Background and Aims
Previous studies have shown impaired cerebral autoregulation (CA) in carotid and middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis/occlusion. Little is known about CA in patients with basilar artery (BA) stenosis. We therefore investigated dynamic CA patterns in BA stenosis using transfer function analysis (TFA).
We measured spontaneous oscillations of blood flow velocity (CBFV) in the right posterior cerebral artery (PCA), and left MCA and mean arterial pressure (ABP) continuously in 25 patients with BA stenosis (moderate n=16 with 50-69% occlusion and severe n=9 with ≥70% occlusion) and 22 healthy volunteers in supine position during 6 circles per minute deep breath. Analysis was based on the ‘black-box’ model of transfer function deriving phase and gain in both PCA and MCA.
Though changes of phase shift and gain between the patients and healthy controls were observed in MCA, the differences are however not significant. Phase shift in PCA was significantly decreased in severe stenosis when comparing with healthy controls and moderate stenosis (4.2±34.2° VS 41.1±40.4°, 4.2±34.2° VS 34.2±27.2°, both p<0.05), whilst the gain in PCA is increased for moderate BA stenosis and decreased for severe BA stenosis. Furthermore, we found that phase shift were almost abolished in patients with ischemic stroke who developed unfavorable clinical outcome (mRs>2) on the 90 days after stroke onset.
Dynamic CA in PCA reduces in patients with severe BA stenosis and those with ischemic stroke who present poor outcome in 90 days after stroke onset. Phase shift might be a sensitive index prompting impaired CA in posterior circulation.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays a critical role in the regulation of chondrogenesis. In this study, we have found for the first time that Runt-related transcription factor 1 (Runx1) contributes to PTH-induced chondrogenesis. Upon PTH treatment, limb bud mesenchymal progenitor cells in micromass culture showed an enhanced chondrogenesis, which was associated with a significant increase of chondrogenic marker gene expression, such as type II collagen and type X collagen. Runx1 was also exclusively expressed in cells treated with PTH at the onset stage of chondrogenesis. Knockdown of Runx1 completely blunted PTH-mediated chondrogenesis. Furthermore, PTH induced Runx1 expression and chondrogenesis were markedly reduced by inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. Taken together, our present study indicates that chondrogenesis induced by PTH in mesenchymal progenitor cells is mediated by Runx1, which involves the activation of PKA. These data provide a novel insight into understanding the molecular mechanisms behind PTH-enhanced cartilage regeneration.
Background and Purpose. Inflammation exists in inception, progression, and reperfusion of acute ischemic stroke. Insightful understanding of correlation in inflammatory mediators and stroke severity with intracranial artery stenosis may improve rational stroke therapy. Methods. We prospectively recruited 977 patients with acute noncardioembolic ischemic stroke with MCA stenosis by MRA as none to mild (<50%), moderate (50–69%), severe (70–99%), or occlusive (100%). The peripheral levels of WBC, homocysteine (HCY), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were recorded. All patients were assessed of 1-year outcome by mRS as favorable (0–2) or poor (3–6). Results. The levels of WBC, HCY, and hs-CRP had no significant differences in patients with categorized MCA stenosis (all P > 0.05). Higher levels of WBC, HCY, and hs-CRP were found in patients with 1-year poor outcome (all P < 0.05), but only hs-CRP is an independent predictor (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.027–1.093, P = 0.0003). The combination of any two of increased hs-CRP (>3 mg/L), WBC (>6.91 × 109/L), and HCY (>15 μmol/L) had higher power in predicting 1-year poor outcome than the single elevated mediator. Conclusions. Elevated hs-CRP independently predicts 1-year poor outcome in acute stroke. The combination of increased hs-CRP, WBC, or HCY had a stronger predictive value in poor outcome than individual elevated mediator.
The incidence of low back pain is extremely high and is often linked to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. The mechanism of this disease is currently unknown. In this study, we have investigated the role of β-catenin signaling in IVD tissue function.
β-catenin protein levels were measured in disc samples derived from patients with disc degeneration and normal subjects by immunohistochemistry (IHC). To generate β-catenin conditional activation (cAct) mice, Col2a1-CreERT2 transgenic mice were bred with β-cateninfx(Ex3)/fx(Ex3) mice. Changes in disc tissue morphology and function were analyzed by micro-CT, histology and real-time PCR assays.
