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author:("Wang, yinlong")
1.  Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis based on H37Rv binding peptides using surface functionalized magnetic microspheres coupled with quantum dots – a nano detection method for Mycobacterium tuberculosis 
Despite suffering from the major disadvantage of low sensitivity, microscopy of direct smear with the Ziehl–Neelsen stain is still broadly used for detection of acid-fast bacilli and diagnosis of tuberculosis. Here, we present a unique detection method of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) using surface functionalized magnetic microspheres (MMSs) coupled with quantum dots (QDs), conjugated with various antibodies and phage display-derived peptides. The principle is based upon the conformation of the sandwich complex composed of bacterial cells, MMSs, and QDs. The complex system is tagged with QDs for providing the fluorescent signal as part of the detection while magnetic separation is achieved by MMSs. The peptide ligand H8 derived from the phage display library Ph.D.-7 is developed for MTB cells. Using the combinations of MMS-polyclonal antibody+QD-H8 and MMS-H8+QD-H8, a strong signal of 103 colony forming units (CFU)/mL H37Rv was obtained with improved specificity. MS-H8+QD-H8 combination was further optimized by adjusting the concentrations of MMSs, QDs, and incubation time for the maximum detection signal. The limit of detection for MTB was found to reach 103 CFU/mL even for the sputum matrices. Positive sputum samples could be distinguished from control. Thus, this novel method is shown to improve the detection limit and specificity of MTB from the sputum samples, and to reduce the testing time for accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis, which needs further confirmation of more clinical samples.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S71700
PMCID: PMC4275054  PMID: 25565805
Mycobacterium tuberculosis; phage display; binding peptides; magnetic microspheres; quantum dots; detection
2.  Web-based tool for dynamic functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke and comparison with existing models 
BMC Neurology  2014;14(1):214.
Background
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is one of the leading causes of death and adult disability worldwide. In the present study, we aimed to develop a web-based risk model for predicting dynamic functional status at discharge, 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year after acute ischemic stroke (Dynamic Functional Status after Acute Ischemic Stroke, DFS-AIS).
Methods
The DFS-AIS was developed based on the China National Stroke Registry (CNSR), in which eligible patients were randomly divided into derivation (60%) and validation (40%) cohorts. Good functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≤ 2 at discharge, 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year after AIS, respectively. Independent predictors of each outcome measure were obtained using multivariable logistic regression. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and plot of observed and predicted risk were used to assess model discrimination and calibration.
Results
A total of 12,026 patients were included and the median age was 67 (interquartile range: 57–75). The proportion of patients with good functional outcome at discharge, 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year after AIS was 67.9%, 66.5%, 66.9% and 66.9%, respectively. Age, gender, medical history of diabetes mellitus, stroke or transient ischemic attack, current smoking and atrial fibrillation, pre-stroke dependence, pre-stroke statins using, admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, admission blood glucose were identified as independent predictors of functional outcome at different time points after AIS. The DFS-AIS was developed from sets of predictors of mRS ≤ 2 at different time points following AIS. The DFS-AIS demonstrated good discrimination in the derivation and validation cohorts (AUROC range: 0.837-0.845). Plots of observed versus predicted likelihood showed excellent calibration in the derivation and validation cohorts (all r = 0.99, P < 0.001). When compared to 8 existing models, the DFS-AIS showed significantly better discrimination for good functional outcome and mortality at discharge, 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year after AIS (all P < 0.0001).
Conclusion
The DFS-AIS is a valid risk model to predict functional outcome at discharge, 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year after AIS.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12883-014-0214-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12883-014-0214-z
PMCID: PMC4255632
Acute ischemic stroke; Prognosis; Risk model
3.  Cost-Effectiveness of Thrombolysis within 4.5 Hours of Acute Ischemic Stroke in China 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e110525.
Background
Previous economic studies conducted in developed countries showed intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is cost-effective for acute ischemic stroke. The present study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of tPA treatment in China, the largest developing country.
Methods
A combination of decision tree and Markov model was developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of tPA treatment versus non-tPA treatment within 4.5 hours after stroke onset. Outcomes and costs data were derived from the database of Thrombolysis Implementation and Monitor of acute ischemic Stroke in China (TIMS-China) study. Efficacy data were derived from a pooled analysis of ECASS, ATLANTIS, NINDS, and EPITHET trials. Costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were compared in both short term (2 years) and long term (30 years). One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results.
Results
Comparing to non-tPA treatment, tPA treatment within 4.5 hours led to a short-term gain of 0.101 QALYs at an additional cost of CNY 9,520 (US$ 1,460), yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of CNY 94,300 (US$ 14,500) per QALY gained in 2 years; and to a long-term gain of 0.422 QALYs at an additional cost of CNY 6,530 (US$ 1,000), yielding an ICER of CNY 15,500 (US$ 2,380) per QALY gained in 30 years. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that tPA treatment is cost-effective in 98.7% of the simulations at a willingness-to-pay threshold of CNY 105,000 (US$ 16,200) per QALY.
