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1.  Sleep Problems Associated with Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms as Well as Cognitive Functions in Alzheimer's Disease 
Background and Purpose
It has been shown that sleep problems in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with cognitive impairment and behavioral problems. In fact, most of studies have founded that daytime sleepiness is significantly correlated with cognitive decline in AD. However, a few studies have also shown that nighttime sleep problems are associated with cognitive function and behavioral symptoms in AD. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nighttime sleep on cognition and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in AD.
Methods
The study population comprised 117 subjects: 63 AD patients and 54 age- and sex-matched non-demented elderly subjects. Detailed cognitive functions and behavioral symptoms were measured using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB) and the Korean version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-K). Sleep characteristics were evaluated using the Korean version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-K). The correlations between PSQI-K and SNSB scores and between PSQI-K and NPI-K scores were analyzed.
Results
In AD patients, sleep latency was found to be negatively correlated with praxis (p=0.041), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) immediate recall (p=0.041), and RCFT recognition (p=0.008) after controlling for age and education, while sleep duration and sleep efficiency were positively correlated with praxis (p=0.034 and p=0.025, respectively). Although no significant correlation was found between PSQI-K and NPI-K scores, sleep disturbance and total PSQI-K scores were found to be significantly associated with apathy/indifference in AD.
Conclusions
Sleep problems such as prolonged sleep duration, sleep latency, and poor sleep efficiency in AD patients were correlated with cognitive dysfunction, and especially frontal executive and visuospatial functions, and BPSD. These findings suggest that treatment of nighttime sleep problems might improve cognition and behavioral symptoms in AD patients.
doi:10.3988/jcn.2014.10.3.203
PMCID: PMC4101096  PMID: 25045372
sleep; cognition; behavioral symptoms; Alzheimer's disease
2.  Correlation of Sleep Disturbance and Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease 
Journal of Movement Disorders  2014;7(1):13-18.
Objective
Cognitive impairment is a common nonmotor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and is associated with high mortality, caregiver distress, and nursing home placement. The risk factors for cognitive decline in PD patients include advanced age, longer disease duration, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, hallucinations, excessive daytime sleepiness, and nontremor symptoms including bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability, and gait disturbance. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine which types of sleep disturbances are related to cognitive function in PD patients.
Methods
A total of 71 PD patients (29 males, mean age 66.46 ± 8.87 years) were recruited. All patients underwent the Mini- Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Korean Version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessments (MoCA-K) to assess global cognitive function. Sleep disorders were evaluated with the Stanford Sleepiness Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, and Parkinson’s Disease Sleep Scale in Korea (PDSS).
Results
The ISI was correlated with the MMSE, and total PDSS scores were correlated with the MMSE and the MoCA-K. In each item of the PDSS, nocturnal restlessness, vivid dreams, hallucinations, and nocturnal motor symptoms were positively correlated with the MMSE, and nocturnal restlessness and vivid dreams were significantly related to the MoCA-K. Vivid dreams and nocturnal restlessness are considered the most powerful correlation factors with global cognitive function, because they commonly had significant correlation to cognition assessed with both the MMSE and the MoCA-K.
Conclusions
We found a correlation between global cognitive function and sleep disturbances, including vivid dreams and nocturnal restlessness, in PD patients.
doi:10.14802/jmd.14003
PMCID: PMC4051722  PMID: 24926405
Cognitive impairment; Parkinson’s disease; Sleep disturbance
3.  Relation Between Left Atrial Enlargement and Stroke Subtypes in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients 
Objective
Increased atrial size is frequently seen in ischemic stroke patients in clinical practice. There is controversy about whether left atrial enlargement (LAE) should be regarded as a risk factor for cerebral infarction. We investigated the association between indexed left atrial volume (LAVI) and conventional stroke risk factors as well as stroke subtypes in acute ischemic stroke patients.
Methods
One hundred eighty two acute cerebral infarction patients were included in this study. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and transthoracic echocardiography were done for all patients within 30 days of diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction. Echocardiographic LAE was identified when LAVI was more than 27 mL/m2. Stroke subtypes were classified by the Trial of Org 10171 in acute stroke treatment classification.
Results
There were significant differences between subjects with normal and increased LAVI in prevalence of stroke risk factors including atrial fibrillation (p = 0.001), hypertension (p = 0.000), valvular heart disease (p = 0.011) and previous stroke (p = 0.031). An increased LAVI was associated with cardioembolic subtype with an adjusted odds ratio was 6.749 (p = 0.002) compared with small vessel disease.
Conclusion
Increased LAVI was more prevalent in those who had cardiovascular risk factors, such as atrial fibrillation, hypertension, valvular heart disease and history of previous stroke. LAE influenced most patients in all subtypes of ischemic stroke but was most prevalent in the cardioembolic stroke subtype. Increased LAVI might be a risk factor of cerebral infarction, especially in patients with cardioembolic stroke subtype.
doi:10.7461/jcen.2013.15.3.131
PMCID: PMC3804648  PMID: 24167790
Left atrial enlargement; Ischemic stroke; Stroke subtype; Echocardiography
4.  The Effect of Ropinirole on the Quality of Life in Patients with Restless Legs Syndrome in Korea: An 8-Week, Multicenter, Prospective Study 
Background and Purpose
Dopamine agonists are first-line drugs for treating the symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS). However, few studies have investigated the effect of dopamine agonists on the quality of life (QoL) in RLS patients. We conducted a study to determine whether ropinirole exerts positive effects on the QoL in RLS patients and to analyze the underlying factors.