We found that β-catenin protein was up-regulated in disc tissues from patients with disc degeneration. To assess the effects of increased β-catenin on disc tissue we generated β-catenin cAct mice. Overexpression of β-catenin in disc cells led to extensive osteophyte formation in 3- and 6-month-old β-catenin cAct mice which were associated with significant changes in the cells and extracellular matrix of disc tissues and growth plate. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that activation of β-catenin could enhance Runx2-dependent Mmp13 and Adamts5 expression. Moreover, genetic ablation of the Mmp13 or Adamts5 under β-catenin cAct background, or treatment of β-catenin cAct mice with a specific MMP13 inhibitor, ameliorated the mutant phenotype.
β-catenin signaling pathway plays a critical role in disc tissue function.
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major cause of failure in cancer chemotherapy. Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) has been extensively explored for the treatment of MDR in cancer because of its ability to inhibit P-glycoprotein. Here, we have established multifunctional nanoparticles (MFNPs) using a single-molecule modification of TPGS, which can deliver a hydrophobic drug, paclitaxel (PTX), and a hydrophilic drug, fluorouracil (5-FU), and overcome MDR in cancer. Our data indicated that, when delivered into a PTX-resistant cell line using MFNPs, the combination of PTX and 5-FU was more cytotoxic than each agent individually.
multidrug resistance; TPGS; paclitaxel; multifunctional nanoparticles
The efficacy of antihypertensive (AH) treatment after stroke has been investigated in several randomized clinical trials. However, non-adherence to AH medication is common for stroke patients in “real world” setting. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of persistence with AH agents on ischemic stroke (IS) outcomes.
Methods and Results
Using the China National Stroke Registry, we analyzed data from 8409 IS patients with hypertension. Persistence with AH therapy (high persistence ≥75%, low persistence <75%) was measured by patient self-report at 3, 6, and 12 months after stroke. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship between persistence and IS outcomes (stroke recurrence, combined vascular events and death) at 12 months. Of the 8409 patients in this study, 40.0% were female and the mean age at study entry was 66.7 years. 31.6% of patients had high persistence with AH drugs, and 68.4% had low persistence during 1 year after stroke onset. High persistence with AH drugs significantly decreased the risk of stroke recurrence (odds ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.89), combined vascular events (0.71; 0.63–0.81) and death (0.44; 0.36–0.53) compared with low persistence.
Our study reinforces the benefits of AH medications in routine clinical practice and highlights the importance of persistence with AH therapy among IS patients known to be hypertensive within the first year of an event.
Rahnella aquatilis strain HX2 is a plant growth-promoting, disease-suppressive rhizobacterium that was isolated from a vineyard soil in Beijing, China. Here, we report the genome sequence of this strain, which provides a valuable resource for future research examining the mechanisms of traits associated with plant growth promotion and biocontrol.
In vitro studies of hepatocytes have implicated over-activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling as a mechanism of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)-induced apoptosis. However, the functional significance of JNK activation and the role of specific JNK isoforms in TNF-induced hepatic apoptosis in vivo remain unclear. JNK1 and JNK2 function was, therefore, investigated in the TNF-dependent, galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS) model of liver injury. The toxin GalN converted LPS-induced JNK signaling from a transient to prolonged activation. Liver injury and mortality from GalN/LPS was equivalent in wild-type and jnk1−/− mice but markedly decreased in jnk2−/− mice. This effect was not secondary to down-regulation of TNF receptor 1 expression or TNF production. In the absence of jnk2, the caspase-dependent, TNF death pathway was blocked, as reflected by the failure of caspase-3 and -7 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage to occur. JNK2 was critical for activation of the mitochondrial death pathway, as in jnk2−/− mice Bid cleavage and mitochondrial translocation and cytochrome c release were markedly decreased. This effect was secondary to the failure of jnk2−/− mice to activate caspase-8. Liver injury and caspase activation were similarly decreased in jnk2 null mice after GalN/TNF treatment. Ablation of jnk2 did not inhibit GalN/LPS-induced c-Jun kinase activity, although activity was completely blocked in jnk1−/− mice. Toxic liver injury is, therefore, associated with JNK over-activation and mediated by JNK2 promotion of caspase-8 activation and the TNF mitochondrial death pathway through a mechanism independent of c-Jun kinase activity.
Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) is an important cause of ischemic stroke worldwide. The role of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the development of ICAS remains to be elucidated. In the current study, we investigated the relationship of HDL-C level and the risk of developing ICAS in Chinese patients with acute ischemic stroke.
From October 2007 to June 2009, a total of 1,984 consecutive ischemic stroke patients were evaluated for the presence of symptomatic ICAS by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Patients were classified into two groups: intracranial steno-occlusion (ICAS group, n = 888) and non-intracranial stenosis (NICAS group, n = 1096). Serum lipid profiles were analyzed and compared between the ICAS and NICAS group.
Significantly more patients in ICAS group had low HDL-C level (51.6%) than in the NICAS group (42.9%, P<0.001). The observed association remained significant after adjustment for conventional risk factors [(adjusted OR 1.36; 95%CI (1.13–1.63)]. Such predictive value of low level HDL-C persisted even when LDL-C was at very low level(<1.8 mmol/L). Patients in the lowest serum HDL-C quartile (<0.96 mmol/L) had the highest risk of developing ICAS [adjusted OR 1.52; 95%CI (1.17–1.98)] compared to patients in the highest serum HDL-C quartile (≥1.32 mmol/L) after adjustments for the covariates.
Low HDL-C level is strongly associated with the development of ICAS. There was an inverse relationship between the level of HDL-C and the risk of developing ICAS.
Many Sox proteins play important roles both in mesoderm and ectoderm development. It is reported that Sox2, a member of this family, is essential for the maintenance of the self-renewal of embryonic stem cells (ES) and neural stem cells (NSCs). To investigate whether Sox2 participates in mesoderm development besides ectoderm, Sox2 was introduced into C3H10T1/2 cells.
We produced recombinant retrovirus expressing Sox2 in GP2-293t cells and infected the virus into C3H10T1/2 cells. Growth property, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, mineralized nodules, osteogenic gene expression and related signal pathways were analysed and compared between Sox2-expressing cells and control cells.
Sox2 over-expression led to increased proliferation of C3H10T1/2 cells, activation of Wnt/β-catenin and p38MAPK pathways. When cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium, ALP and mineralized nodules formation were inhibited in Sox2 over-expressing cells with down-regulation of osteogenic gene expression as well as inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin and p38MAPK pathways.
All these data suggested that over-expression of Sox2 promoted proliferation and inhibited osteoblast differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells.
Medicine & Public Health; Orthopedics
The enolase2 gene is usually expressed in mature neurons and also named neuron specific enolase (NSE). In the present study, we first obtained the NSE gene cDNA sequence by using the RACE method based on the expressed sequence tag (EST) fragment from the cDNA library of Gekko japonicus and identified one transcript of about 2.2 kb in central nervous system of Gekko japonicus by Northern blotting. The open reading frame of NSE is 1305 bp, which encodes a 435 amino-acid protein. We further investigated the multi-tissue expression pattern of NSE by RT-PCR and found that the expression of NSE mRNA was very high in brain, spinal cord and low in heart, while it was not detectable in other tissues. The real-time quantitative PCR was used to investigate the time-dependent change in the expression of the NSE mRNA level after gecko spinal cord transection and found it significantly increased at one day, reaching its highest level three days post-injury and then decreasing at the seventh day of the experiment. The recombinant plasmid of pET-32a-NSE was constructed and induced to express His fused NSE protein. The purified NSE protein was used to immunize rabbits to generate polyclonal antisera. The titer of the antiserum was more than 1:65536 determined by ELISA. Western blotting showed that the prepared antibody could specifically recognize the recombinant and endogenous NSE protein. The result of immunohistochemistry revealed that positive signals were present in neurons of the brain and the spinal cord. This study provided the tools of cDNA and polyclonal antibody for studying NSE function in Gekko japonicus.
Gekko japonicus; Molecular cloning; Neuron specific enolase (NSE); polyclonal antibody
Vitamin C (VC) is well known as an antioxidant in humans, primates and guinea pigs. Studies have suggested gender differences in VC requirements in humans, and gender differences in oxidant injury vulnerability in early life may represent a biological mechanism contributing to gender disparity in later life. Using spontaneous bone fracture (sfx) mice, which lack the gene for L-Gulonolactone oxidase (Gulo), we studied the potential sex difference in expression profiles of oxidative genes at the whole-genome level. Then, we analyzed data of gene expressions in a mouse population of recombinant inbred (RI) strains originally derived by crossing C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mice. Our data indicated that there were sex differences in the regulation of pre- and pro-oxidative genes in sfx mice. The associations of expression levels among Gulo, its partner genes and oxidative genes in the BXD (B6 × D2) RI strains showed a sex difference. Transcriptome mapping suggests that Gulo was regulated differently between female and male mice in BXD RI strains. Our study indicates the importance of investigating sex differences in Gulo and its oxidative function by using available mouse models.
