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1.  Frequency of cognitive impairment and depression in Parkinson's disease: A preliminary case-control study 
Background:
This study aimed to determine the frequency of cognitive impairment and depression in our Parkinson's Disease (PD) and their relationship with disease severity and disability.
Patients and Methods:
A total of 40 PD patients and 40 age-, sex-, and educationally matched controls were studied. The Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Motor and Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scores and the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) stage were documented. Depression was assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS), while cognition was evaluated using a composite score of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score and category fluency score.
Results:
A total of 55% (22/40) of PD and 10% (4 of 40) of controls had depression (P<0.001). A total of 60% of PD (24/40) and 5% of controls (2/40) had cognitive impairment (P<0.001). Both NMS coexisted in 16 of 40 PD (40%) compared with none of the controls (P<0.001). UPDRS (motor and ADL) scores and HY stage were significantly worse with impaired ZSDS scores - P 0.001. UPDRS ADL was significantly impaired by the presence of cognitive impairment. Coexisting depression and cognitive impairment were associated with significant worsening of all scores of severity and disability.
Conclusion:
Cognitive impairment and depression accompany our PD and are related to disability and worsening disease severity.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.103544
PMCID: PMC3530250  PMID: 23271848
Cognitive impairment; depression; disability; Parkinson's disease; severity
2.  Prevalence of essential tremor in urban Lagos, Nigeria: a door-to-door community-based study 
BMC Neurology  2012;12:110.
Background
Essential tremor (ET) is one of the commonest movement disorders though the prevalence varies globally. There is paucity of data on ET prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of ET in a Nigerian community.
Methods
This door-to-door survey was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, 3000 randomly selected residents of an urban centre in Lagos, Nigeria, were screened using a questionnaire to detect symptoms of movement disorder. 234 participants who responded positively regarding presence of tremors were rescreened using an ET-specific questionnaire, a face-to-face interview and neurological examination. Diagnosis of ET was based on the Movement Disorders Society (MDS) consensus diagnostic criteria for ET.
Results
Of the 3000 participants, forty responded positively to the ET screening questionnaire, of which 36 (19 females and 17 males) had a final diagnosis of ET, giving a crude prevalence of 12 per 1000 (95% CI = 8.1- 15.9). Gender specific prevalence was 10.3 /1000 in males and 14.3/1000 in females. Age specific prevalence increased with advancing age in both sexes. Age adjusted prevalence (WHO New world population) was 23.8 per 1000.
Conclusions
We documented a high prevalence of ET in this study, with typical increasing prevalence with advancing age as previously reported in other populations.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-12-110
PMCID: PMC3488469  PMID: 23017021
Essential tremor; Prevalence; Nigeria; Subsaharan Africa
3.  Clinical profile of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease in Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria 
BMC Neurology  2010;10:1.
Background
Current data on the pattern of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease in Nigerians are sparse.
This database was designed to document the clinical profile of PD in Nigerians, and compare this to prior observations.
Methods
A database of patients presenting to the Neurology out-patients clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital was established in October 1996. Demographic and clinical data at presentation (disease stage using Hoehn and Yahr scale; 'off' state severity on the Unified Parkinson's disease Rating Scale) were documented for patients diagnosed with parkinsonism between October 1996 and December 2006. Cases were classified as Parkinson's disease or secondary parkinsonism (in the presence of criteria suggestive of a secondary aetiology).
Results
The hospital frequency of parkinsonism (over a 2-year period, and relative to other neurologic disorders) was 1.47% (i.e. 20/1360). Of the 124 patients with parkinsonism, 98 (79.0%) had PD, while 26 (21.0%) had secondary parkinsonism. Mean age (SD) at onset of PD (61.5 (10.0) years) was slightly higher than for secondary parkinsonism (57.5 (14.0) years) (P = 0.10). There was a male preponderance in PD (3.3 to 1) and secondary parkinsonism (2.7 to 1), while a positive family history of parkinsonism was present in only 1.02% (1/98) of PD. There was a modestly significant difference in age at onset (SD) of PD in men (60.3 (10.4)) compared to women (65.2 (7.9)) (T = 2.08; P = 0.04). The frequency of young onset PD (≤ 50 years) was 16.3% (16/98). The mean time interval from onset of motor symptoms to diagnosis of PD was 24.6 ± 26.1 months with majority presenting at a median 12 months from onset. On the H&Y scale, severity of PD at presentation was a median 2.0 (range 1 to 4). PD disease subtype was tremor-dominant in 31 (31.6%), mixed 54 (55.1%) and akinetic-rigid 14 (14.3%). Hypertension was present as a co-morbidity in 20 (20.4%), and diabetes in 6 (6.12%).
Conclusions
The clinical profile of PD in Nigerians is similar to that in other populations, but is characterized by delayed presentation as has been reported in other developing countries. Young-onset disease occurs but may be less commonly encountered, and frequency of a positive family history is lower than in western populations.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-10-1
PMCID: PMC2806862  PMID: 20051133

Results 1-3 (3)