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1.  The Mini-BESTest - a clinically reproducible tool for balance evaluations in mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease? 
BMC Neurology  2014;14(1):235.
Background
The Mini-BESTest is a clinical balance test that has shown a high sensitivity in detecting balance impairments in elderly with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, its reproducibility between different raters and between test occasions has yet to be investigated in a clinical context. Moreover, no one has investigated the reproducibility of the Mini-BESTest's subcomponents (i.e. anticipatory postural adjustments; postural responses; sensory orientation and dynamic gait).
We aimed to investigate the inter-rater and test-retest reproducibility (reliability as well as agreement) of the Mini-BESTest, as well as its subcomponents, in elderly with mild to moderate PD, performed under conditions assimilating clinical practice.
Method
This was an observational measurement study with a test-retest design.
Twenty-seven individuals with idiopathic PD (66 - 80 years, mean age: 73; Hoehn & Yahr: 2-3; 1-15 years since diagnosis) were included. Two test administrators, having different experiences with the Mini-BESTest, administered the test individually, in separate rooms in a hospital setting. For the test-retest assessment, all participants returned 7 days after the first test session to perform the Mini-BESTest under similar conditions. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC2.1), standard error of measurement (SEMagreement), and smallest real difference (SRD) were analyzed.
Results
The Mini-BESTest showed good reliability for both inter-rater and test-retest reproducibility (ICC = 0.72 and 0.80). Regarding agreement, the measurement error (SRD) was found to be 4.1 points (accounting for 15% of the maximal total score) for inter-rater reproducibility and 3.4 points (12% of the maximal total score) for test-retest reproducibility. The investigation of the Mini-BESTest's subcomponents showed a similar pattern for both inter-rater and test-retest reproducibility, where postural responses had the largest proportional measurement error, and sensory orientation showed the highest agreement.
Conclusions
Our findings indicate that the Mini-BESTest is able to distinguish between individuals with mild to moderate PD; however, when used in clinical balance assessments, the large measurement error needs to be accounted for.
doi:10.1186/s12883-014-0235-7
PMCID: PMC4272769  PMID: 25496796
Reliability; Measurement error; Psychometric; Balance; Balance evaluation systems test; Test-retest; Inter-rater; Smallest real difference
2.  A novel conceptual framework for balance training in Parkinson’s disease-study protocol for a randomised controlled trial 
BMC Neurology  2012;12:111.
Background
There is increasing scientific knowledge about the interaction between physiological (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cognitive and sensory) systems and their influence on balance and walking impairments in Parkinson’s disease. We have developed a new conceptual framework for balance training, emphasising specific components of balance control related to Parkinson’s disease symptoms by using highly challenging, progressive and varying training conditions. The primary aim of this proposed randomised controlled trial will be to investigate the short-term and long-term effects of a 10-week balance training regime in elderly with Parkinson’s disease.
Methods/Design
Eighty participants with mild to moderate idiopathic Parkinson’s disease will be recruited and randomly allocated to an intervention group receiving balance training or a control group whose participants will continue to receive their usual care. The intervention will consist of a 10-week group training regime (1-hour training, three times per week), which will be led by two physiotherapists to ensure training progression and safety. The conceptual framework will be applied by addressing specific balance components (sensory integration, anticipatory postural adjustments, motor agility, stability limits) through varying training conditions and structured progression. Assessment will be conducted through a multi-dimensional battery of outcomes, prior to and immediately after the 10-week intervention, and at 9 and 15 months’ follow-up after entering the study. Primary outcome measures will be balance performance (assessed using the Mini Balance Evaluation Systems Test), change in gait velocity (m/s) between single and dual task walking, and fear of falling (evaluated using the Fall Efficacy Scale International).
Discussion
This study has the potential to provide new insight and knowledge of the effects of specific, varied and challenging balance training on a wide health spectrum in elderly with PD. If found to be effective, this pragmatic approach with translation of theory into practice, can be implemented in existing outpatient care.
Trial registration
NCT01417598
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-12-111
PMCID: PMC3482553  PMID: 23017069
3.  Factors associated with patients self-reported adherence to prescribed physical activity in routine primary health care 
BMC Family Practice  2010;11:38.
Background
Written prescriptions of physical activity have increased in popularity. Such schemes have mostly been evaluated in terms of efficacy in clinical trials. This study reports on a physical activity prescription referral scheme implemented in routine primary health care (PHC) in Sweden. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients' self-reported adherence to physical activity prescriptions at 3 and 12 months and to analyse different characteristics associated with adherence to these prescriptions.
Methods
Prospective prescription data were obtained for the general population in 37 of 42 PHC centres in Östergötland County, during 2004. The study population consisted of 3300.
Results
The average adherence rate to the prescribed activity was 56% at 3 months and 50% at 12 months. In the multiple logistic regression models, higher adherence was associated with higher activity level at baseline and with prescriptions including home-based activities.
