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author:("Sasaki, hideo")
1.  The dynamics of mucosal-associated invariant T cells in multiple sclerosis 
SpringerPlus  2016;5(1):1259.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory demyelination, gliosis and axonal loss in the Central Nervous System. Although the etiology of the disease has remained enigmatic, recent studies have suggested a role of the innate-like T cells, called Mucosal Associated Invariant T cells (MAITs) in the pathophysiology. In the present study, we have analyzed the relative frequency of MAITs and the expression of the cell surface antigens in MAITs to seek a possible link to the disease.
There was little difference in the frequency of total MAITs between healthy donors (HDs) and untreated MS patients, whereas the latter harbored more CD8lo/neg (DN) MAITs concomitant with a decrease in CD8high MAITs and in CD4 MAITs compared with those in HDs. While the expression of CCR5, CCR6, CD95, CD127, and CD150 has increased in untreated subjects compared with that in HDs, CD45RO has declined in untreated subjects in both DN MAITs and CD8hi MAITs. FTY720 therapy has increased the relative frequency of total MAITs in a time-dependent fashion up to 2 years. Intriguingly, FTY720 therapy for 3 years reversed the above phenotype, engendering more CD8high MAITs accompanied with decreased DN MAITs. FTY720 therapy affected the cytokine production from CD4 T cells and also enhanced the relative frequency of cells producing both TNF-α and IFN-γ from MAITs, CD8 T cells, and CD4 T cells compared with that in untreated subjects.
FTY 720 therapy enhanced the relative frequency of MAITs in MS patients in a time-dependent manner. Although the expression of CD8 in MAITs has been affected early by FTY720, longer treatment has reversed the phenotypic change. These data demonstrated that FTY720 induced dynamic change in the relative frequency and in the phenotype of MAITs in MS.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40064-016-2923-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4974206  PMID: 27536542
Multiple sclerosis; Mucosal associated invariant T cells; FTY720; Disease-modifying therapy; Phenotyping
2.  Identification of plasma microRNAs as a biomarker of sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 
Molecular Brain  2015;8:67.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, which leads to the loss of upper and lower motor neurons, with a currently unknown etiology. Specific biomarkers could help in early detection and diagnosis, and could also act as indicators of disease progression and therapy effectiveness. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (18–25 nucleotides), single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules that play important regulatory roles in animals and plants by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression, and are essential for nervous system development. Many of the genes associated with genetic ALS have pathological biological pathways related to RNA metabolism, and their pathogenesis may be affecting the maturing processes of miRNA.
We compared miRNA from the plasma of sALS patients and healthy controls using two cohorts; a discovery cohort analyzed with microarray (16 sALS patients and ten healthy controls) and a validation cohort confirmed with qPCR (48 sALS patients, 47 healthy controls and 30 disease controls). We measured the total amount of extracted RNA along with a spike-in control that ensured the quality of our quantification. A percentage of the 10–40 nt RNAs extracted from the total RNA showed a significant increase in ALS patients. There was a negative correlation between total RNA concentration and disease duration from onset to end point. Three of the miRNAs were up-regulated and six were down-regulated significantly in the discovery cohort. Since an internal control is required as a sample stability indicator of both the patients and controls in microarray analysis, we selected the miRNA showing the smallest dispersion and equivalency between the two groups’ mean value, and decided to use hsa-miR-4516. We found hsa-miR-4649-5p to be up-regulated, and hsa-miR-4299 to be down-regulated, where each was not influenced by clinical characteristics. EPHA4, a target gene linked to the nervous system which has also been reported to be a disease modifier of ALS, is the common and most notable target gene of hsa-miR-4649-5p and hsa-miR-4299.
We have shown the relationship circulating plasma miRNA has with both healthy controls and diseased patients. Hsa-miR-4649-5p and hsa-miR-4299 have the potential to be ALS diagnosis biomarkers.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13041-015-0161-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4619470  PMID: 26497046
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; microRNA; Biomarker
3.  Variants associated with Gaucher disease in multiple system atrophy 
Glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) variants that cause Gaucher disease are associated with Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). To investigate the role of GBA variants in multiple system atrophy (MSA), we analyzed GBA variants in a large case–control series.
We sequenced coding regions and flanking splice sites of GBA in 969 MSA patients (574 Japanese, 223 European, and 172 North American) and 1509 control subjects (900 Japanese, 315 European, and 294 North American). We focused solely on Gaucher-disease-causing GBA variants.
