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1.  Anterior interosseous nerve syndrome 
Neurology  2014;82(7):598-606.
Objective:
We sought to determine lesion sites and spatial lesion patterns in spontaneous anterior interosseous nerve syndrome (AINS) with high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography (MRN).
Methods:
In 20 patients with AINS and 20 age- and sex-matched controls, MRN of median nerve fascicles was performed at 3T with large longitudinal anatomical coverage (upper arm/elbow/forearm): 135 contiguous axial slices (T2-weighted: echo time/repetition time 52/7,020 ms, time of acquisition: 15 minutes 48 seconds, in-plane resolution: 0.25 × 0.25 mm). Lesion classification was performed by visual inspection and by quantitative analysis of normalized T2 signal after segmentation of median nerve voxels.
Results:
In all patients and no controls, T2 lesions of individual fascicles were observed within upper arm median nerve trunk and strictly followed a somatotopic/internal topography: affected were those motor fascicles that will form the anterior interosseous nerve further distally while other fascicles were spared. Predominant lesion focus was at a mean distance of 14.6 ± 5.4 cm proximal to the humeroradial joint. Discriminative power of quantitative T2 signal analysis and of qualitative lesion rating was high, with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity (p < 0.0001). Fascicular T2 lesion patterns were rated as multifocal (n = 17), monofocal (n = 2), or indeterminate (n = 1) by 2 independent observers with strong agreement (kappa = 0.83).
Conclusion:
It has been difficult to prove the existence of fascicular/partial nerve lesions in spontaneous neuropathies using clinical and electrophysiologic findings. With MRN, fascicular lesions with strict somatotopic organization were observed in upper arm median nerve trunks of patients with AINS. Our data strongly support that AINS in the majority of cases is not a surgically treatable entrapment neuropathy but a multifocal mononeuropathy selectively involving, within the main trunk of the median nerve, the motor fascicles that continue distally to form the anterior interosseous nerve.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000000128
PMCID: PMC3963415  PMID: 24415574
2.  The effects of levosimendan on brain metabolism during initial recovery from global transient ischaemia/hypoxia 
BMC Neurology  2012;12:81.
Backround
Neuroprotective strategies after cardiopulmonary resuscitation are currently the focus of experimental and clinical research. Levosimendan has been proposed as a promising drug candidate because of its cardioprotective properties, improved haemodynamic effects in vivo and reduced traumatic brain injury in vitro. The effects of levosimendan on brain metabolism during and after ischaemia/hypoxia are unknown.
Methods
Transient cerebral ischaemia/hypoxia was induced in 30 male Wistar rats by bilateral common carotid artery clamping for 15 min and concomitant ventilation with 6% O2 during general anaesthesia with urethane. After 10 min of global ischaemia/hypoxia, the rats were treated with an i.v. bolus of 24 μg kg-1 levosimendan followed by a continuous infusion of 0.2 μg kg-1 min-1. The changes in the energy-related metabolites lactate, the lactate/pyruvate ratio, glucose and glutamate were monitored by microdialysis. In addition, the effects on global haemodynamics, cerebral perfusion and autoregulation, oedema and expression of proinflammatory genes in the neocortex were assessed.
Results
Levosimendan reduced blood pressure during initial reperfusion (72 ± 14 vs. 109 ± 2 mmHg, p = 0.03) and delayed flow maximum by 5 minutes (p = 0.002). Whereas no effects on time course of lactate, glucose, pyruvate and glutamate concentrations in the dialysate could be observed, the lactate/pyruvate ratio during initial reperfusion (144 ± 31 vs. 77 ± 8, p = 0.017) and the glutamate release during 90 minutes of reperfusion (75 ± 19 vs. 24 ± 28 μmol·L-1) were higher in the levosimendan group. The increased expression of IL-6, IL-1ß TNFα and ICAM-1, extend of cerebral edema and cerebral autoregulation was not influenced by levosimendan.
Conclusion
Although levosimendan has neuroprotective actions in vitro and on the spinal cord in vivo and has been shown to cross the blood–brain barrier, the present results showed that levosimendan did not reduce the initial neuronal injury after transient ischaemia/hypoxia.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-12-81
PMCID: PMC3492141  PMID: 22920500
Levosimendan; Cerebral ischaemia; Hypoxia; Microdialysis
3.  Long-term efficacy and safety of incobotulinumtoxinA injections in patients with cervical dystonia 
Introduction
Previously, controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy and tolerability of fixed doses of incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin, NT 201, botulinum toxin type A free from complexing proteins) to treat cervical dystonia (CD). To explore the clinical relevance of these findings, this study evaluated long-term use of flexible dosing regimens of incobotulinumtoxinA in a setting close to real-life clinical practice.
Methods
Patients with CD received five injection sessions of incobotulinumtoxinA using flexible intervals (10–24 weeks) and dosing (≤300 Units) based on patients’ needs. Outcome measures included Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS), the Dystonia Discomfort Scale (DDS), Investigator Global Assessment of Efficacy (IGAE) and Patient Evaluation of Global Response (PEGR).
Results
Of 76 patients enrolled (men: 34%; naïve to botulinum toxin: 25%), 64 completed the study, receiving treatment over a duration of 49.3–114.1 weeks (total maximum duration: 121 weeks). Mean TWSTRS-Total and DDS scores significantly improved from study baseline to 4 weeks after each injection session (ranges of improvement: TWSTRS-Total: −11.7 to −14.3; DDS: −20.2 to −23.0). Up to 81.6% of investigators rated the efficacy as ‘good’ or ‘very good’ (IGAE) and up to 78.9% of patients rated the treatment response as ‘improved’ (PEGR). The most common adverse events were dysphagia, nasopharyngitis and headache.
Conclusions
In this long-term study, incobotulinumtoxinA was administered using more flexible dosing regimens than those permitted in previous controlled trials. Repeated injections of highly purified incobotulinumtoxinA are effective and well tolerated for the treatment of CD in a setting close to real-life clinical practice.
doi:10.1136/jnnp-2012-303608
PMCID: PMC3756428  PMID: 23687362
BOTULINUM TOXIN; DYSTONIA; MOVEMENT DISORDERS

Results 1-3 (3)