L-Gulonolactone oxidase; mouse; oxidative; vitamin C; sex
HWTI is a 55-residue protein isolated from the venom of the spider Ornithoctonus huwena. It is a potent trypsin inhibitor and a moderate voltage-gated potassium channel blocker. Here, we designed and expressed two HWTI mutants, HWTI-mut1 and HWTI-mut2, in which the potassium channel inhibitory activity was reduced while the trypsin inhibitory activity of the wild type form (approximately 5 EPU/mg) was retained. Animal studies showed that these mutants were less toxic than HWTI. The effects of HWTI and HWTI-mut1 were examined in a mouse model of acute pancreatitis induced by intraperitoneal injection of a large dose of L-arginine (4 mg/kg, twice). Serum amylase and serum lipase activities were assessed, and pathological sections of the pancreas were examined. Treatment with HWTI and HWTI-mut1 significantly reduced serum amylase and lipase levels in a dose dependent manner. Compared with the control group, at 4 mg/kg, HWTI significantly reduced serum amylase level by 47% and serum lipase level by 73%, while HWTI-mut1 significantly reduced serum amylase level by 59% and serum lipase level by 72%. Moreover, HWTI and HWTI-mut1 effectively protected the pancreas from acinar cell damage and inflammatory cell infiltration. The trypsin inhibitory potency and lower neurotoxicity of HWTI-mut1 suggest that it could potentially be developed as a drug for the treatment of acute pancreatitis with few side effects.
This study aimed to investigate the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in Chinese Han population.
Prospective and randomized studies were carried out.
A total of 700 patients (324 male and 376 female; mean age = 40±14.9 years) with depression who met the diagnostic criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) and 673 healthy controls (313 male and 360 female; mean age = 41.9±17.2 years) were used to investigate the relationship between SNPs of NPY and the pathogenesis of MDD. A total of 417 patients (195 male and 202 female; mean age = 36±14.2 years) diagnosed with MDD and 314 healthy controls (153 male and 161 female; mean age = 37.9±14.2 years) from Chinese Han population were used to verify the relationship between SNPs of NPY and the pathogenesis of MDD.
Intervention and outcome
Ligase detection reactions were performed to detect the SNP sites of NPY. A series of statistical methods was carried out to investigate the correlation between the NPY gene SNP and MDD.
Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the SNP sites rs16139 in NPY and the morbidity of depression. Patients with MDD have a lower frequency of A-allele in rs16139 in replicate samples from Chinese Han population. However, the frequency varied between male and female patients.
The gene polymorphism loci rs16139 was closely related to MDD in Chinese Han population.
After traumatic injury, peripheral nerves can spontaneously regenerate through highly sophisticated and dynamic processes that are regulated by multiple cellular elements and molecular factors. Despite evidence of morphological changes and of expression changes of a few regulatory genes, global knowledge of gene expression changes and related biological processes during peripheral nerve injury and regeneration is still lacking. Here we aimed to profile global mRNA expression changes in proximal nerve segments of adult rats after sciatic nerve transection. According to DNA microarray analysis, the huge number of genes was differentially expressed at different time points (0.5 h–14 d) post nerve transection, exhibiting multiple distinct temporal expression patterns. The expression changes of several genes were further validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. The gene ontology enrichment analysis was performed to decipher the biological processes involving the differentially expressed genes. Collectively, our results highlighted the dynamic change of the important biological processes and the time-dependent expression of key regulatory genes after peripheral nerve injury. Interestingly, we, for the first time, reported the presence of olfactory receptors in sciatic nerves. Hopefully, this study may provide a useful platform for deeply studying peripheral nerve injury and regeneration from a molecular-level perspective.
Previous reports have shown inconsistent results on clinical outcomes between women and men after stroke, and little is known about gender differences on outcomes in Chinese post-stroke patients. The aim of this study was to explore whether there were gender differences on clinical characteristics and outcomes in Chinese patients after ischemic stroke by using the data from the China National Stroke Registry (CNSR).