Conclusions
Intravenous tPA treatment within 4.5 hours is highly cost-effective for acute ischemic strokes in China.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0110525
PMCID: PMC4203798  PMID: 25329637
4.  Glycated hemoglobin independently or in combination with fasting plasma glucose versus oral glucose tolerance test to detect abnormal glycometabolism in acute ischemic stroke: a Chinese cross-sectional study 
BMC Neurology  2014;14(1):177.
Background
The investigation of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as a diagnostic tool for abnormal glycometabolism is lack in acute ischemic stroke patients in China and worldwide. This paper was aimed to determine whether HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), or HbA1c combined with FPG, could be used to screen for diabetes mellitus (DM) or prediabetes in acute ischemic stroke patients without previous DM.
Methods
Acute ischemic stroke patients without previous DM (n = 1,316) were selected from the Abnormal gluCose Regulation in Patients with Acute StrOke acrosS China Study (ACROSS-China). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), HbA1c, FPG, and HbA1c combined with FPG were used as the screening methods to categorize the glycometabolic status. OGTT was taken as the golden method. Venn diagrams and the overlap index were used to determine the associations among the three methods of identifying abnormal glycometabolism. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and Youden index were used to assess and compare the accuracy in detecting abnormal glycometabolism. Youden analyses were performed to determine the ideal cutoff values of HbA1c in diagnosing abnormal glycometabolism.
Results
In acute ischemic stroke patients without previous DM, the overlaps of HbA1c versus OGTT, HbA1c versus FPG, and all the three methods independently, were low for detecting abnormal glycometabolism (all <50%). HbA1c can significantly detect more cases of prediabetes than OGTT (P < 0.001). The combination of HbA1c and FPG significantly raised the sensitivity to over 60.0%, specificity to over 80.0%, and the diagnostic accuracy (Youden index from under 40.0% to 42.4%)for DM. HbA1c of 5.7%-6.4% had a low to moderate concordance with OGTT for identifying prediabetes (AUROC = 0.557, P = 0.001). HbA1c values of 6.3% and 5.9% were found to be the ideal cutoff values for detecting DM and abnormal glycometabolism in our data, respectively.
Conclusions
The combination of HbA1c and FPG increased the diagnostic rate of DM when compared with OGTT, and increased the diagnostic accuracy for DM compared with HbA1c or FPG alone. Our results advocate the use of HbA1c as screening tool for the diagnosis of pre-diabetes.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12883-014-0177-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12883-014-0177-0
PMCID: PMC4172972  PMID: 25209629
Diabetes mellitus; HbA1c; Ischemic stroke; OGTT; Prediabetes
5.  Risk Factors of Dilated Virchow-Robin Spaces Are Different in Various Brain Regions 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e105505.
Background and Purpose
Few studies have reported on the risk factors of dilated Virchow-Robin Spaces (dVRS) in large samples of ischemic stroke patients. Little evidence exists regarding the relationship between dVRS and etiologic subtype of ischemic stroke or lacune. We aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with the severity of dVRS in a large sample of ischemic stroke patients.
Methods
We consecutively enrolled 1,090 patients who experienced an ischemic stroke within the past seven days and underwent a 3.0 T MRI scan in the Chinese IntraCranial AtheroSclerosis Study (ICAS). Clinical data and cranial MRI information of patients included age, sex, vascular risk factors, dVRS, leukoaraiosis, lacune, and etiologic subtype of ischemic stroke. Analyses were performed regarding the risk factors associated with the severity of dVRS by univariate analysis and multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis.
Results
Through multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis, age, the severity of leukoaraiosis, lacune, admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) ≤3, and the severity of dVRS in the white matter (WM) and hippocampus (Hip) were correlated with the severity of dVRS in basal ganglia (BG); male, history of hypertension, admission NIHSS ≤3, and the severity of dVRS in BG and Hip were correlated with the severity of dVRS in WM; female, the severity of leukoaraiosis, admission NIHSS >3, small artery occlusion subtype of ischemic stroke, and the severity of dVRS in BG and WM were correlated with the severity of dVRS in Hip.
Conclusion
dVRS is an indicator of cerebral small vessel diseases such as leukoaraiosis and lacune. However, the risk factors of dVRS differ in various brain regions.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105505
PMCID: PMC4144854  PMID: 25157843
6.  Safety of Low-Dose Aspirin in Endovascular Treatment for Intracranial Atherosclerotic Stenosis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e105252.
Objectives
To evaluate the safety of low-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel versus high-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel in prevention of vascular risk within 90 days of duration of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients treated with intracranial endovascular treatment.
Methods
From January 2012 to December 2013, this prospective and observational study enrolled 370 patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis of ≥70% with poor collateral undergoing intracranial endovascular treatment. Antiplatelet therapy consists of aspirin, at a low-dose of 100 mg or high-dose of 300 mg daily; clopidogrel, at a dose of 75 mg daily for 5 days before endovascular treatment. The dual antiplatelet therapy continued for 90 days after intervention. The study endpoints include acute thrombosis, subacute thrombosis, stroke or death within 90 days after intervention.
