Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-15 (15)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

more »
Year of Publication
2.  An empirical study of the ‘underscreened’ in organised cervical screening: experts focus on increasing opportunity as a way of reducing differences in screening rates 
BMC Medical Ethics  2016;17:56.
Cervical cancer disproportionately burdens disadvantaged women. Organised cervical screening aims to make cancer prevention available to all women in a population, yet screening uptake and cancer incidence and mortality are strongly correlated with socioeconomic status (SES). Reaching underscreened populations is a stated priority in many screening programs, usually with an emphasis on something like ‘equity’. Equity is a poorly defined and understood concept. We aimed to explain experts’ perspectives on how cervical screening programs might justifiably respond to ‘the underscreened’.
This paper reports on a grounded theory study of cervical screening experts involved in program organisation. Participants were 23 experts from several countries and a range of backgrounds: gynecology; epidemiology; public health; pathology; general practice; policy making. Data were gathered via semi-structured interview and concepts developed through transcript coding and memo writing.
Most experts expressed an intuitive commitment to reducing systematic differences in screening participation or cancer outcomes. They took three different implicit positions, however, on what made organised programs justifiable with respect to underscreened populations. These were: 1) accepting that population screening is likely to miss certain disenfranchised groups for practical and cultural reasons, and focusing on maximising mainstream reach; 2) identifying and removing barriers to screening; and 3) providing parallel tailored screening services that attended to different cultural needs. Positions tended to fall along country of practice lines.
Experts emphasised the provision of opportunity for underscreened populations to take up screening. A focus on opportunity appeared to rely on tacit premises not supported by evidence: that provision of meaningful opportunity leads to increased uptake, and that increased uptake of an initial screening test by disadvantaged populations would decrease cervical cancer incidence and mortality. There was little attention to anything other than the point of testing, or the difficulties disadvantaged women can have in accessing follow up care. The different approaches to ‘improving equity’ taken by participants are differently justified, and differently justifiable, but none attend directly to the broader conditions of disadvantage.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12910-016-0143-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC5053126  PMID: 27716156
Cervical screening; Underscreened populations; Equity; Justice; Bioethics; Qualitative research
3.  Disentangling the associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition using the four‐component model 
American Journal of Human Biology  2016;28(4):524-533.
This study sets out to investigate the intergenerational associations between the body mass index (BMI) of parents and the body composition of their offspring.
The cross‐sectional data were analyzed for 511 parent–offspring trios from London and south‐east England. The offspring were aged 5–21 years. Parental BMI was obtained by recall and offspring fat mass and lean mass were obtained using the four‐component model. Multivariable regression analysis, with multiple imputation for missing paternal values was used. Sensitivity analyses for levels of non‐paternity were conducted.
A positive association was seen between parental BMI and offspring BMI, fat mass index (FMI), and lean mass index (LMI). The mother's BMI was positively associated with the BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores of both daughters and sons and of a similar magnitude for both sexes. The father's BMI showed similar associations to the mother's BMI, with his son's BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores, but no association with his daughter. Sensitivity tests for non‐paternity showed that maternal coefficients remained greater than paternal coefficients throughout but there was no statistical difference at greater levels of non‐paternity.
We found variable associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition. Associations were generally stronger for maternal than paternal BMI, and paternal associations appeared to differ between sons and daughters. In this cohort, the mother's BMI was statistically significantly associated with her child's body composition but the father's BMI was only associated with the body composition of his sons. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:524–533, 2016. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PMCID: PMC4957621  PMID: 26848813
4.  Maternal investment, life-history strategy of the offspring and adult chronic disease risk in South Asian women in the UK 
We shows that women who received low maternal investment during fetal life, the primary period when the body's organs develop, develop a ‘fast’ life history strategy. This prioritizes reproduction (indicated by early menarche, higher body fatness) over somatic growth (adult height) and the ability to maintain healthy blood pressure.
Background and objectives: Patterns of development predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and ethnic differences therein, but it remains unclear why apparently ‘adaptive plasticity’ in early life should generate health costs in later life. We hypothesized that offspring receiving low maternal investment during fetal life, the primary period of organogenesis, should predict a shorter reproductive career and develop a fast life-history strategy, prioritizing reproduction over growth and homeostatic maintenance.
Methodology: We studied 58 young adult South Asian women living in the UK, a group with high susceptibility to CVD. We obtained gestational age, birth weight (BW) and menarcheal age by recall and measured anthropometry, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and blood pressure (BP).
