
The present investigation demonstrates a convenient laser-based approach to enhance DC migration resulting in improved DC-based immunotherapy in murine models.
Influence of laser illumination on dermal tissue microenvironment and migration of DCs following intradermal injection were determined by whole-mount immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscope, and flow cytometry. We also investigated in vivo expansion of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) by flow cytometry, CTL activity by in vitro CTL assay, and anti-tumor efficacy of DC immunization following cutaneous laser illumination in both preventive and therapeutic tumor models.
Laser illumination was found to significantly enlarge perforations in the peri-lymphatic basement membrane, disarray collagen fibers and disrupt cell-matrix interactions in the dermis. The altered dermal tissue microenvironment permitted more efficient migration of intradermally injected DCs from the dermis to the draining lymph nodes (dLNs). Laser illumination also slightly but significantly enhanced the expression of costimulatory molecule CD80 and MHC I on DCs injected into the skin, when compared to those DCs administered into sham-treated skin. As a result, more vigorous expansion of tumor-specific IFN-γ+CD8+ T lymphocytes and enhanced CTL activity against 4T1 but not irrelevant tumor cells were obtained in the laser-treated group over the control group. Laser-augmented DC immunization also completely abrogated early growth of 4T1 tumor and B16F10 melanoma in preventive tumor models and significantly extended the survival of 4T1-resected mice in a therapeutic tumor model.
These data suggest a simple, safe, laser-based approach to significantly enhance DC-based immunotherapy.
dendritic cell; migration; maturation; tumor; immunotherapy; laser
Full-surface laser ablation has been shown to efficiently disrupt stratum corneum and facilitate transcutaneous drug delivery, but it is frequently associated with skin damage that hampers its clinic use. We show here that a safer ablative fractional laser (AFL) can sufficiently deliver not only patch-coated hydrophilic drugs but also protein vaccines. AFL treatment generated an array of self renewable microchannels (MCs) in the skin surface, providing free paths for drug and vaccine delivery into the dermis while sustains integrity of the skin by quick healing of the MCs. AFL was superior to tape stripping in transcutaneous drug and vaccine delivery as a much higher amount of sulforhodamine B (SRB), methylene blue (MB) or a model vaccine ovalbumin (OVA) was recovered from AFL-treated skin than tape stripping-treated skin or control skin after patch application. Following entry into the MCs, the drugs or OVA diffused quickly to the entire dermal tissue via the lateral surface of conical-shaped MCs. In contrast, a majority of the drugs and OVA remained on the skin surface, unable to penetrate into the dermal tissue in untreated control skin or tape stripping-treated skin. Strikingly, OVA delivered through the MCs was efficiently taken up by epidermal Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells in the vicinity of the MCs or transported to the draining lymph nodes, leading to a robust immune response, in sharp contrast to a weak, though significant, immune response elicited in tape stripping group or a basal immune response in control groups. These data support strongly that AFL is safe and sufficient for transcutaneous delivery of drugs and vaccines.
laser; transdermal patch; vaccine; drug; transcutaneous delivery; tape stripping
Failure to execute an apoptotic program is one of the critical steps and a common mechanism promoting tumorogenesis. Immediate early responsive gene 3 (IER3) has been shown to be upregulated in several cancers. IER3 is a stress induced gene, which upregulation leads to reduction in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) protecting malignant cells from apoptosis. We observed that malignant lymphocytes from patients with Sézary syndrome (SzS) were resistant to pro-apoptotic dose of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IER3 in the mechanism of such resistance. CD4+ CD26− lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of patients with SzS and healthy controls were negatively selected using CD4 and CD26 magnetic beads and analyzed for expression of TNFR1, TNFR2, IER3 expression, and ROS production in response to TNF-α at an apoptotic dose. Sézary cells with a higher level of IER3 expression retained their viability to TNF-α. IER3 upregulation correlated with a decrease level of intracellular ROS and low TNFR1 expression on malignant cells. Targeting IER3 could be of interest for the development of future therapeutic strategies for patients with SzS.