Results
Two hundred and seventy three patients received low-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel and 97 patients received high-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel before intracranial endovascular treatment. Within 90 days after intervention, there were 4 patients (1.5%) with acute thrombosis, 5 patients (1.8%) with subacute thrombosis, 17 patients (6.2%) with stroke, and 2 death (0.7%) in low-dose aspirin group, compared with no patient (0%) with acute thrombosis, 2 patient (2.1%) with subacute thrombosis, 6 patients (6.2%) with stroke, and 2 death (2.1%) in high-dose aspirin group, and there were no significant difference in all study endpoints between two groups.
Conclusion
Low-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel is comparative in safety with high-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel within 90 days of duration of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients treated with intracranial endovascular treatment.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105252
PMCID: PMC4140744  PMID: 25144449
7.  Protocol for a prospective, multicentre registry study of stenting for symptomatic intracranial artery stenosis in China 
BMJ Open  2014;4(8):e005175.
Introduction
The SAMMPRIS trial suggested that aggressive treatment was superior to endovascular stenting in patients with severe symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) due to high complication rates in patients in the stenting group. Given that 12.2% patients failed aggressive medical therapy in the SAMMPRIS study, it is imperative to perform a multicentre prospective registry study of stenting for patients with ICAS in China. This study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endovascular stenting for patients with symptomatic intracranial artery stenosis and poor collaterals in China and to identify the characteristics of the population that would benefit the most from endovascular stenting in Chinese patients.
Methods and analysis
This multicentre prospective registry study will involve 20 stroke centres in China, and plans to recruit 300 patients into the registry. Patients with ≥70% stenosis and symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease caused by hypoperfusion combined with poor collaterals who met the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria would be enrolled for this study. The primary outcome is the target vessel stroke event (including haemorrhagic or ischaemic stroke) or death within 30 days after stenting. The secondary outcomes include the successful recanalisation rate, the incidence of recurrent ischaemic stroke in the territory of the stented artery between 30 days and 1 year postoperatively, the restenosis rate and health-related quality of life.
Ethics and dissemination
The protocol is approved by the ethics committee at the coordinating centre and by the local institutional review board at each participating centre. Findings will be shared with participating hospitals, policymakers and the academic community to promote quality monitoring, quality improvement and the efficient allocation and use of cerebral catheterisation and intracranial artery stenting in China.
Trial registration number
http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01968122).
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005175
PMCID: PMC4127916  PMID: 25107437
Stroke medicine < INTERNAL MEDICINE
8.  Risk score to predict gastrointestinal bleeding after acute ischemic stroke 
BMC Gastroenterology  2014;14:130.
Background
Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a common and often serious complication after stroke. Although several risk factors for post-stroke GIB have been identified, no reliable or validated scoring system is currently available to predict GIB after acute stroke in routine clinical practice or clinical trials. In the present study, we aimed to develop and validate a risk model (acute ischemic stroke associated gastrointestinal bleeding score, the AIS-GIB score) to predict in-hospital GIB after acute ischemic stroke.
Methods
The AIS-GIB score was developed from data in the China National Stroke Registry (CNSR). Eligible patients in the CNSR were randomly divided into derivation (60%) and internal validation (40%) cohorts. External validation was performed using data from the prospective Chinese Intracranial Atherosclerosis Study (CICAS). Independent predictors of in-hospital GIB were obtained using multivariable logistic regression in the derivation cohort, and β-coefficients were used to generate point scoring system for the AIS-GIB. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test were used to assess model discrimination and calibration, respectively.
Results
A total of 8,820, 5,882, and 2,938 patients were enrolled in the derivation, internal validation and external validation cohorts. The overall in-hospital GIB after AIS was 2.6%, 2.3%, and 1.5% in the derivation, internal, and external validation cohort, respectively. An 18-point AIS-GIB score was developed from the set of independent predictors of GIB including age, gender, history of hypertension, hepatic cirrhosis, peptic ulcer or previous GIB, pre-stroke dependence, admission National Institutes of Health stroke scale score, Glasgow Coma Scale score and stroke subtype (Oxfordshire). The AIS-GIB score showed good discrimination in the derivation (0.79; 95% CI, 0.764-0.825), internal (0.78; 95% CI, 0.74-0.82) and external (0.76; 95% CI, 0.71-0.82) validation cohorts. The AIS-GIB score was well calibrated in the derivation (P = 0.42), internal (P = 0.45) and external (P = 0.86) validation cohorts.
Conclusion
The AIS-GIB score is a valid clinical grading scale to predict in-hospital GIB after AIS. Further studies on the effect of the AIS-GIB score on reducing GIB and improving outcome after AIS are warranted.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-14-130
PMCID: PMC4120715  PMID: 25059927
10.  Cost‐Effectiveness of Clopidogrel‐Aspirin Versus Aspirin Alone for Acute Transient Ischemic Attack and Minor Stroke 
Background
Treatment with the combination of clopidogrel and aspirin taken soon after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke was shown to reduce the 90‐day risk of stroke in a large trial in China, but the cost‐effectiveness is unknown. This study sought to estimate the cost‐effectiveness of the clopidogrel‐aspirin regimen for acute TIA or minor stroke.