Results: BW and gestational age were inversely associated with menarcheal age, indicating that lower maternal investment is associated with faster maturation. Menarcheal age was positively associated with height but inversely with adiposity, indicating that rapid maturation prioritizes lipid stores over somatic growth. BW was inversely associated with BP, whereas adiposity was positively associated, indicating that lower maternal investment reduces BP homeostasis. BW was positively associated with RMR, whereas menarche was inversely associated, indicating that maternal investment influences adult metabolism.
Conclusions and implications: Supporting our hypothesis, low maternal investment promoted faster life histories, demonstrated by earlier menarche, reduced growth and elevated adiposity. These traits were associated with poorer BP regulation. This is the first study demonstrating strategic adjustment of the balance between reproduction and metabolic health in response to the level of maternal investment during fetal life.
PMCID: PMC4826584  PMID: 26988862
life-history theory; blood pressure; growth; menarche; body composition; maternal investment
5.  Meaningful health outcomes for paediatric neurodisability: Stakeholder prioritisation and appropriateness of patient reported outcome measures 
Health services are increasingly focused on measuring and monitoring outcomes, particularly those that reflect patients’ priorities. To be meaningful, outcomes measured should be valued by patients and carers, be consistent with what health professionals seek to achieve, and be robust in terms of measurement properties.
The aim of this study was (i) to seek a shared vision between families and clinicians regarding key aspects of health as outcomes, beyond mortality and morbidity, for children with neurodisability, and (ii) to appraise which multidimensional patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) could be used to assess salient health domains.
Relevant outcomes were identified from (i) qualitative research with children and young people with neurodisability and parent carers, (ii) Delphi survey with health professionals, and (iii) systematic review of PROMs. The International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health provided a common language to code aspects of health. A subset of stakeholders participated in a prioritisation meeting incorporating a Q-sorting task to discuss and rank aspects of health.
A total of 33 pertinent aspects of health were identified. Fifteen stakeholders from the qualitative and Delphi studies participated in the prioritisation meeting: 3 young people, 5 parent carers, and 7 health professionals. Aspects of health that emerged as more important for families and targets for health professionals were: communication, emotional wellbeing, pain, sleep, mobility, self-care, independence, mental health, community and social life, behaviour, toileting and safety. Whilst available PROMs measure many aspects of health in the ICF, no single PROM captures all the key domains prioritised as for children and young people with neurodisability. The paucity of scales for assessing communication was notable.
We propose a core suite of key outcome domains for children with neurodisability that could be used in evaluative research, audit and as health service performance indicators. Future work could appraise domain-specific PROMs for these aspects of health; a single measure assessing the key aspects of health that could be applied across paediatric neurodisability remains to be developed.
PMCID: PMC4478638  PMID: 26108625
Children; Neurodisability; Patient reported outcome; Prioritisation; Core outcome set
7.  Job satisfaction and burnout among VA and community mental health workers 
Building on two independent studies, we compared burnout and job satisfaction of 66 VA staff and 86 community mental health center staff in the same city. VA staff reported significantly greater job satisfaction and accomplishment, less emotional exhaustion and lower likelihood of leaving their job. Sources of work satisfaction were similar (primarily working with clients, helping/witnessing change). VA staff reported fewer challenges with job-related aspects (e.g., flexibility, pay) but more challenges with administration. Community mental health administrators and policymakers may need to address job-related concerns (e.g., pay) whereas VA administrators may focus on reducing, and helping workers navigate, administrative policies.
PMCID: PMC3980458  PMID: 21972060
Staff; job satisfaction; burnout; community mental health
8.  The drooling reduction intervention trial (DRI): a single blind trial comparing the efficacy of glycopyrronium and hyoscine on drooling in children with neurodisability 
Trials  2014;15:60.
Drooling saliva is a common problem in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. The negative consequences of drooling include skin breakdown, dehydration, and damage to clothing and equipment. Children and families often suffer social embarrassment due to drooling. There is no evidence about the relative effectiveness, side effect profiles or patient acceptability of the two medications most commonly used to reduce drooling - glycopyrronium and hyoscine. Consequently, there is no consensus or guideline to aid clinical decisions about which drug to use, and at what dose.
A multi-centre, randomised trial of treatment with glycopyrronium or hyoscine in children with problematic drooling and non-progressive neurodisability. Ninety children aged between 3 and 15 years who have never received medication for drooling will be stratified by severity of drooling and care centre. Randomisation to receive treatment with glycopyrronium or hyoscine will be computer generated from the trial randomisation website. Dose adjustment and side effect monitoring will occur via telephone consultation. Medication arm will be known to participants and clinicians but not the Trial Outcome Assessor.