Sézary syndrome; Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; Immediate early response gene 3; Apoptosis; TNF-α
This study is aimed to investigate the effect of human resistin on myocyte differentiation and insulin resistance. The human resistin eukaryotic expression vector was stable transfected into C2C12 myocyte cells and was transiently transfected into COS7 cells. The effects of human resistin on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells were examined. Glucose uptake assays was performed on C2C12 myotubes by using [3H] 2-deoxy-D-glucose. The mRNA levels of insulin receptor (IR) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) were evaluated by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Results showed by the C2C12 cells transfected with human resistin gene compared with that without transfecting gene are as follows: (1) cell proliferation was significantly promoted, (2) after inducing differentiation, the myotube's diameters and expression of desmin and myoglobin decreased, and (3) glucose uptake ratio was lowered and expression of IR and GLUT4 decreased. However, there was no significant difference in the glucose uptake ratio between C2C12 myotubes treated with a human resistin conditioned medium of COS7 cells and treated with control medium. These results suggest that maybe human resistin has not a direct role on insulin sensitivity of myocytes. However, maybe it impaired the insulin sensitivity of myocytes through suppressing myogenesis and stimulating proliferation of myoblasts.
Rapid assays are still needed to detect rifabutin (RFB) susceptibility for proper tuberculosis treatment. To assess the use of the GenoType MTBDRplus assay and subsequent rpoB gene sequencing on detection of RFB susceptibility, we analyzed 800 multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, and 13% (104/800) were RFB susceptible. Of the 104 RFB-susceptible isolates, 71 (68.3%) isolates were rapidly identified using two molecular assays, while the remaining isolates could be determined using conventional drug-susceptibility testing according to the clinician's decision.
Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is often associated with trauma or occurs spontaneously, inevitably causing some neurological deficits. Even though acute infection can be related to the development of spontaneous VAD (sVAD), VAD associated with viral meningitis has never been reported in the literature.
A 42-year-old man with fever, sore throat, and runny nose developed sudden onset of occipital headache, vertigo, transient confusion, diplopia, and ataxia. Brain stem encephalitis was diagnosed initially because the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study showed inflammatory changes. However, subsequent diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging of his brain demonstrated left lateral medullary infarction, and the digital subtraction angiography (DSA) confirmed VAD involving left V4 segment of the artery. Consequently, the patient was diagnosed as VAD accompanied by viral meningitis.
This case suggests that viral meningitis might lead to inflammatory injury of the vertebral arterial wall, even sVAD with multiple neurological symptoms.
Vertebral artery dissection; Cerebral ischemia; Viral meningitis; Infection
Decorin is a multifunctional molecule of the extracellular matrix and impedes different kinds of tumor cell growth, but the role and molecular mechanism by which decorin inhibits HepG2 cells is not fully understood. Our objective was to construct recombinant human decorin (pcDNA3.1-DCN) and to explore the mechanism by which it inhibits HepG2 cells.
This experiment was divided into three groups, ie, a control group, an empty vector group, and a pcDNA3.1-DCN group. pcDNA3.1-DCN was constructed using recombinant DNA technology, and the vector for pcDNA3.1-DCN and pcDNA3.1 was then transfected into HepG2 cells using Lipofectamine 2000.
Compared with cells in the control group and in the empty vector group, growth of cells in the pcDNA3.1-DCN group was significantly suppressed, the ratios of cells in the G0/G1 phases and proportion of early apoptotic cells were significantly increased, and the level of p21WAF1/CIP1 (p21) protein was markedly upregulated (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference among the three groups in p53 protein expression (P > 0.05).
The pcDNA3.1-DCN vector was successfully constructed and transfected into HepG2 cells, and decorin overexpression suppressed the growth of HepG2 cells by upregulation of p21 via a p53-independent pathway.
decorin; HepG2; liver cancer; p21WAF1/CIP1; pcDNA3.1
Simple and efficient technologies for intradermal immunization have recently been developed, making cutaneous vaccination a valid alternative for vaccine delivery. This raises an urgent need for safe and potent adjuvants suitable for cutaneous vaccination. Many traditional adjuvants like aluminum-based adjuvants may not be appropriate for boosting cutaneous immunization because they evoke strong and persistent inflammation in the skin that would potentially breach its integrity with serious consequences. Laser vaccine adjuvant is induced by brief illumination of a small area of the skin with a safe, noninvasive laser prior to intradermal injection of the vaccine into the site of illumination. It does not stimulate overt inflammation or reactogenicity in the skin and boosts immune responses via enhancing the motility of antigen-presenting cells. Laser vaccine adjuvant is convenient, safe and ideal for augmentation of cutaneous immunization and has distinct advantages over conventional adjuvants, in particular when encountering vaccine shortages during an unpredictable event.
adjuvant; cell motility; cutaneous vaccination; laser; noninflammation
Coffee consumption has been shown to be inversely associated to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but evidence in Chinese populations is limited. We investigated the relationship between coffee consumption and T2DM in a population-based cohort of middle-aged Chinese.