Methods and Results
A Markov model was created to determine the cost‐effectiveness of treatment of acute TIA or minor stroke patients with clopidogrel‐aspirin compared with aspirin alone. Inputs for the model were obtained from clinical trial data, claims databases, and the published literature. The main outcome measure was cost per quality‐adjusted life‐years (QALYs) gained. One‐way and multivariable probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the findings. Compared with aspirin alone, clopidogrel‐aspirin resulted in a lifetime gain of 0.037 QALYs at an additional cost of CNY 1250 (US$ 192), yielding an incremental cost‐effectiveness ratio of CNY 33 800 (US$ 5200) per QALY gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that clopidogrel‐aspirin therapy was more cost‐effective in 95.7% of the simulations at a willingness‐to‐pay threshold recommended by the World Health Organization of CNY 105 000 (US$ 16 200) per QALY.
Conclusions
Early 90‐day clopidogrel‐aspirin regimen for acute TIA or minor stroke is highly cost‐effective in China. Although clopidogrel is generic, Plavix is brand in China. If Plavix were generic, treatment with clopidogrel‐aspirin would have been cost saving.
doi:10.1161/JAHA.114.000912
PMCID: PMC4309076  PMID: 24904018
clopidogrel; cost‐effectiveness; quality‐adjusted life‐year; stroke
11.  Association between Statin Use and Short-Term Outcome Based on Severity of Ischemic Stroke: A Cohort Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e84389.
Background
Statins reportedly improve clinical outcomes for ischemic stroke patients. However, it is unclear whether the contribution of statin treatment varies depending on the severity of stroke. We sought to investigate the relationship between statin use and the outcome of acute first-ever ischemic stroke patients stratified by stroke severity.
Methods
A total of 7,455 acute first-ever ischemic stroke patients without statin treatment before onset were eligible from the China National Stroke Registry. A National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 0 to 4 was defined as minor stroke, and a NIHSS score of >4 was defined as non-minor stroke. We analyzed the association between statin use during hospitalization and mortality as well as functional outcome (measured by a modified Rankin Scale score of 0–5) at 3 months after onset using multivariable logistic regression models.
Results
A total of 3,231 (43.3%) patients received statin treatment during hospitalization. Multivariable analysis showed that statin use during hospitalization decreased mortality of ischemic stroke patients (OR, 0.51; 95%CI, 0.38–0.67), but did not improve poor functional outcomes (OR, 0.95; 95CI%, 0.81–1.11) at 3 months. The interaction between statin use and stroke severity was significant both in dependence and death outcome (P = 0.04 for dependence outcome, P = 0.03 for death outcome). After stratification by stroke severity, statin use during hospitalization decreased the mortality of stroke (OR, 0.44; 95%CI, 0.31–0.62) and poor functional outcome (OR, 0.73; 95%CI, 0.57–0.92) at 3 months in the non-minor stroke group.
Conclusions
Statin use during hospitalization may improve the clinical outcome of acute first-ever ischemic stroke depending on the severity of stroke. Non-minor stroke patients may obtain benefit from statin treatment with improvements in poor functional outcomes and mortality.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084389
PMCID: PMC3897364  PMID: 24465409
12.  Abnormal Organization of White Matter Network in Patients with No Dementia after Ischemic Stroke 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e81388.
Structural changes after ischemic stroke could affect information communication extensively in the brain network. It is likely that the defects in the white matter (WM) network play a key role in information interchange. In this study, we used graph theoretical analysis to examine potential organization alteration in the WM network architecture derived from diffusion tensor images from subjects with no dementia and experienced stroke in the past 5.4–14.8 months (N = 47, Mini-Mental Screening Examination, MMSE range 18–30), compared with a normal control group with 44 age and gender-matched healthy volunteers (MMSE range 26–30). Region-wise connectivity was derived from fiber connection density of 90 different cortical and subcortical parcellations across the whole brain. Both normal controls and patients with chronic stroke exhibited efficient small-world properties in their WM structural networks. Compared with normal controls, topological efficiency was basically unaltered in the patients with chronic stroke, as reflected by unchanged local and global clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, and regional efficiency. No significant difference in hub distribution was found between normal control and patient groups. Patients with chronic stroke, however, were found to have reduced betweenness centrality and predominantly located in the orbitofrontal cortex, whereas increased betweenness centrality and vulnerability were observed in parietal-occipital cortex. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of patient is correlated with the betweenness centrality of right pallidum and local clustering coefficient of left superior occipital gyrus. Our findings suggest that patients with chronic stroke still exhibit efficient small-world organization and unaltered topological efficiency, with altered topology at orbitofrontal cortex and parietal-occipital cortex in the overall structural network. Findings from this study could help in understanding the mechanism of cognitive impairment and functional compensation occurred in patients with chronic stroke.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081388
PMCID: PMC3862493  PMID: 24349063
13.  A novel risk score to predict 1-year functional outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage and comparison with existing scores 
Critical Care  2013;17(6):R275.
