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author:("Ma, arjun")
1.  Transcriptome Analysis for Identification of Genes Related to Gonad Differentiation, Growth, Immune Response and Marker Discovery in The Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(2):e0149414.
Background
Turbot Scophthalmus maximus is an economically important species extensively aquacultured in China. The genetic selection program is necessary and urgent for the sustainable development of this industry, requiring more and more genome background knowledge. Transcriptome sequencing is an excellent alternative way to identify transcripts involved in specific biological processes and exploit a considerable quantity of molecular makers when no genome sequences are available. In this study, a comprehensive transcript dataset for major tissues of S. maximus was produced on basis of an Illumina platform.
Results
Total RNA was isolated from liver, spleen, kidney, cerebrum, gonad (testis and ovary) and muscle. Equal quantities of RNA from each type of tissues were pooled to construct two cDNA libraries (male and female). Using the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology, nearly 44.22 million clean reads in length of 100 bp were generated and then assembled into 106,643 contigs, of which 71,107 were named unigenes with an average length of 892 bp after the elimination of redundancies. Of these, 24,052 unigenes (33.83% of the total) were successfully annotated. GO, KEGG pathway mapping and COG analysis were performed to predict potential genes and their functions. Based on our sequence analysis and published documents, many candidate genes with fundamental roles in sex determination and gonad differentiation (dmrt1), growth (ghrh, myf5, prl/prlr) and immune response (TLR1/TLR21/TLR22, IL-15/IL-34), were identified for the first time in this species. In addition, a large number of credible genetic markers, including 21,192 SSRs and 8,642 SNPs, were identified in the present dataset.
Conclusion
This informative transcriptome provides valuable new data to increase genomic resources of Scophthalmus maximus. The future studies of corresponding gene functions will be very useful for the management of reproduction, growth and disease control in turbot aquaculture breeding programs. The molecular markers identified in this database will aid in genetic linkage analyses, mapping of quantitative trait loci, and acceleration of marker assisted selection programs.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0149414
PMCID: PMC4771204  PMID: 26925843
2.  Association of TRAIL and Its Receptors with Large-Artery Atherosclerotic Stroke 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(9):e0136414.
Objective
To investigate the association of the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptors, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and death receptor 5 (DR5) with large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) stroke and its prognosis.
Methods
We included patients with LAA stroke (n = 132) according to the TOAST classification system and controls (n = 60). To evaluate the extent and severity of cerebral atherosclerosis, the LAA stroke group was subdivided into 3 subgroups by number of cerebral arteries with atherosclerotic stenosis (≥50%): single, double and multiple (≥3). Plasma levels of TRAIL, OPG and DR5 were measured by ELISA. Ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze the association between the plasma levels of TRAIL, OPG, DR5 and the severity of cerebral atherosclerosis. Prognosis was determined by the Modified Rankin Scale at 3 months after stroke. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluated TRAIL as a predictor of prognosis.
Results
Plasma TRAIL level was significantly lower for LAA patients than controls (P<0.001), while plasma OPG and DR5 levels were higher (both P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that risk of severe cerebral atherosclerosis was reduced significantly with increased plasma level of TRAIL (OR 0.438; 95% CI 0.282–0.681; P<0.001), whereas increased with high plasma levels of OPG and DR5 (OR 2.707; 95% CI 1.702–4.302, P <0.001; OR 3.593; 95% CI 1.878–6.869, P <0.001). Plasma TRAIL level was negatively correlated with the prognosis (r = - 0.372, P <0.001). The optimal cut-off value of TRAIL for prognosis was 848.63 pg/mL. The sensitivity and specificity at this cut-off value were 63.1% and 86.2%, respectively. After adding the plasma TRAIL level into the multivariate model of ROC, the area under the ROC curve was increased from 0.639 to 0.785, but the change was not statistical significant (P = 0.146).
Conclusions
TRAIL and its receptors OPG and DR5 may be involved in LAA stroke and the plasma level of TRAIL may be a biomarker predicting the severity of cerebral atherosclerosis and the prognosis of LAA stroke.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0136414
PMCID: PMC4559459  PMID: 26334877
3.  Elevation of serum CXCL16 level correlates well with atherosclerotic ischemic stroke 
Introduction
Currently there are no reliable biological markers for ischemic stroke. The novel chemokine CXCL16 is known to be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, the real role of CXCL16 in atherosclerotic disorders remains uncertain. The goal of our study was to investigate the associations between serum-soluble CXCL16 level and atherosclerotic ischemic stroke, including large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and small artery occlusion (SAO) subtypes, and to explore whether elevation in CXCL16 levels is correlated with the severity of large arterial stenosis.
Material and methods
The study recruited 227 subjects, including 74 controls and 153 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke from atherosclerosis of the carotid artery. The etiology of the acute ischemic strokes was classified into LAA (n = 86) subtype and SAO (n = 67) subtype according to the TOAST criteria, and the severity of carotid artery stenosis was assessed by the NASCET criteria. Serum-soluble CXCL16 concentration was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results
Serum CXCL16 concentrations were significantly increased in both LAA (2.36 ng/ml) and SAO subtypes (2.13 ng/ml) when compared to that of the controls (2.04 ng/ml, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively), and it was significantly elevated in LAA subtype than in SAO subtype (p < 0.05). However, significant differences in CXCL16 levels between the high-grade stenosis group (2.36 ng/ml) and moderate-grade stenosis group (2.24 ng/ml) of LAA subtype were not found (p > 0.05). A correlation of serum levels of CXCL16 with serum levels of hs-CRP, fibrinogen and lipid parameters was not observed (p > 0.05).
Conclusions
Increased serum level of soluble CXCL16 was independently associated with atherosclerotic ischemic stroke, particularly LAA subtype.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2013.39200
PMCID: PMC3953970  PMID: 24701213
CXCL16; chemokine; atherosclerosis; ischemic stroke; inflammation
4.  Vertebral artery dissection associated with viral meningitis 
BMC Neurology  2012;12:79.
Background
Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is often associated with trauma or occurs spontaneously, inevitably causing some neurological deficits. Even though acute infection can be related to the development of spontaneous VAD (sVAD), VAD associated with viral meningitis has never been reported in the literature.
Case presentation
A 42-year-old man with fever, sore throat, and runny nose developed sudden onset of occipital headache, vertigo, transient confusion, diplopia, and ataxia. Brain stem encephalitis was diagnosed initially because the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study showed inflammatory changes. However, subsequent diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging of his brain demonstrated left lateral medullary infarction, and the digital subtraction angiography (DSA) confirmed VAD involving left V4 segment of the artery. Consequently, the patient was diagnosed as VAD accompanied by viral meningitis.
Conclusion
This case suggests that viral meningitis might lead to inflammatory injury of the vertebral arterial wall, even sVAD with multiple neurological symptoms.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-12-79
PMCID: PMC3466159  PMID: 22909191
Vertebral artery dissection; Cerebral ischemia; Viral meningitis; Infection

Results 1-4 (4)