Methods
Primary RLS patients from eight medical centers were recruited in the study. They were evaluated in the baseline phase using various questionnaires including the Korean versions of the International Restless Legs Scale (K-IRLS), RLS QoL questionnaire (K-RLSQoL), and the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). After taking ropinirole for 8 weeks the same questionnaires were again completed as a re-evaluation. We analyzed the statistical difference using a paired t-test, a Pearson's correlation, and a stepwise multiple regression in order to identify the factors associated with the QoL change.
Results
A total of 107 subjects, including 65 (60.7%) females, completed this study. They were aged 51.68±14.80 years (mean±SD) and had a symptom duration of 8.8±9.0 months. After treatment with ropinirole, there were significant improvements on the K-RLSQoL, SF-36, and K-IRLS. The Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the improvement of QoL in RLS patients was significantly correlated with the severity of RLS (r=0.236, p<0.014) at baseline.
Conclusions
The results from this study suggest that treatment with ropinirole can improve the QoL in RLS patients. The improvement in the QoL is more related with the improvement of RLS symptoms.
doi:10.3988/jcn.2013.9.1.51
PMCID: PMC3543910  PMID: 23346161
restless legs syndrome; dopamine agonists; quality of life; sleep
5.  Different associations of white matter lesions with depression and cognition 
BMC Neurology  2012;12:83.
Background
To test the hypothesis that white matter lesions (WML) are primarily associated with regional frontal cortical volumes, and to determine the mediating effects of these regional frontal cortices on the associations of WML with depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction.
Methods
Structural brains MRIs were performed on 161 participants: cognitively normal, cognitive impaired but not demented, and demented participants. Lobar WML volumes, regional frontal cortical volumes, depressive symptom severity, and cognitive abilities were measured. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify WML volume effects on frontal cortical volume. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the MRI-depression and the MRI-cognition path relationships.
Results
WML predicted frontal cortical volume, particularly in medial orbirtofrontal cortex, irrespective of age, gender, education, and group status. WML directly predicted depressive score, and this relationship was not mediated by regional frontal cortices. In contrast, the association between WML and cognitive function was indirect and mediated by regional frontal cortices.
Conclusions
These findings suggest that the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in older adults may differ.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-12-83
PMCID: PMC3482604  PMID: 22920586
Leukoaraiosis; Depression; Cognition; Frontal lobe; Mediation
6.  A Case of Cluster Headache Accompanied by Myoclonus and Hemiparesis 
Background
Cluster headache is a primary headache disorder characterized by periodic episodes of intense headache accompanied by autonomic symptoms. We report an unusual clinical presentation of cluster headache that was preceded by myoclonus and accompanied by hemiparesis.
Case Report
A 26-year-old man visited hospital due to recurrent jerky movements on the left side of his face and neck area lasting 3 days. These jerky movements had disappeared spontaneously without specific treatment. On the 10th day after onset of the jerky movements, the patient developed a series of unilateral severe headaches that were accompanied by autonomic symptoms lasting 1-2 hours. According to the second edition of The International Classification of Headache Disorders, he was diagnosed as having cluster headache. Two of the 16 severe headache attacks this patient suffered were accompanied by dysarthria and hemiparesis. Electroencephalography performed during hemiparesis revealed diffuse lateralized slow activity on the ipsilateral hemisphere of the headache side. The headache and accompanying hemiparesis disappeared after medical treatment for cluster headache.
Conclusions
We describe a case of cluster headache accompanied by hemiparesis, which was preceded by myoclonus. We also outline the possible mechanisms underlying this case.
doi:10.3988/jcn.2012.8.1.83
PMCID: PMC3325438  PMID: 22523519
cluster headache; hemiparesis; myoclonus; electroencephalography
7.  Clinical Characteristics of a Nationwide Hospital-based Registry of Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer's Disease Patients in Korea: A CREDOS (Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea) Study 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(9):1219-1226.
With rapid population aging, the socioeconomic burden caused by dementia care is snowballing. Although a few community-based studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been performed in Korea, there has never been a nationwide hospital-based study thereof. We aimed to identify the demographics and clinical characteristics of mild-to-moderate AD patients from the Clinical Research Center for Dementia of Korea (CREDOS) registry. A total of 1,786 patients were consecutively included from September 2005 to June 2010. Each patient underwent comprehensive neurological examination, interview for caregivers, laboratory investigations, neuropsychological tests, and brain MRI. The mean age was 74.0 yr and the female percentage 67.0%. The mean period of education was 7.1 yr and the frequency of early-onset AD (< 65 yr old) was 18.8%. Among the vascular risk factors, hypertension (48.9%) and diabetes mellitus (22.3%) were the most frequent. The mean score of the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) was 19.2 and the mean sum of box scores of Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR-SB) 5.1. Based on the well-structured, nationwide, and hospital-based registry, this study provides the unique clinical characteristics of AD and emphasizes the importance of vascular factors in AD in Korea.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2011.26.9.1219
PMCID: PMC3172661  PMID: 21935279
Alzheimer's disease; Dementia; Multicenter study; Hospital-based study; Demography; Far East
8.  Novel Compound Heterozygous Mutations in the Pantothenate Kinase 2 Gene in a Korean Patient with Atypical Pantothenate Kinase Associated Neurodegeneration 
Journal of Movement Disorders  2009;2(1):45-47.
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by mutations in the pantothenate kinase 2 gene (PANK2) and typical magnetic resonance imaging findings. We report a case of atypical PKAN presenting with generalized dystonia. Our patient had compound heterozygous mutations in the PANK2 gene, including mutation in exon 3 (p.D268G) and exon 4 (p.R330P). To our knowledge, this patient is the first to have the p.R330P mutation and the second to have the p.D268G mutation.
doi:10.14802/jmd.09012
PMCID: PMC4027700  PMID: 24868354
Pantothenate kinase 2; Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration; Dystonia

Results 1-8 (8)