Introduction
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Several predictive models have been developed for ICH; however, none of them have been consistently used in routine clinical practice or clinical research. In the study, we aimed to develop and validate a risk score for predicting 1-year functional outcome after ICH (ICH Functional Outcome Score, ICH-FOS). Furthermore, we compared discrimination of the ICH-FOS and 8 existing ICH scores with regard to 30-day, 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year functional outcome and mortality after ICH.
Methods
The ICH-FOS was developed based on the China National Stroke Registry, in which eligible patients were randomly divided into derivation (60%) and validation (40%) cohorts. Poor functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale score (mRS) ≥3 at 1 year after ICH. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine independent predictors, and β-coefficients were used to generate scoring system of the ICH-FOS. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test were used to assess model discrimination and calibration.
Results
The overall 1-year poor functional outcome (mRS ≥ 3) was 46.7% and 44.9% in the derivation (n = 1,953) and validation (n = 1,302) cohorts, respectively. A 16-point ICH-FOS was developed from the set of independent predictors of 1-year poor functional outcome after ICH including age (P < 0.001), admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (P < 0.001), Glasgow Coma Scale score (P < 0.001), blood glucose (P = 0.002), ICH location (P < 0.001), hematoma volume (P < 0.001), and intraventricular extension (P < 0.001). The ICH-FOS showed good discrimination (AUROC) in the derivation (0.836, 95% CI: 0.819-0.854) and validation (0.830, 95% CI: 0.808-0.852) cohorts. The ICH-FOS was well calibrated (Hosmer-Lemeshow test) in the derivation (P = 0.42) and validation (P = 0.39) cohort. When compared to 8 prior ICH scores, the ICH-FOS showed significantly better discrimination with regard to 1-year functional outcome and mortality after ICH (all P < 0.0001). Meanwhile, the ICH-FOS also demonstrated either comparable or significantly better discrimination for poor functional outcome and mortality at 30-day, 3-month, and 6-month after ICH.
Conclusion
The ICH-FOS is a valid clinical grading scale for 1-year functional outcome after ICH. Further validation of the ICH-FOS in different populations is needed.
doi:10.1186/cc13130
PMCID: PMC4056008  PMID: 24289116
14.  Glycated Hemoglobin Independently Predicts Stroke Recurrence within One Year after Acute First-Ever Non-Cardioembolic Strokes Onset in A Chinese Cohort Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e80690.
Objective
Hyperglycemia is related to stroke. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) can reflect pre-stroke glycaemia status. However, the information on the direct association between HbA1c and recurrence after non-cardioembolic acute ischemic strokes is rare and there is no consistent conclusion.
Methods
The ACROSS-China database comprised of 2186 consecutive first-ever acute ischemic stroke patients with baseline HbA1c values. After excluding patients who died from non-stroke recurrence and patients lost to follow up, 1817 and 1540 were eligible for 3-month and 1-year analyses, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression was performed to evaluate the associations between HbA1c and 3-month and 1-year stroke recurrence.
Results
The HbA1c values at admission were divided into 4 levels by quartiles: Q1 (<5.5%); Q2 (5.5 to <6.1%); Q3 (6.1% to <7.2%); and Q4 (≥7.2%). The cumulative recurrence rates were 8.3% and 11.0% for 3 months and 1 year, respectively. In multivariate analyses, when compared with Q1, the adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) were 2.83 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-6.26) in Q3 and 3.71(95% CI 1.68-8.21) in Q4 for 3-month stroke recurrence; 3.30 (95% CI 1.31-8.34) in Q3 and 3.35 (95% CI 1.36-8.21) in Q4 for 1-year stroke recurrence. Adding fasting plasma glucose in the multivariate analyses did not modify the association: AHRs were 2.75 (95% CI 1.24-6.11) in Q3 and 3.67 (95% CI 1.59-8.53) in Q4 for 3-month analysis; AHRs were 3.08 (95% CI 1.10-8.64) in Q3 and 3.31(95% CI 1.35-8.14) in Q4 for 1-year analysis.
Conclusions
A higher “normal” HbA1c level reflecting pre-stroke glycaemia status independently predicts stroke recurrence within one year after non-cardioembolic acute ischemic stroke onset. HbA1c is recommended as a routine test in acute ischemic stroke patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080690
PMCID: PMC3827473  PMID: 24236195
15.  Prognostic Value of ICH Score and ICH-GS Score in Chinese Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients: Analysis From the China National Stroke Registry (CNSR) 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e77421.
Purpose
No strongevidenceofefficacycurrently exists for different intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) scoring system in predicting the prognosis of ICH in the Chinese population. This study aimed to test the accuracyof the ICH score and the ICH grading scale (ICH-GS) score in predicting the favorable prognosis in a large cohort of ICH patients in China.
