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1.  Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder in Parkinson’s Disease: A Preliminary Study 
Journal of Movement Disorders  2016;9(2):114-119.
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). We aimed to assess the differences in the clinical characteristics of PD with and without RBD.
Forty-two patients previously diagnosed with PD were evaluated for clinical history, motor and cognitive functioning using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), autonomic symptoms, sleep characteristics using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the presence of RBD using the Korean version of the RBD screening questionnaire (RBDSQ). The prevalence of RBD and the patients’ demographic features were evaluated. The patients were classified into two groups, PD with RBD and PD without RBD, based on the RBDSQ scores. The motor and cognitive functions, as well as other clinical features of the two groups were compared.
A total of 42 PD patients were enrolled. Eighteen patients were classified as PD with RBD. Compared to PD without RBD, PD with RBD showed higher scores of rigidity in the UPDRS subscale. Regarding sleep problems, PD with RBD revealed higher sleep disturbance, lower sleep efficiency, and lower overall sleep quality in the PSQI. There was no difference in cognitive dysfunction between the two groups according to the Korean version of the MMSE.
PD with RBD was associated with poorer sleep and motor symptoms. Therefore, RBD symptoms in PD are possibly poor prognostic markers.
PMCID: PMC4886198  PMID: 26936443
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder; Parkinson disease; Rapid eye movement screening questionnaire; Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale; Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index
2.  Sleep Problems Associated with Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms as Well as Cognitive Functions in Alzheimer's Disease 
Background and Purpose
It has been shown that sleep problems in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with cognitive impairment and behavioral problems. In fact, most of studies have founded that daytime sleepiness is significantly correlated with cognitive decline in AD. However, a few studies have also shown that nighttime sleep problems are associated with cognitive function and behavioral symptoms in AD. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nighttime sleep on cognition and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in AD.
The study population comprised 117 subjects: 63 AD patients and 54 age- and sex-matched non-demented elderly subjects. Detailed cognitive functions and behavioral symptoms were measured using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB) and the Korean version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-K). Sleep characteristics were evaluated using the Korean version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-K). The correlations between PSQI-K and SNSB scores and between PSQI-K and NPI-K scores were analyzed.
In AD patients, sleep latency was found to be negatively correlated with praxis (p=0.041), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) immediate recall (p=0.041), and RCFT recognition (p=0.008) after controlling for age and education, while sleep duration and sleep efficiency were positively correlated with praxis (p=0.034 and p=0.025, respectively). Although no significant correlation was found between PSQI-K and NPI-K scores, sleep disturbance and total PSQI-K scores were found to be significantly associated with apathy/indifference in AD.
Sleep problems such as prolonged sleep duration, sleep latency, and poor sleep efficiency in AD patients were correlated with cognitive dysfunction, and especially frontal executive and visuospatial functions, and BPSD. These findings suggest that treatment of nighttime sleep problems might improve cognition and behavioral symptoms in AD patients.
PMCID: PMC4101096  PMID: 25045372
sleep; cognition; behavioral symptoms; Alzheimer's disease
3.  Clinical Characteristics of a Nationwide Hospital-based Registry of Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer's Disease Patients in Korea: A CREDOS (Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea) Study 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(9):1219-1226.
With rapid population aging, the socioeconomic burden caused by dementia care is snowballing. Although a few community-based studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been performed in Korea, there has never been a nationwide hospital-based study thereof. We aimed to identify the demographics and clinical characteristics of mild-to-moderate AD patients from the Clinical Research Center for Dementia of Korea (CREDOS) registry. A total of 1,786 patients were consecutively included from September 2005 to June 2010. Each patient underwent comprehensive neurological examination, interview for caregivers, laboratory investigations, neuropsychological tests, and brain MRI. The mean age was 74.0 yr and the female percentage 67.0%. The mean period of education was 7.1 yr and the frequency of early-onset AD (< 65 yr old) was 18.8%. Among the vascular risk factors, hypertension (48.9%) and diabetes mellitus (22.3%) were the most frequent. The mean score of the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) was 19.2 and the mean sum of box scores of Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR-SB) 5.1. Based on the well-structured, nationwide, and hospital-based registry, this study provides the unique clinical characteristics of AD and emphasizes the importance of vascular factors in AD in Korea.