The primary outcome measure is the Drooling Impact Scale score at four weeks, at which time all children will be on the maximum tolerated dose of their medication. Secondary outcome measures include change in Drooling Impact Scale score between baseline, 4, 12 and 52 weeks, change in Drooling Severity and Frequency Scale score and difference between groups in the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication score. A structured interview with children and young people of sufficient age, cognitive and communication ability will explore their perceptions of drooling and the effectiveness and acceptability of the medications.
The primary objective of the study is to identify whether glycopyrronium or hyoscine is more effective in treating drooling in children with non-progressive neurodisability. The study will also determine which medications at what doses are most acceptable and have fewest side effects. This information will be used to develop evidence based guidance to inform the medical treatment of drooling.
DRI trial registration
Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN75287237.
EUDRACT: 2013-000863-94.
Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA): 17136/0264/001-0003.
PMCID: PMC3937527  PMID: 24533890
Randomised trial; Drooling; Neurodisability; Glycopyrronium; Hyoscine; Children; Treatment satisfaction; Drooling impact scale
9.  Use of Fat Mass and Fat Free Mass Standard Deviation Scores Obtained Using Simple Measurement Methods in Healthy Children and Patients: Comparison with the Reference 4-Component Model 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e62139.
Clinical application of body composition (BC) measurements for individual children has been limited by lack of appropriate reference data.
(1) To compare fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) standard deviation scores (SDS) generated using new body composition reference data and obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients with those obtained using the reference 4-component (4-C) model; (2) To determine the extent to which scores from simple methods agree with those from the 4-C model in identification of abnormal body composition.
FM SDS were calculated for 4-C model, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE Lunar Prodigy), BMI and skinfold thicknesses (SFT); and FFM SDS for 4CM, DXA and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA; height2/Z)) in 927 subjects aged 3.8–22.0 y (211 healthy, 716 patients).
DXA was the most accurate method for both FM and FFM SDS in healthy subjects and patients (mean bias (limits of agreement) FM SDS 0.03 (±0.62); FFM SDS −0.04 (±0.72)), and provided best agreement with the 4-C model in identifying abnormal BC (SDS ≤−2 or ≥2). BMI and SFTs were reasonable predictors of abnormal FM SDS, but poor in providing an absolute value. BIA was comparable to DXA for FFM SDS and in identifying abnormal subjects.
DXA may be used both for research and clinically to determine FM and FFM SDS. BIA may be used to assess FFM SDS in place of DXA. BMI and SFTs can be used to measure adiposity for groups but not individuals. The performance of simpler techniques in monitoring longitudinal BC changes requires investigation. Ultimately, the most appropriate method should be determined by its predictive value for clinical outcome.
PMCID: PMC3656861  PMID: 23690932
12.  A cluster randomised controlled trial of an occupational therapy intervention for residents with stroke living in UK care homes (OTCH): study protocol 
BMC Neurology  2012;12:52.
The occupational therapy (OT) in care homes study (OTCH) aims to investigate the effect of a targeted course of individual OT (with task training, provision of adaptive equipment, minor environmental adaptations and staff education) for stroke survivors living in care homes, compared to usual care.
A cluster randomised controlled trial of United Kingdom (UK) care homes (n = 90) with residents (n = 900) who have suffered a stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA), and who are not receiving end-of-life care. Homes will be stratified by centre and by type of care provided and randomised (50:50) using computer generated blocked randomisation within strata to receive either the OT intervention (3 months intervention from an occupational therapist) or control (usual care). Staff training on facilitating independence and mobility and the use of adaptive equipment, will be delivered to every home, with control homes receiving this after the 12 month follow-up.
Allocation will be concealed from the independent assessors, but the treating therapists, and residents will not be masked to the intervention. Measurements are taken at baseline prior to randomisation and at 3, 6 and 12 months post randomisation. The primary outcome measure is independence in self-care activities of daily living (Barthel Activities of Daily Living Index). Secondary outcome measures are mobility (Rivermead Mobility Index), mood (Geriatric Depression Scale), preference based quality of life measured from EQ-5D and costs associated with each intervention group. Quality adjusted life years (QALYs) will be derived based on the EQ-5D scores. Cost effectiveness analysis will be estimated and measured by incremental cost effectiveness ratio. Adverse events will be recorded.
This study will be the largest cluster randomised controlled trial of OT in care homes to date and will clarify the currently inconclusive literature on the efficacy of OT for stroke and TIA survivors residing in care homes.
Trial registration
PMCID: PMC3436864  PMID: 22776066
Stroke; Occupational therapy; Care homes; Cluster randomised controlled trial
13.  Mutations in the selenocysteine insertion sequence–binding protein 2 gene lead to a multisystem selenoprotein deficiency disorder in humans 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2010;120(12):4220-4235.