Methods and Findings
Out of 12,415 consecutively recruited patients with acute ischemic stroke in the CNSR from 2007 to 2008, 11,560 (93.1%) patients were followed up for 12 months. Their clinical characteristics and outcomes on death, recurrence, and dependency were recorded. The multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine whether there were gender differences in these outcomes. Women were older than men at baseline (67.9 vs. 64.0 years, P<0.001). Women had a higher mortality, recurrence rate, and dependency rate at 3, 6, and 12 months than men, but after adjusting for age, history of diabetes, pre-stroke dependency, stroke severity, in-hospital complications, and other confounders, there were no statistically significant differences in gender on mortality and recurrence rate at 3, 6, and 12 months; and dependency rate at 3, and 6 months. However, the dependency rate at 12 months remained significantly higher in women (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.45).
There are many differences in clinical characteristics between women and men after ischemic stroke in China. Compared with men, women are more dependent at 12 months after stroke. This difference still exists after controlling the potential confounders.
Depression has been associated with reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. Genetic association studies of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) in geriatric depression have produced inconsistent results. A meta-analysis of studies was conducted to compare the frequency of the BDNF Val66Met variant between cases with geriatric depression and age-matched controls. A total of five studies involving 523 cases with geriatric depression and 1,220 psychiatrically healthy controls was included. Met allele carriers had an increased risk for geriatric depression when compared to Val/Val homozygotes (P =0.004, OR =1.48, 95% CI =1.13–1.93). Our findings suggest the BDNF Met allele may confer increased risk for depression as individual age.
BDNF; Val66Met; geriatric; depression; meta-analysis
Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for secondary prevention in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. Prescription of and persistence with antihypertensives for secondary prevention is high in developed countries; whether this is true in China is unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of antihypertensive medication use, and factors associated with its use, 1 year after stroke in China.
A total of 7880 hypertensive patients diagnosed with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack in the China National Stroke Registry were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with antihypertensive medication use at discharge and 12 months.
Antihypertensive medication was used by 4458 (56.6%) participants at discharge and 2927 (37.1%) at 12 months. Calcium channel blockers were the most common among five classes of antihypertensive medication prescribed at discharge, and participants prescribed this class had the highest 1-year persistence. In-hospital health education was the strongest predictor of antihypertensive medication use at discharge; age and stroke severity were the strongest negative predictors of use at 12 months.
Use of antihypertensive medication 1 year after stroke is extremely low in China. Intervention is needed to improve adherence to antihypertensive medication, especially for the elderly and severe stroke patients.
antihypertensive agents; secondary stroke prevention; stroke
To investigate the influence of the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) subtypes in doctors’ decisions to use antihypertensive prescriptions at discharge for ischemic stroke patients in a real-world setting.
Using the China National Stroke Registry, we analyzed data from 12,063 hospitalized patients who had been diagnosed with ischemic stroke. The cause of ischemic stroke was classified according to the TOAST criteria. The information about the prescription of antihypertensive medication at discharge was extracted from medical records. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the impact of TOAST subtypes on the prescription of antihypertensive medication at discharge.
Multivariate analysis showed that, compared with large artery atherosclerosis patients with moderate (<70%) stenosis, large artery atherosclerosis patients with severe (≥70%) stenosis or patients with stroke of undetermined etiology were less likely to be prescribed antihypertensive medication at discharge (odds ratio [OR], 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59–0.88; OR, 0.71; 95% CI: 0.64–0.79), while patients with small artery occlusion were more likely to be prescribed antihypertensives (OR, 1.50; 95% CI: 1.33–1.69).
The TOAST subtype is an important determinant of the prescription of antihypertensive medication for ischemic stroke patients at discharge in normal clinical practice.
antihypertensive agents; ischemic stroke; TOAST classification
To analyze the effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on prognosis of ischemic stroke secondary to intracranial stenosis in Chinese patients.
A prospective cohort of 701 patients with ischemic stroke, caused by intracranial stenosis, were followed at 3-month intervals for 1 year to monitor development of recurrent stroke or death. Imaging was performed using magnetic resonance angiography. MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria.