PMCID: PMC3172661  PMID: 21935279
Alzheimer's disease; Dementia; Multicenter study; Hospital-based study; Demography; Far East
4.  A genetic screen of the mutations in the Korean patients with early-onset Alzheimer’s disease 
Clinical Interventions in Aging  2016;11:1817-1822.
Early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (EOAD) has distinct clinical characteristics in comparison to late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD). The genetic contribution is suggested to be more potent in EOAD. However, the frequency of causative mutations in EOAD could be variable depending on studies. Moreover, no mutation screening study has been performed yet employing large population in Korea. Previously, we reported that the rate of family history of dementia in EOAD patients was 18.7% in a nationwide hospital-based cohort study, the Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea (CREDOS) study. This rate is much lower than in other countries and is even comparable to the frequency of LOAD patients in our country. To understand the genetic characteristics of EOAD in Korea, we screened the common Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mutations in the consecutive EOAD subjects from the CREDOS study from April 2012 to February 2014. We checked the sequence of APP (exons 16–17), PSEN1 (exons 3–12), and PSEN2 (exons 3–12) genes. We identified different causative or probable pathogenic AD mutations, PSEN1 T116I, PSEN1 L226F, and PSEN2 V214L, employing 24 EOAD subjects with a family history and 80 without a family history of dementia. PSEN1 T116I case demonstrated autosomal dominant trait of inheritance, with at least 11 affected individuals over 2 generations. However, there was no family history of dementia within first-degree relation in PSEN1 L226F and PSEN2 V214L cases. Approximately, 55.7% of the EOAD subjects had APOE ε4 allele, while none of the mutation-carrying subjects had the allele. The frequency of genetic mutation in this study is lower compared to the studies from other countries. The study design that was based on nationwide cohort, which minimizes selection bias, is thought to be one of the contributors to the lower frequency of genetic mutation. However, the possibility of the greater likeliness of earlier onset of sporadic AD in Korea cannot be excluded. We suggest early AD onset and not carrying APOE ε4 allele are more reliable factors for predicting an induced genetic mutation than the presence of the family history in Korean EOAD population.
PMCID: PMC5167483  PMID: 28008242
Alzheimer’s disease; mutation; presenilin; apolipoprotein-E; sequencing; early onset Alzheimer’s disease; genetics
5.  Anatomical heterogeneity of Alzheimer disease 
Neurology  2014;83(21):1936-1944.
Because the signs associated with dementia due to Alzheimer disease (AD) can be heterogeneous, the goal of this study was to use 3-dimensional MRI to examine the various patterns of cortical atrophy that can be associated with dementia of AD type, and to investigate whether AD dementia can be categorized into anatomical subtypes.
High-resolution T1-weighted volumetric MRIs were taken of 152 patients in their earlier stages of AD dementia. The images were processed to measure cortical thickness, and hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis was performed using Ward's clustering linkage. The identified clusters of patients were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group using a general linear model.
There were several distinct patterns of cortical atrophy and the number of patterns varied according to the level of cluster analyses. At the 3-cluster level, patients were divided into (1) bilateral medial temporal–dominant atrophy subtype (n = 52, ∼34.2%), (2) parietal-dominant subtype (n = 28, ∼18.4%) in which the bilateral parietal lobes, the precuneus, along with bilateral dorsolateral frontal lobes, were atrophic, and (3) diffuse atrophy subtype (n = 72, ∼47.4%) in which nearly all association cortices revealed atrophy. These 3 subtypes also differed in their demographic and clinical features.
This cluster analysis of cortical thickness of the entire brain showed that AD dementia in the earlier stages can be categorized into various anatomical subtypes, with distinct clinical features.