Methods
This study was a multicenter, prospective cohort study. Patients diagnosed with ICH between September 2007 and August 2008 from the nationwide China National Stroke Registry (CNSR) databasewere screened andenrolled in this study. Demographics of the patients, treatments, mortalityas well as the clinic and radiologic findings of ICH were collected.AnICH score and anICH-GS score were evaluated for all the patients atadmission. Follow-ups were conducted by phone at 3, 6 and 12 months after ICH onset. The modified Rankin scale (mRS) score was used to evaluate favorable functional outcome and was obtained at hospital dischargeand duringthe 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up visits.
Results
There were 410 (12.6%) in-hospitalmortalityout of a total of 3,255 ICH patients. Thevalues of the Area Under Curve (AUC)at discharge, 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up for ICH score were 0.72, 0.76, 0.76 and 0.75, respectively; whilethe numbers for the ICH-GS score were 0.71, 0.77, 0.78 and 0.78, respectively. At 6-month and 12-month follow-up, the ICH-GS score presented a significant better value in predicting favorable prognosis than did the ICH score (P=0.0003 and <0.0001, respectively).
Conclusion
Both the ICH and ICH-GS scores were effective inaccurately predicting the favorable functional outcome of ICH in the Chinese population. For mid-term and long-term prediction, the ICH-GS score was superiorover the ICH score.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077421
PMCID: PMC3797805  PMID: 24146993
16.  Prognostic Value of Inflammatory Mediators in 1-Year Outcome of Acute Ischemic Stroke with Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis 
Mediators of Inflammation  2013;2013:850714.
Background and Purpose. Inflammation exists in inception, progression, and reperfusion of acute ischemic stroke. Insightful understanding of correlation in inflammatory mediators and stroke severity with intracranial artery stenosis may improve rational stroke therapy. Methods. We prospectively recruited 977 patients with acute noncardioembolic ischemic stroke with MCA stenosis by MRA as none to mild (<50%), moderate (50–69%), severe (70–99%), or occlusive (100%). The peripheral levels of WBC, homocysteine (HCY), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were recorded. All patients were assessed of 1-year outcome by mRS as favorable (0–2) or poor (3–6). Results. The levels of WBC, HCY, and hs-CRP had no significant differences in patients with categorized MCA stenosis (all P > 0.05). Higher levels of WBC, HCY, and hs-CRP were found in patients with 1-year poor outcome (all P < 0.05), but only hs-CRP is an independent predictor (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.027–1.093, P = 0.0003). The combination of any two of increased hs-CRP (>3 mg/L), WBC (>6.91 × 109/L), and HCY (>15 μmol/L) had higher power in predicting 1-year poor outcome than the single elevated mediator. Conclusions. Elevated hs-CRP independently predicts 1-year poor outcome in acute stroke. The combination of increased hs-CRP, WBC, or HCY had a stronger predictive value in poor outcome than individual elevated mediator.
doi:10.1155/2013/850714
PMCID: PMC3760102  PMID: 24023414
17.  Validation of the Los Angeles Pre-Hospital Stroke Screen (LAPSS) in a Chinese Urban Emergency Medical Service Population 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e70742.
Background and purpose
Early and accurate diagnosis of stroke by emergency medical service (EMS) paramedics is critical for reducing pre-hospital delays. The Los Angeles pre-hospital stroke screen (LAPSS) has been widely used as a validated screening tool for early identifying stroke patients by EMS paramedics. However, validation of LAPSS has never been performed in Chinese stroke population. This study is aimed to verify the LAPSS for early identifying stroke patients in a Chinese urban EMS.
Methods
76 paramedics of five urban first aid stations attached to Beijing 120 EMS were involved. The paramedics were trained by professionals to quickly screen patients based on LAPSS. Potential “target stroke” individuals who met the base LAPSS screen criteria were identified. Sensitivity and specificity analyses of the LAPSS were calculated.
Results
From June 10, 2009 to June 10, 2010, paramedics transported a total of 50,220 patients. 1550 patients who met the baseline screen criteria were identified as the potential “target stroke” population. 1130 patients had the completed LAPSS information datasheet and 997 patients were clinically diagnosed with stroke. The average time of completing the LAPSS was 4.3±3.0 minutes (median, 5 minutes). The sensitivity and specificity of the LAPSS in this study was 78.44% and 90.22%, respectively. After adjusting for age factor by excluding patients of >45 years old, the sensitivity was significantly increased to 82.95% with specificity unchanged.
Conclusion
The paramedics of Beijing 120 EMS could efficiently use LAPSS as a screening tool for early identifying stroke patients. While the sensitivity of LAPSS in Chinese urban patient population was lower than those reported in previous LAPSS validation studies, the specificity was consistent with these studies. After excluded the item of “Age>45 years”, the sensitivity was improved.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070742
PMCID: PMC3737357  PMID: 23950994
18.  Impact of a Better Persistence with Antihypertensive Agents on Ischemic Stroke Outcomes for Secondary Prevention 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e65233.
Background
The efficacy of antihypertensive (AH) treatment after stroke has been investigated in several randomized clinical trials. However, non-adherence to AH medication is common for stroke patients in “real world” setting. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of persistence with AH agents on ischemic stroke (IS) outcomes.
