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author:("Sasaki, hideo")
1.  Hyperintense putaminal rim at 1.5 T: prevalence in normal subjects and distinguishing features from multiple system atrophy 
BMC Neurology  2012;12:39.
Background
Hyperintense putaminal rim (HPR) is an important magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sign for multiple system atrophy (MSA). Recent studies have suggested that it can also be observed in normal subjects at 3 T. Whether it can be observed in normal subjects at 1.5 T is not known. This study aimed to determine whether HPR could be observed in normal subjects at 1.5 T; and if so, to establish its prevalence, the MRI characteristics, and the features which distinguish from HPR in MSA patients.
Methods
Axial T2-weighted images of 130 normal subjects were evaluated for the prevalence of HPR, its age and gender distribution, laterality, maximum dimension, association with hypointensity of nearby putamen, and presence of discontinuity. To distinguish from that observed in MSA, axial T2-weighted images of 6 MSA patients with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P) and 15 MSA patients with predominant cerebellar symptoms (MSA-C) were also evaluated. The characteristics of HPR were compared between these patients and age-matched normal subjects. The mean diffusivity (MD) values of putamen were also compared. Fisher’s exact test, t-test, and one way analysis of variance were used to determine significance at corrected p < 0.05.
Results
HPR was observed in 38.5% of normal subjects. Age and gender predilection and laterality were not observed. In most cases, it occupied the full length or anterior half of the lateral margin of putamen, and was continuous throughout its length. Maximum transverse dimension was 2 mm. There was no association with hypointensity of nearby putamen. However, in MSA-P, HPR was located predominantly at the posterolateral aspect of putamen, and associated with putaminal atrophy. Discontinuity of HPR was more frequently observed in MSA-P. On visual analysis, the characteristics of HPR were similar between MSA-C patients and normal subjects. Patients with MSA of either type had significantly higher MD values of putamen than normal subjects.
Conclusions
HPR can be observed in 38.5% of normal subjects at 1.5 T. Thin linear hyperintensity without discontinuity, occupying the full length or anterior half of the lateral margin of the putamen, is suggestive of “normal.” In doubtful cases, measurement of the MD values of nearby putamen may be valuable.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-12-39
PMCID: PMC3460737  PMID: 22708511
2.  Copy number loss of (src homology 2 domain containing)-transforming protein 2 (SHC2) gene: discordant loss in monozygotic twins and frequent loss in patients with multiple system atrophy 
Molecular Brain  2011;4:24.
Background
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic disease. Its pathogenesis may involve multiple genetic and nongenetic factors, but its etiology remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that the genome of a patient with MSA would demonstrate copy number variations (CNVs) in the genes or genomic regions of interest. To identify genomic alterations increasing the risk for MSA, we examined a pair of monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for the MSA phenotype and 32 patients with MSA.
Results
By whole-genome CNV analysis using a combination of CNV beadchip and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-based CNV microarrays followed by region-targeting, high-density, custom-made oligonucleotide tiling microarray analysis, we identified disease-specific copy number loss of the (Src homology 2 domain containing)-transforming protein 2 (SHC2) gene in the distal 350-kb subtelomeric region of 19p13.3 in the affected MZ twin and 10 of the 31 patients with MSA but not in 2 independent control populations (p = 1.04 × 10-8, odds ratio = 89.8, Pearson's chi-square test).
Conclusions
Copy number loss of SHC2 strongly indicates a causal link to MSA. CNV analysis of phenotypically discordant MZ twins is a powerful tool for identifying disease-predisposing loci. Our results would enable the identification of novel diagnostic measure, therapeutic targets and better understanding of the etiology of MSA.
doi:10.1186/1756-6606-4-24
PMCID: PMC3141657  PMID: 21658278
Multiple system atrophy; copy number variation; phenotypically discordant monozygotic twins; (Src homology 2 domain containing)-transforming protein 2; subtelomere; ataxia; parkinsonism; disease-susceptibility gene
3.  The carboxy-terminal fragment of α1A calcium channel preferentially aggregates in the cytoplasm of human spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 Purkinje cells 
Acta Neuropathologica  2009;119(4):447-464.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by a small polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion (control: 4–20Q; SCA6: 20–33Q) in the carboxyl(C)-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the α1A voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav2.1). Although a 75–85-kDa Cav2.1 C-terminal fragment (CTF) is toxic in cultured cells, its existence in human brains and its role in SCA6 pathogenesis remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether the small polyQ expansion alters the expression pattern and intracellular distribution of Cav2.1 in human SCA6 brains. New antibodies against the Cav2.1 C-terminus were used in immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. In the cerebella of six control individuals, the CTF was detected in sucrose- and SDS-soluble cytosolic fractions; in the cerebella of two SCA6 patients, it was additionally detected in SDS-insoluble cytosolic and sucrose-soluble nuclear fractions. In contrast, however, the CTF was not detected either in the nuclear fraction or in the SDS-insoluble cytosolic fraction of SCA6 extracerebellar tissues, indicating that the CTF being insoluble in the cytoplasm or mislocalized to the nucleus only in the SCA6 cerebellum. Immunohistochemistry revealed abundant aggregates in cell bodies and dendrites of SCA6 Purkinje cells (seven patients) but not in controls (n = 6). Recombinant CTF with a small polyQ expansion (rCTF-Q28) aggregated in cultured PC12 cells, but neither rCTF-Q13 (normal-length polyQ) nor full-length Cav2.1 with Q28 did. We conclude that SCA6 pathogenesis may be associated with the CTF, normally found in the cytoplasm, being aggregated in the cytoplasm and additionally distributed in the nucleus.
doi:10.1007/s00401-009-0630-0
PMCID: PMC2841749  PMID: 20043227
Calcium channel; Cerebellum; Purkinje cell; Polyglutamine disease; Protein aggregation; Neurodegeneration

Results 1-3 (3)