PMCID: PMC4248459  PMID: 25344382
6.  Correlation of Sleep Disturbance and Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease 
Journal of Movement Disorders  2014;7(1):13-18.
Cognitive impairment is a common nonmotor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and is associated with high mortality, caregiver distress, and nursing home placement. The risk factors for cognitive decline in PD patients include advanced age, longer disease duration, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, hallucinations, excessive daytime sleepiness, and nontremor symptoms including bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability, and gait disturbance. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine which types of sleep disturbances are related to cognitive function in PD patients.
A total of 71 PD patients (29 males, mean age 66.46 ± 8.87 years) were recruited. All patients underwent the Mini- Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Korean Version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessments (MoCA-K) to assess global cognitive function. Sleep disorders were evaluated with the Stanford Sleepiness Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, and Parkinson’s Disease Sleep Scale in Korea (PDSS).
The ISI was correlated with the MMSE, and total PDSS scores were correlated with the MMSE and the MoCA-K. In each item of the PDSS, nocturnal restlessness, vivid dreams, hallucinations, and nocturnal motor symptoms were positively correlated with the MMSE, and nocturnal restlessness and vivid dreams were significantly related to the MoCA-K. Vivid dreams and nocturnal restlessness are considered the most powerful correlation factors with global cognitive function, because they commonly had significant correlation to cognition assessed with both the MMSE and the MoCA-K.
We found a correlation between global cognitive function and sleep disturbances, including vivid dreams and nocturnal restlessness, in PD patients.
PMCID: PMC4051722  PMID: 24926405
Cognitive impairment; Parkinson’s disease; Sleep disturbance
7.  Relation Between Left Atrial Enlargement and Stroke Subtypes in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients 
Increased atrial size is frequently seen in ischemic stroke patients in clinical practice. There is controversy about whether left atrial enlargement (LAE) should be regarded as a risk factor for cerebral infarction. We investigated the association between indexed left atrial volume (LAVI) and conventional stroke risk factors as well as stroke subtypes in acute ischemic stroke patients.
One hundred eighty two acute cerebral infarction patients were included in this study. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and transthoracic echocardiography were done for all patients within 30 days of diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction. Echocardiographic LAE was identified when LAVI was more than 27 mL/m2. Stroke subtypes were classified by the Trial of Org 10171 in acute stroke treatment classification.
There were significant differences between subjects with normal and increased LAVI in prevalence of stroke risk factors including atrial fibrillation (p = 0.001), hypertension (p = 0.000), valvular heart disease (p = 0.011) and previous stroke (p = 0.031). An increased LAVI was associated with cardioembolic subtype with an adjusted odds ratio was 6.749 (p = 0.002) compared with small vessel disease.
Increased LAVI was more prevalent in those who had cardiovascular risk factors, such as atrial fibrillation, hypertension, valvular heart disease and history of previous stroke. LAE influenced most patients in all subtypes of ischemic stroke but was most prevalent in the cardioembolic stroke subtype. Increased LAVI might be a risk factor of cerebral infarction, especially in patients with cardioembolic stroke subtype.
PMCID: PMC3804648  PMID: 24167790
Left atrial enlargement; Ischemic stroke; Stroke subtype; Echocardiography
8.  The Effect of Ropinirole on the Quality of Life in Patients with Restless Legs Syndrome in Korea: An 8-Week, Multicenter, Prospective Study 
Background and Purpose
Dopamine agonists are first-line drugs for treating the symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS). However, few studies have investigated the effect of dopamine agonists on the quality of life (QoL) in RLS patients. We conducted a study to determine whether ropinirole exerts positive effects on the QoL in RLS patients and to analyze the underlying factors.
Primary RLS patients from eight medical centers were recruited in the study. They were evaluated in the baseline phase using various questionnaires including the Korean versions of the International Restless Legs Scale (K-IRLS), RLS QoL questionnaire (K-RLSQoL), and the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). After taking ropinirole for 8 weeks the same questionnaires were again completed as a re-evaluation. We analyzed the statistical difference using a paired t-test, a Pearson's correlation, and a stepwise multiple regression in order to identify the factors associated with the QoL change.