Methods and Results
Using the China National Stroke Registry, we analyzed data from 8409 IS patients with hypertension. Persistence with AH therapy (high persistence ≥75%, low persistence <75%) was measured by patient self-report at 3, 6, and 12 months after stroke. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship between persistence and IS outcomes (stroke recurrence, combined vascular events and death) at 12 months. Of the 8409 patients in this study, 40.0% were female and the mean age at study entry was 66.7 years. 31.6% of patients had high persistence with AH drugs, and 68.4% had low persistence during 1 year after stroke onset. High persistence with AH drugs significantly decreased the risk of stroke recurrence (odds ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.89), combined vascular events (0.71; 0.63–0.81) and death (0.44; 0.36–0.53) compared with low persistence.
Conclusions
Our study reinforces the benefits of AH medications in routine clinical practice and highlights the importance of persistence with AH therapy among IS patients known to be hypertensive within the first year of an event.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065233
PMCID: PMC3679119  PMID: 23776454
19.  Synergistic Removal of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Humic Acid by Fe3O4@Mesoporous Silica-Graphene Oxide Composites 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e65634.
The synergistic adsorption of heavy metal ions and humic acid can be very challenging. This is largely because of their competitive adsorption onto most adsorbent materials. Hierarchically structured composites containing polyethylenimine-modified magnetic mesoporous silica and graphene oxide (MMSP-GO) were here prepared to address this. Magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres were synthesized and functionalized with PEI molecules, providing many amine groups for chemical conjugation with the carboxyl groups on GO sheets and enhanced the affinity between the pollutants and the mesoporous silica. The features of the composites were characterized using TEM, SEM, TGA, DLS, and VSM measurements. Series adsorption results proved that this system was suitable for simultaneous and efficient removal of heavy metal ions and humic acid using MMSP-GO composites as adsorbents. The maximum adsorption capacities of MMSP-GO for Pb(II) and Cd (II) were 333 and 167 mg g−1 caculated by Langmuir model, respectively. HA enhances adsorption of heavy metals by MMSP-GO composites due to their interactions in aqueous solutions. The underlying mechanism of synergistic adsorption of heavy metal ions and humic acid were discussed. MMSP-GO composites have shown promise for use as adsorbents in the simultaneous removal of heavy metals and humic acid in wastewater treatment processes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065634
PMCID: PMC3679167  PMID: 23776514
20.  Low HDL-C Level Is Associated with the Development of Intracranial Artery Stenosis: Analysis from the Chinese IntraCranial AtheroSclerosis (CICAS) Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e64395.
Background
Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) is an important cause of ischemic stroke worldwide. The role of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the development of ICAS remains to be elucidated. In the current study, we investigated the relationship of HDL-C level and the risk of developing ICAS in Chinese patients with acute ischemic stroke.
Methods
From October 2007 to June 2009, a total of 1,984 consecutive ischemic stroke patients were evaluated for the presence of symptomatic ICAS by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Patients were classified into two groups: intracranial steno-occlusion (ICAS group, n = 888) and non-intracranial stenosis (NICAS group, n = 1096). Serum lipid profiles were analyzed and compared between the ICAS and NICAS group.
Results
Significantly more patients in ICAS group had low HDL-C level (51.6%) than in the NICAS group (42.9%, P<0.001). The observed association remained significant after adjustment for conventional risk factors [(adjusted OR 1.36; 95%CI (1.13–1.63)]. Such predictive value of low level HDL-C persisted even when LDL-C was at very low level(<1.8 mmol/L). Patients in the lowest serum HDL-C quartile (<0.96 mmol/L) had the highest risk of developing ICAS [adjusted OR 1.52; 95%CI (1.17–1.98)] compared to patients in the highest serum HDL-C quartile (≥1.32 mmol/L) after adjustments for the covariates.
Conclusions
Low HDL-C level is strongly associated with the development of ICAS. There was an inverse relationship between the level of HDL-C and the risk of developing ICAS.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064395
PMCID: PMC3656851  PMID: 23691210
21.  Correction: Gender Differences in 1-Year Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes after Stroke: Results from the China National Stroke Registry 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):10.1371/annotation/3ff065bf-8100-4ddd-be5b-88f81ffcfe04.
doi:10.1371/annotation/3ff065bf-8100-4ddd-be5b-88f81ffcfe04
PMCID: PMC3609721
22.  Gender Differences in 1-Year Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes after Stroke: Results from the China National Stroke Registry 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e56459.
Background
Previous reports have shown inconsistent results on clinical outcomes between women and men after stroke, and little is known about gender differences on outcomes in Chinese post-stroke patients. The aim of this study was to explore whether there were gender differences on clinical characteristics and outcomes in Chinese patients after ischemic stroke by using the data from the China National Stroke Registry (CNSR).