In the Japanese series, we found nine carriers among the MSA patients (1.65%) and eight carriers among the control subjects (0.89%). In the European series, we found three carriers among the MSA patients (1.35%) and two carriers among the control subjects (0.63%). In the North American series, we found five carriers among the MSA patients (2.91%) and one carrier among the control subjects (0.34%). Subjecting each series to a Mantel–Haenszel analysis yielded a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 2.44 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14–5.21) and a P-value of 0.029 without evidence of significant heterogeneity. Logistic regression analysis yielded similar results, with an adjusted OR of 2.43 (95% CI 1.15–5.37) and a P-value of 0.022. Subtype analysis showed that Gaucher-disease-causing GBA variants are significantly associated with MSA cerebellar subtype (MSA-C) patients (P = 7.3 × 10−3).
The findings indicate that, as in PD and DLB, Gaucher-disease-causing GBA variants are associated with MSA.
PMCID: PMC4402086  PMID: 25909086
4.  Analysis of microRNA from archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding small RNAs that regulate gene expression. This study investigated whether formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens from postmortem cases of neurodegenerative disorders would be suitable for miRNA profiling.
Ten FFPE samples from 6 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 4 neurologically normal controls were selected for miRNA analysis on the basis of the following criteria for RNA quality: (i) a postmortem interval of less than 6 hours, (ii) a formalin fixation time of less than 4 weeks, (iii) an RNA yield per sample of more than 500 ng, and (iv) sufficient quality of the RNA agarose gel image. An overall RNA extraction success rate was 46.2%. For ALS, a total of 364 miRNAs were identified in the motor cortex, 91 being up-regulated and 233 down-regulated. Target genes were predicted using miRNA bioinformatics software, and the data applied to ontology analysis. This indicated that one of the miRNAs up-regulated in ALS (miR-338-3p) had already been identified in leukocytes, serum, cerebrospinal fluid and frozen spinal cord from ALS patients.
Although analysis was possible for just under half of the specimens examined, we were able to show that informative miRNA data can be derived from archived FFPE samples from postmortem cases of neurodegenerative disorders.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40478-014-0173-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4279903  PMID: 25497327
AMBRA1; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Autophagy; Bioinformatics; Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimen; MicroRNA
5.  A 3-year cohort study of the natural history of spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 in Japan 
Only a few prospective studies have determined which clinical symptoms and factors are associated with the disease severity of spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). A multicenter longitudinal cohort study was conducted to clarify both the natural history of SCA6 in Japan and the factors influencing disease progression.
Patients were consecutively recruited between 2007 and 2008. Scores from the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and Barthel Index (BI) were collected prospectively each year. Additionally, data from the Japan intractable diseases research (IDR) registry were collected both retrospectively, from 2003 to 2006, and prospectively, from 2007 to 2010. As a result, we were able to collect 3 years of retrospective data and 4 years of prospective data during the course of 3 yearly visits.
Forty-six patients were registered. The follow-up rate of the third year was 93%. The SARA scores worsened significantly each year. Over 3 years, the decline of the SARA scores was 1.33 ± 1.40 points/year. The results of multivariate analysis of the decline of the SARA score were not significant. The IDR scores correlated well with the SARA and BI scores. Kaplan-Meier curves of 7 years of data from the IDR registry illustrated the correlation between the ability to walk and the time course of the disease.
Information regarding the progression of ataxia and the decline in the activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with SCA6 was obtained by a 3-year cohort study and a 7-year IDR study. The decline of the SARA score of patients with SCA6 was 1.33 ± 1.40 points/year. The results elucidate the natural history of SCA6, factors influencing disease severity, and utility of data from the IDR registry of Japan.
PMCID: PMC4223818  PMID: 25053188
Barthel Index; CAG repeat; International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale; Intractable diseases research; Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia; Spinocerebellar ataxia
6.  Hyperintense putaminal rim at 1.5 T: prevalence in normal subjects and distinguishing features from multiple system atrophy 
BMC Neurology  2012;12:39.
Hyperintense putaminal rim (HPR) is an important magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sign for multiple system atrophy (MSA). Recent studies have suggested that it can also be observed in normal subjects at 3 T. Whether it can be observed in normal subjects at 1.5 T is not known. This study aimed to determine whether HPR could be observed in normal subjects at 1.5 T; and if so, to establish its prevalence, the MRI characteristics, and the features which distinguish from HPR in MSA patients.
Axial T2-weighted images of 130 normal subjects were evaluated for the prevalence of HPR, its age and gender distribution, laterality, maximum dimension, association with hypointensity of nearby putamen, and presence of discontinuity. To distinguish from that observed in MSA, axial T2-weighted images of 6 MSA patients with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P) and 15 MSA patients with predominant cerebellar symptoms (MSA-C) were also evaluated. The characteristics of HPR were compared between these patients and age-matched normal subjects. The mean diffusivity (MD) values of putamen were also compared. Fisher’s exact test, t-test, and one way analysis of variance were used to determine significance at corrected p < 0.05.