Materials and Methods
We studied 2,332 subjects who participated in the Taichung Community Health Study in Taiwan in 2004. The relationships between coffee consumption, T2DM and fasting glucose were assessed.
The prevalence of T2DM was 14.0% and 10.4% in men and women. After adjustment for age, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, alcohol drinking, betel nut chewing, physical activity, income, education level, fat%, protein%, carbohydrate%, and magnesium, coffee intake was inversely associated with T2DM. Habitual coffee drinkers had 38–46% lower risk of T2DM than non-drinkers. Compared to non-drinkers, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for T2DM according to subjects with habitual coffee consumption (<1, 1–6, ≥ 7 times per week) were 0.77(0.52–1.13), 0.46(0.28–0.76), and 0.37(0.16–0.83), respectively. The decreasing ORs indicate a dose-response effect of coffee consumption on the likelihood of having T2DM (p < 0.001). A similar relationship was also evident in newly-diagnosed T2DM (p < 0.05). The adjusted mean fasting glucose levels gradually decreased as the frequency of coffee consumption increased (p < 0.05).
Coffee intake is inversely associated with T2DM in Chinese. Coffee may be a protective agent for T2DM in Chinese.
coffee; type 2 diabetes; Chinese; dose-response; glucose
Detection of micrometastases plays an important role in early-stage and recurrent cancer diagnosis. In the study, a new method of screening micrometastases of lung cancer in peripheral blood by magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and quantum dots (QDs) was developed to achieve early diagnosis and recurrence prevention. MNPs were prepared by combining miniemulsion polymerization and Stöber coating methods. QDs were prepared by using Cd(Ac)2 · 2H2O and oxygen-free NaHTe with thioglycolic acid as the stabilizer. The carbodiimide-mediated condensation method was used to couple pan-cytokeratin (pan-ck) antibody (Ab) to the surface of the MNPs, and Lunx and SP-A Abs to the surface of the QDs. After four kinds of epithelial tumor cells were enriched by MNPs coupled with pan-ck Ab (MNP-pan-ck), lung cancer cells A549 and SPC-A-1 were successfully identified by QDs with double-labeled Abs. Finally, 32 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were collected, out of 26 cases with the enriched circulating tumor cells (CTCs), 21 cases were successfully identified by QDs. Therefore, a new method was established in which MNP-pan-ck collected CTCs and QDs with double-labeled Abs could be used simultaneously to identify CTCs from NSCLC patients.
micrometastases; lung cancer; magnetic nanoparticles; quantum dots; Lunx; SP-A
Background: The nucleolar MSP58 protein is a candidate oncogene implicated in cellular transformation.
Results: MSP58 is associated with BRG1 and induces cellular senescence through the p53/p21 pathway.
Conclusion: MSP58 has both tumor-suppressing and -promoting functions.
Significance: This work reveals a novel role for MSP58 in cellular senescence and suggests that MSP58 may have further prognostic and therapeutic implications.
The nucleolar 58-kDa microspherule protein (MSP58) protein is a candidate oncogene implicated in modulating cellular proliferation and malignant transformation. In this study, we show that knocking down MSP58 expression caused aneuploidy and led to apoptosis, whereas ectopic expression of MSP58 regulated cell proliferation in a context-dependent manner. Specifically, ectopic expression of MSP58 in normal human IMR90 and Hs68 diploid fibroblasts, the H184B5F5/M10 mammary epithelial cell line, HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells, primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts, and immortalized NIH3T3 fibroblasts resulted in induction of premature senescence, an enlarged and flattened cellular morphology, and increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. MSP58-driven senescence was strictly dependent on the presence of functional p53 as revealed by the fact that normal cells with p53 knockdown by specific shRNA or cells with a mutated or functionally impaired p53 pathway were effective in bypassing MSP58-induced senescence. At least two senescence mechanisms are induced by MSP58. First, MSP58 activates the DNA damage response and p53/p21 signaling pathways. Second, MSP58, p53, and the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling subunit Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1) form a ternary complex on the p21 promoter and collaborate to activate p21. Additionally, MSP58 protein levels increased in cells undergoing replicative senescence and stress-induced senescence. Notably, the results of analyzing expression levels of MSP58 between tumors and matched normal tissues showed significant changes (both up- and down-regulation) in its expression in various types of tumors. Our findings highlight new aspects of MSP58 in modulating cellular senescence and suggest that MSP58 has both oncogenic and tumor-suppressive properties.