Methods and Findings
Out of 12,415 consecutively recruited patients with acute ischemic stroke in the CNSR from 2007 to 2008, 11,560 (93.1%) patients were followed up for 12 months. Their clinical characteristics and outcomes on death, recurrence, and dependency were recorded. The multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine whether there were gender differences in these outcomes. Women were older than men at baseline (67.9 vs. 64.0 years, P<0.001). Women had a higher mortality, recurrence rate, and dependency rate at 3, 6, and 12 months than men, but after adjusting for age, history of diabetes, pre-stroke dependency, stroke severity, in-hospital complications, and other confounders, there were no statistically significant differences in gender on mortality and recurrence rate at 3, 6, and 12 months; and dependency rate at 3, and 6 months. However, the dependency rate at 12 months remained significantly higher in women (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.45).
Conclusions
There are many differences in clinical characteristics between women and men after ischemic stroke in China. Compared with men, women are more dependent at 12 months after stroke. This difference still exists after controlling the potential confounders.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056459
PMCID: PMC3572058  PMID: 23418571
23.  Patterns and predictors of antihypertensive medication used 1 year after ischemic stroke or TIA in urban China 
Background
Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for secondary prevention in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. Prescription of and persistence with antihypertensives for secondary prevention is high in developed countries; whether this is true in China is unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of antihypertensive medication use, and factors associated with its use, 1 year after stroke in China.
Methods
A total of 7880 hypertensive patients diagnosed with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack in the China National Stroke Registry were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with antihypertensive medication use at discharge and 12 months.
Results
Antihypertensive medication was used by 4458 (56.6%) participants at discharge and 2927 (37.1%) at 12 months. Calcium channel blockers were the most common among five classes of antihypertensive medication prescribed at discharge, and participants prescribed this class had the highest 1-year persistence. In-hospital health education was the strongest predictor of antihypertensive medication use at discharge; age and stroke severity were the strongest negative predictors of use at 12 months.
Conclusion
Use of antihypertensive medication 1 year after stroke is extremely low in China. Intervention is needed to improve adherence to antihypertensive medication, especially for the elderly and severe stroke patients.
doi:10.2147/PPA.S39800
PMCID: PMC3553336  PMID: 23378743
antihypertensive agents; secondary stroke prevention; stroke
24.  TOAST subtypes: its influence upon doctors’ decisions of antihypertensive prescription at discharge for ischemic stroke patients 
Aim
To investigate the influence of the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) subtypes in doctors’ decisions to use antihypertensive prescriptions at discharge for ischemic stroke patients in a real-world setting.
Methods
Using the China National Stroke Registry, we analyzed data from 12,063 hospitalized patients who had been diagnosed with ischemic stroke. The cause of ischemic stroke was classified according to the TOAST criteria. The information about the prescription of antihypertensive medication at discharge was extracted from medical records. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the impact of TOAST subtypes on the prescription of antihypertensive medication at discharge.
Results
Multivariate analysis showed that, compared with large artery atherosclerosis patients with moderate (<70%) stenosis, large artery atherosclerosis patients with severe (≥70%) stenosis or patients with stroke of undetermined etiology were less likely to be prescribed antihypertensive medication at discharge (odds ratio [OR], 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59–0.88; OR, 0.71; 95% CI: 0.64–0.79), while patients with small artery occlusion were more likely to be prescribed antihypertensives (OR, 1.50; 95% CI: 1.33–1.69).
Conclusion
The TOAST subtype is an important determinant of the prescription of antihypertensive medication for ischemic stroke patients at discharge in normal clinical practice.
doi:10.2147/PPA.S38565
PMCID: PMC3529652  PMID: 23269862
antihypertensive agents; ischemic stroke; TOAST classification
25.  Impact of Metabolic Syndrome on the Prognosis of Ischemic Stroke Secondary to Symptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis in Chinese Patients 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e51421.
Objectives
To analyze the effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on prognosis of ischemic stroke secondary to intracranial stenosis in Chinese patients.
Methods
A prospective cohort of 701 patients with ischemic stroke, caused by intracranial stenosis, were followed at 3-month intervals for 1 year to monitor development of recurrent stroke or death. Imaging was performed using magnetic resonance angiography. MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria.
Results
MetS was identified in 26.0% of the cohort of stroke patients. Patients with MetS were more likely to be female, nonsmokers, and more likely to have a prior history of diabetes mellitus, high blood glucose and a family history of stroke than patients without MetS. During 1-year follow-up, patients with MetS had a non-significantly higher rate of stroke recurrence (7.1%) than patients without MetS (3.9%; P = 0.07). There was no difference in mortality (3.3% versus 3.5%, respectively). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis (adjusting for gender, BMI, smoking, diabetes, and LDL-C) identified an association between that 1-year stroke recurrence and the presence of MetS (hazard ratio 2.30; 95% CI: 1.01–5.22) and large waist circumference (hazard ratio: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.05–5.42). However, multivariable analysis adjusting for the individual components of MetS found no significant associations between MetS and stroke recurrence. There were no associations between these parameters and mortality.
Conclusions
Chinese patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis who have MetS, are at higher risk of recurrent stroke than those without MetS. However, MetS was not predictive of stroke recurrence beyond its individual components and one-year mortality.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051421
PMCID: PMC3519650  PMID: 23251528

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