HPR was observed in 38.5% of normal subjects. Age and gender predilection and laterality were not observed. In most cases, it occupied the full length or anterior half of the lateral margin of putamen, and was continuous throughout its length. Maximum transverse dimension was 2 mm. There was no association with hypointensity of nearby putamen. However, in MSA-P, HPR was located predominantly at the posterolateral aspect of putamen, and associated with putaminal atrophy. Discontinuity of HPR was more frequently observed in MSA-P. On visual analysis, the characteristics of HPR were similar between MSA-C patients and normal subjects. Patients with MSA of either type had significantly higher MD values of putamen than normal subjects.
HPR can be observed in 38.5% of normal subjects at 1.5 T. Thin linear hyperintensity without discontinuity, occupying the full length or anterior half of the lateral margin of the putamen, is suggestive of “normal.” In doubtful cases, measurement of the MD values of nearby putamen may be valuable.
PMCID: PMC3460737  PMID: 22708511
7.  Copy number loss of (src homology 2 domain containing)-transforming protein 2 (SHC2) gene: discordant loss in monozygotic twins and frequent loss in patients with multiple system atrophy 
Molecular Brain  2011;4:24.
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic disease. Its pathogenesis may involve multiple genetic and nongenetic factors, but its etiology remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that the genome of a patient with MSA would demonstrate copy number variations (CNVs) in the genes or genomic regions of interest. To identify genomic alterations increasing the risk for MSA, we examined a pair of monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for the MSA phenotype and 32 patients with MSA.
By whole-genome CNV analysis using a combination of CNV beadchip and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-based CNV microarrays followed by region-targeting, high-density, custom-made oligonucleotide tiling microarray analysis, we identified disease-specific copy number loss of the (Src homology 2 domain containing)-transforming protein 2 (SHC2) gene in the distal 350-kb subtelomeric region of 19p13.3 in the affected MZ twin and 10 of the 31 patients with MSA but not in 2 independent control populations (p = 1.04 × 10-8, odds ratio = 89.8, Pearson's chi-square test).
Copy number loss of SHC2 strongly indicates a causal link to MSA. CNV analysis of phenotypically discordant MZ twins is a powerful tool for identifying disease-predisposing loci. Our results would enable the identification of novel diagnostic measure, therapeutic targets and better understanding of the etiology of MSA.
PMCID: PMC3141657  PMID: 21658278
Multiple system atrophy; copy number variation; phenotypically discordant monozygotic twins; (Src homology 2 domain containing)-transforming protein 2; subtelomere; ataxia; parkinsonism; disease-susceptibility gene
8.  The carboxy-terminal fragment of α1A calcium channel preferentially aggregates in the cytoplasm of human spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 Purkinje cells 
Acta Neuropathologica  2009;119(4):447-464.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by a small polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion (control: 4–20Q; SCA6: 20–33Q) in the carboxyl(C)-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the α1A voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav2.1). Although a 75–85-kDa Cav2.1 C-terminal fragment (CTF) is toxic in cultured cells, its existence in human brains and its role in SCA6 pathogenesis remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether the small polyQ expansion alters the expression pattern and intracellular distribution of Cav2.1 in human SCA6 brains. New antibodies against the Cav2.1 C-terminus were used in immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. In the cerebella of six control individuals, the CTF was detected in sucrose- and SDS-soluble cytosolic fractions; in the cerebella of two SCA6 patients, it was additionally detected in SDS-insoluble cytosolic and sucrose-soluble nuclear fractions. In contrast, however, the CTF was not detected either in the nuclear fraction or in the SDS-insoluble cytosolic fraction of SCA6 extracerebellar tissues, indicating that the CTF being insoluble in the cytoplasm or mislocalized to the nucleus only in the SCA6 cerebellum. Immunohistochemistry revealed abundant aggregates in cell bodies and dendrites of SCA6 Purkinje cells (seven patients) but not in controls (n = 6). Recombinant CTF with a small polyQ expansion (rCTF-Q28) aggregated in cultured PC12 cells, but neither rCTF-Q13 (normal-length polyQ) nor full-length Cav2.1 with Q28 did. We conclude that SCA6 pathogenesis may be associated with the CTF, normally found in the cytoplasm, being aggregated in the cytoplasm and additionally distributed in the nucleus.
PMCID: PMC2841749  PMID: 20043227
Calcium channel; Cerebellum; Purkinje cell; Polyglutamine disease; Protein aggregation; Neurodegeneration

Results 1-8 (8)