Conclusions
Prescription from ordinary PHC staff yielded adherence in half of the patients in this PAR scheme follow-up.
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-11-38
PMCID: PMC2881909  PMID: 20482851
4.  Is there a demand for physical activity interventions provided by the health care sector? Findings from a population survey 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:34.
Background
Health care providers in many countries have delivered interventions to improve physical activity levels among their patients. Thus far, less is known about the population's interest to increase their physical activity levels and their opinion about the health care provider's role in physical activity promotion. The aims of this paper were to investigate the self-reported physical activity levels of the population and intention to increase physical activity levels, self-perceived need for support, and opinions about the responsibilities of both individuals and health care providers to promote physical activity.
Methods
A regional public health survey was mailed to 13 440 adults (aged 18-84 years) living in Östergötland County (Sweden) in 2006. The survey was part of the regular effort by the regional Health Authorities.
Results
About 25% of the population was categorised as physically active, 38% as moderately active, 27% as somewhat active, and 11% as low active. More than one-third (37%) had no intentions to increase their physical activity levels, 36% had thought about change, while 27% were determined to change. Lower intention to change was mainly associated with increased age and lower education levels. 28% answered that physical activity was the most important health-related behaviour to change "right now" and 15% of those answered that they wanted or needed support to make this change. Of respondents who might be assumed to be in greatest need of increased activity (i.e. respondents reporting poor general health, BMI>30, and inactivity) more than one-quarter wanted support to make improvements to their health. About half of the respondents who wanted support to increase their physical activity levels listed health care providers as a primary source for support.
Conclusions
These findings suggest that there is considerable need for physical activity interventions in this population. Adults feel great responsibility for their own physical activity levels, but also attribute responsibility for promoting increased physical activity to health care practitioners.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-34
PMCID: PMC2832886  PMID: 20100326
5.  Self-reported function and disability in late life – cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Swedish version of the late-life function and disability instrument 
Disability and Rehabilitation  2013;36(10):813-817.
Purpose
To translate and perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI) to Swedish, to investigate absolute and relative reliability, concurrent validity, and floor and ceiling effects within a Swedish-speaking sample of community-dwelling older adults with self-reported balance deficits and fear of falling.
Method
Translation, reliability and validation study of the LLFDI. Sixty-two community-dwelling, healthy older adults (54 women and 8 men) aged 68–88 years with balance deficits and fear of falling performed the LLFDI twice with an interval of 2 weeks.
Results
Test–retest agreement, intra-class correlation coefficient was very good, 0.87–0.91 in the LLFDI function component and 0.82–0.91 in the LLFDI disability component. The standard error of measure was small, 5–9%, and the smallest real difference was 14–24%. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) was high (0.90–0.96). Correlation with the SF-36 PCS and PF-10 was moderate in both LLFDI function, r = 0.39–0.68 and r = 0.35–0.52, and LLFDI disability, r = 0.40–0.63 and 0.34–0.57, respectively. There was no floor or ceiling effects.
Conclusion
The Swedish version of the LLFDI is a highly reliable and valid instrument for assessing function and disability in community-dwelling older women with self-reported balance deficits and fear of falling.Implications for RehabilitationThe Swedish LLFDI is a highly reliable and valid instrument for assessing function and disability in older women with self-reported balance deficits and fear of falling.The instrument may be used both in clinical settings and in research.The instrument is sensitive to change and a reasonably small improvement is enough to detect changes in a group or a single individual.
doi:10.3109/09638288.2013.819387
PMCID: PMC4046868  PMID: 23944179
Elderly; fear of falling; LLFDI; reliability; Swedish; validity
6.  Task-specific balance training improves self-assessed function in community-dwelling older adults with balance deficits and fear of falling: a randomized controlled trial 
Clinical Rehabilitation  2014;28(12):1189-1197.
Objective:
To evaluate the effects of a 12-week balance training programme on self-assessed function and disability in healthy community-dwelling older adults with self-perceived balance deficits and fear of falling.
Design:
A prospective, randomized controlled trial.
Setting:
Stockholm County, Sweden.
Participants:
A total of 59 community-dwelling older adults (42 women and 17 men) aged 67–93 were randomized to either an intervention group (n = 38) or to serve as controls (n = 21) after baseline testing.
Intervention:
The intervention was a 12-week, three times per week, progressive, specific and individually adjusted group balance-training programme.
Main measures:
Self-perceived function and disability measured with Late Life Function and Disability Instrument.
Results:
The intervention group reported improvement in overall function (p = 0.016), as well as in basic (p = 0.044) and advanced lower extremity function (p = 0.025) compared with the control group. The study showed no improvement in overall disability or upper extremity function.
Conclusion:
This group balance training programme improves self-assessed function in community-dwelling older adults with balance deficits and fear of falling.
doi:10.1177/0269215514534087
PMCID: PMC4230376  PMID: 24895381
Balance deficits; elderly; training; late life function and disability instrument

Results 1-6 (6)