Cellular Senescence; DNA Damage Response; Oncogene; Transcription Factors; Tumor Suppressor Gene; BRG1; MSP58; p53
In premenopausal women, endocrine adjuvant therapy for breast cancer primarily consists of tamoxifen alone or with ovarian suppressive strategies. Toremifene is a chlorinated derivative of tamoxifen, but with a superior risk-benefit profile. In this retrospective study, we sought to establish the role of toremifene as an endocrine therapy for premenopausal patients with estrogen and/or progesterone receptor positive breast cancer besides tamoxifen.
Patients with early invasive breast cancer were selected from the breast tumor registries at the Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital (China). Premenopausal patients with endocrine responsive breast cancer who underwent standard therapy and adjuvant therapy with toremifene or tamoxifen were considered eligible. Patients with breast sarcoma, carcinosarcoma, concurrent contralateral primary breast cancer, or with distant metastases at diagnosis, or those who had not undergone surgery and endocrine therapy were ineligible. Overall survival and recurrence-free survival were the primary outcomes measured. Toxicity data was also collected and compared between the two groups.
Of the 810 patients reviewed, 452 patients were analyzed in the study: 240 received tamoxifen and 212 received toremifene. The median and mean follow up times were 50.8 and 57.3 months, respectively. Toremifene and tamoxifen yielded similar overall survival values, with 5-year overall survival rates of 100% and 98.4%, respectively (p = 0.087). However, recurrence-free survival was significantly better in the toremifene group than in the tamoxifen group (p = 0.022). Multivariate analysis showed that recurrence-free survival improved independently with toremifene (HR = 0.385, 95% CI = 0.154-0.961; p = 0.041). Toxicity was similar in the two treatment groups with no women experiencing severe complications, other than hot flashes, which was more frequent in the toremifene patients (p = 0.049). No patients developed endometrial cancer.
Toremifene may be a valid and safe alternative to tamoxifen in premenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer.
Tamoxifen; Toremifene; Breast cancer; Adjuvant endocrine therapy; Premenopausal
Genomic imprinting is a phenomenon that some genes are expressed differentially according to the parent of origin. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are neurobehavioral disorders caused by deficiency of imprinted gene expression from paternal and maternal chromosome 15q11–q13, respectively. Imprinted genes at the PWS/AS domain are regulated through a bipartite imprinting center, the PWS-IC and AS-IC. The PWS-IC activates paternal-specific gene expression and is responsible for the paternal imprint, whereas the AS-IC functions in the maternal imprint by allele-specific repression of the PWS-IC to prevent the paternal imprinting program. Although mouse chromosome 7C has a conserved PWS/AS imprinted domain, the mouse equivalent of the human AS-IC element has not yet been identified. Here, we suggest another dimension that the PWS-IC also functions in maternal imprinting by negatively regulating the paternally expressed imprinted genes in mice, in contrast to its known function as a positive regulator for paternal-specific gene expression. Using a mouse model carrying a 4.8-kb deletion at the PWS-IC, we demonstrated that maternal transmission of the PWS-IC deletion resulted in a maternal imprinting defect with activation of the paternally expressed imprinted genes and decreased expression of the maternally expressed imprinted gene on the maternal chromosome, accompanied by alteration of the maternal epigenotype toward a paternal state spread over the PWS/AS domain. The functional significance of this acquired paternal pattern of gene expression was demonstrated by the ability to complement PWS phenotypes by maternal inheritance of the PWS-IC deletion, which is in stark contrast to paternal inheritance of the PWS-IC deletion that resulted in the PWS phenotypes. Importantly, low levels of expression of the paternally expressed imprinted genes are sufficient to rescue postnatal lethality and growth retardation in two PWS mouse models. These findings open the opportunity for a novel approach to the treatment of PWS.