MetS was identified in 26.0% of the cohort of stroke patients. Patients with MetS were more likely to be female, nonsmokers, and more likely to have a prior history of diabetes mellitus, high blood glucose and a family history of stroke than patients without MetS. During 1-year follow-up, patients with MetS had a non-significantly higher rate of stroke recurrence (7.1%) than patients without MetS (3.9%; P = 0.07). There was no difference in mortality (3.3% versus 3.5%, respectively). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis (adjusting for gender, BMI, smoking, diabetes, and LDL-C) identified an association between that 1-year stroke recurrence and the presence of MetS (hazard ratio 2.30; 95% CI: 1.01–5.22) and large waist circumference (hazard ratio: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.05–5.42). However, multivariable analysis adjusting for the individual components of MetS found no significant associations between MetS and stroke recurrence. There were no associations between these parameters and mortality.
Chinese patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis who have MetS, are at higher risk of recurrent stroke than those without MetS. However, MetS was not predictive of stroke recurrence beyond its individual components and one-year mortality.
Metabolic syndrome has emerged as a novel risk factor in cardiovascular disease due to its potential for predicting stroke in population-based studies. We investigated the relationship of metabolic syndrome with stroke recurrence.
This was a retrospective analysis of Chinese patients enrolled in the prospective Abnormal gluCose Regulation in patients with acute strOke acroSS China (ACROSS-China) study after their first ischemic stroke. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Vascular risk factors were assessed. Outcome was defined as recurrence of stroke within one year after the index ischemic stroke. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to identify potential predictors of stroke recurrence.
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 2639 ischemic stroke patients was 51.35%. During the one-year follow-up, 195 strokes (7.4%) recurred. The multivariate hazard ratio (95% CI) of stroke recurrence was 1.94 (1.39–2.73) for metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for components, metabolic syndrome lost its association with stroke recurrence; in this model, high fasting plasma glucose (IDF definition) was a predictor for stroke recurrence.
Metabolic syndrome may not be predictive for stroke recurrence beyond its component individual factors for Chinese ischemic stroke patients.
Synchronizing rhythms of behavior and metabolic processes is important for cardiovascular health and preventing metabolic diseases. The nuclear receptors REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ play an integral role in regulating the expression of core clock proteins driving rhythms in activity and metabolism. Here we describe the identification of potent synthetic REV-ERB agonists with in vivo activity. Administration of synthetic REV-ERB ligands alters circadian behavior and the circadian pattern of core clock gene expression in the hypothalami of mice. The circadian pattern of expression of an array of metabolic genes in the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue was also altered resulting in increased energy expenditure. Treatment of diet-induced obese mice with a REV-ERB agonist decreased obesity by reducing fat mass and markedly improving dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. These results suggest that synthetic REV-ERB ligands that pharmacologically target the circadian rhythm may hold utility in the treatment of sleep disorders as well as metabolic diseases.
Crush injury or axotomy of peripheral nerves results in the rapid production of the inflammatory cytokines, which were confirmed in various models, to some extent, to be noxious to the myelin sheath or Schwann cells (SCs). TNF-α is one of the primary initiators of the inflammatory cascade and exerts pleiotropic functions in the physiological conditions by binding to its receptors, type I (TNFRI) and type II (TNFRII). The pathway molecules TNFRI, Birc2 and Birc3 play key roles during the activation of the signaling. Injured peripheral nerves, preventing them from TNF-α-mediated destruction and proceeding to successful regeneration, might initiate an anti-apoptotic mechanism. To identity the exact functions of TNFRI, Birc2 and Birc3, as well as its involved pathways in the cellular events, we inferred a dynamic gene regulatory network from short time-series measurements of the proximal nerve segment cDNA microarray following rat sciatic nerve transection. TNFRI family member Tnfrsf1a, Birc2 and Birc3 were mined out integrating as master regulators to mediate inflammatory responses. Experiments revealed that Tnfrsf1a, Birc2 and Birc3 proteins colocalized with S100 in the rat peripheral nerve tissues, and the expression levels increased with the time extension. Knockdown of the proteins induced the apoptotic formation of primary cultured SCs by upregulation of caspase 3 and caspase 6. Our systematic analysis indicated that Tnfrsf1a, Birc2 and Birc3 of SCs, not originally regarded as XIAP, were mainly responsible for the inflammation-mediated anti-apoptosis of peripheral nerves. Birc2 and Birc3 might be the most potential targets for anti-apoptotic protection mediated by inflammatory cytokines.