Selenium, a trace element that is fundamental to human health, is incorporated into some proteins as selenocysteine (Sec), generating a family of selenoproteins. Sec incorporation is mediated by a multiprotein complex that includes Sec insertion sequence–binding protein 2 (SECISBP2; also known as SBP2). Here, we describe subjects with compound heterozygous defects in the SECISBP2 gene. These individuals have reduced synthesis of most of the 25 known human selenoproteins, resulting in a complex phenotype. Azoospermia, with failure of the latter stages of spermatogenesis, was associated with a lack of testis-enriched selenoproteins. An axial muscular dystrophy was also present, with features similar to myopathies caused by mutations in selenoprotein N (SEPN1). Cutaneous deficiencies of antioxidant selenoenzymes, increased cellular ROS, and susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation–induced oxidative damage may mediate the observed photosensitivity. Reduced levels of selenoproteins in peripheral blood cells were associated with impaired T lymphocyte proliferation, abnormal mononuclear cell cytokine secretion, and telomere shortening. Paradoxically, raised ROS in affected subjects was associated with enhanced systemic and cellular insulin sensitivity, similar to findings in mice lacking the antioxidant selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1). Thus, mutation of SECISBP2 is associated with a multisystem disorder with defective biosynthesis of many selenoproteins, highlighting their role in diverse biological processes.
PMCID: PMC2993594  PMID: 21084748
14.  Evaluation of DXA against the four-component model of body composition in obese children and adolescents aged 5 to 21 years 
Body composition is increasingly measured in pediatric obese patients. Although dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely available, and is precise, its accuracy for body composition assessment in obese children remains untested.
We aimed to evaluate DXA against the four component (4C) model in obese children and adolescents in both cross-sectional and longitudinal contexts.
Body composition was measured by DXA (Lunar Prodigy) and the 4C model in 174 obese individuals aged 5-21 years, of whom 66 had a second measurement within 1.4 years. The Bland-Atman method was used to assess agreement between techniques for baseline body composition and change therein.
A significant minority of individuals (n = 21) could not be scanned successfully due to their large size. At baseline, in 153 individuals with complete data, DXA significantly over-estimated fat mass (Δ = 0.9, SD 2.1 kg, p<0.0001) and under-estimated lean mass (Δ = −1.0, SD 2.1 kg, p<0.0001). Multiple regression analysis showed that gender, puberty status, lean mass and fat mass were associated with the magnitude of the bias. In the longitudinal study of 51 individuals, the mean bias in change in fat or lean mass did not differ significantly from zero (FM: Δ = −0.02, p=0.9; LM: Δ = 0.04 p=0.8), however limits of agreement were wide (FM: ± 3.2 kg; LM ± 3.0 kg). The proportion of variance in the reference values explained by DXA was 76% for change in fat mass and 43% for change in lean mass.
There are limitations to the accuracy of DXA using Lunar Prodigy for assessing body composition or changes therein in obese children. The causes of differential bias include variability in the magnitude of tissue masses, and stage of pubertal development. Further work is required to evaluate this scenario for other DXA models and manufacturers.
PMCID: PMC2875101  PMID: 20065958
Body composition; DXA; fat mass; lean mass; childhood obesity
15.  Preparedness of emergency departments in northwest England for managing chemical incidents: a structured interview survey 
A number of significant chemical incidents occur in the UK each year and may require Emergency Departments (EDs) to receive and manage contaminated casualties. Previously UK EDs have been found to be under-prepared for this, but since October 2005 acute hospital Trusts have had a statutory responsibility to maintain decontamination capacity. We aimed to evaluate the level of preparedness of Emergency Departments in North West England for managing chemical incidents.
A face-to-face semi-structured interview was carried out with the Nurse Manager or a nominated deputy in all 18 Emergency Departments in the Region.
16/18 departments had a written chemical incident plan but only 7 had the plan available at interview. All had a designated decontamination area but only 11 felt that they were adequately equipped. 12/18 had a current training programme for chemical incident management and 3 had no staff trained in decontamination. 13/18 could contain contaminated water from casualty decontamination and 6 could provide shelter for casualties before decontamination.
We have identified major inconsistencies in the preparedness of North West Emergency Departments for managing chemical incidents. Nationally recognized standards on incident planning, facilities, equipment and procedures need to be agreed and implemented with adequate resources. Issues of environmental safety and patient dignity and comfort should also be addressed.
PMCID: PMC2241633  PMID: 18096030

Results 1-15 (15)