A total of 107 subjects, including 65 (60.7%) females, completed this study. They were aged 51.68±14.80 years (mean±SD) and had a symptom duration of 8.8±9.0 months. After treatment with ropinirole, there were significant improvements on the K-RLSQoL, SF-36, and K-IRLS. The Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the improvement of QoL in RLS patients was significantly correlated with the severity of RLS (r=0.236, p<0.014) at baseline.
The results from this study suggest that treatment with ropinirole can improve the QoL in RLS patients. The improvement in the QoL is more related with the improvement of RLS symptoms.
PMCID: PMC3543910  PMID: 23346161
restless legs syndrome; dopamine agonists; quality of life; sleep
9.  Different associations of white matter lesions with depression and cognition 
BMC Neurology  2012;12:83.
To test the hypothesis that white matter lesions (WML) are primarily associated with regional frontal cortical volumes, and to determine the mediating effects of these regional frontal cortices on the associations of WML with depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction.
Structural brains MRIs were performed on 161 participants: cognitively normal, cognitive impaired but not demented, and demented participants. Lobar WML volumes, regional frontal cortical volumes, depressive symptom severity, and cognitive abilities were measured. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify WML volume effects on frontal cortical volume. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the MRI-depression and the MRI-cognition path relationships.
WML predicted frontal cortical volume, particularly in medial orbirtofrontal cortex, irrespective of age, gender, education, and group status. WML directly predicted depressive score, and this relationship was not mediated by regional frontal cortices. In contrast, the association between WML and cognitive function was indirect and mediated by regional frontal cortices.
These findings suggest that the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in older adults may differ.
PMCID: PMC3482604  PMID: 22920586
Leukoaraiosis; Depression; Cognition; Frontal lobe; Mediation
10.  A Case of Cluster Headache Accompanied by Myoclonus and Hemiparesis 
Cluster headache is a primary headache disorder characterized by periodic episodes of intense headache accompanied by autonomic symptoms. We report an unusual clinical presentation of cluster headache that was preceded by myoclonus and accompanied by hemiparesis.
Case Report
A 26-year-old man visited hospital due to recurrent jerky movements on the left side of his face and neck area lasting 3 days. These jerky movements had disappeared spontaneously without specific treatment. On the 10th day after onset of the jerky movements, the patient developed a series of unilateral severe headaches that were accompanied by autonomic symptoms lasting 1-2 hours. According to the second edition of The International Classification of Headache Disorders, he was diagnosed as having cluster headache. Two of the 16 severe headache attacks this patient suffered were accompanied by dysarthria and hemiparesis. Electroencephalography performed during hemiparesis revealed diffuse lateralized slow activity on the ipsilateral hemisphere of the headache side. The headache and accompanying hemiparesis disappeared after medical treatment for cluster headache.
We describe a case of cluster headache accompanied by hemiparesis, which was preceded by myoclonus. We also outline the possible mechanisms underlying this case.
PMCID: PMC3325438  PMID: 22523519
cluster headache; hemiparesis; myoclonus; electroencephalography
11.  Novel Compound Heterozygous Mutations in the Pantothenate Kinase 2 Gene in a Korean Patient with Atypical Pantothenate Kinase Associated Neurodegeneration 
Journal of Movement Disorders  2009;2(1):45-47.
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by mutations in the pantothenate kinase 2 gene (PANK2) and typical magnetic resonance imaging findings. We report a case of atypical PKAN presenting with generalized dystonia. Our patient had compound heterozygous mutations in the PANK2 gene, including mutation in exon 3 (p.D268G) and exon 4 (p.R330P). To our knowledge, this patient is the first to have the p.R330P mutation and the second to have the p.D268G mutation.
PMCID: PMC4027700  PMID: 24868354
Pantothenate kinase 2; Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration; Dystonia

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