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1.  Dexmedetomidine is neuroprotective in an in vitro model for traumatic brain injury 
BMC Neurology  2012;12:20.
Background
The α2-adrenoreceptor agonist dexmedetomidine is known to provide neuroprotection under ischemic conditions. In this study we investigated whether dexmedetomidine has a protective effect in an in vitro model for traumatic brain injury.
Methods
Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures were subjected to a focal mechanical trauma and then exposed to varying concentrations of dexmedetomidine. After 72 h cell injury was assessed using propidium iodide. In addition, the effects of delayed dexmedetomidine application, of hypothermia and canonical signalling pathway inhibitors were examined.
Results
Dexmedetomidine showed a protective effect on traumatically injured hippocampal cells with a maximum effect at a dosage of 1 μM. This effect was partially reversed by the simultaneous administration of the ERK inhibitor PD98059.
Conclusion
In this TBI model dexmedetomidine had a significant neuroprotective effect. Our results indicate that activation of ERK might be involved in mediating this effect.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-12-20
PMCID: PMC3350422  PMID: 22494498
Neuroprotection; Traumatic brain injury; Dexmedetomidine
2.  Solulin reduces infarct volume and regulates gene-expression in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats 
BMC Neuroscience  2011;12:113.
Background
Thrombolysis after acute ischemic stroke has only proven to be beneficial in a subset of patients. The soluble recombinant analogue of human thrombomodulin, Solulin, was studied in an in vivo rat model of acute ischemic stroke.
Methods
Male SD rats were subjected to 2 hrs of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Rats treated with Solulin intravenously shortly before reperfusion were compared to rats receiving normal saline i.v. with respect to infarct volumes, neurological deficits and mortality. Gene expression of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP-9, CD11B and GFAP were semiquantitatively analyzed by rtPCR of the penumbra.
Results
24 hrs after reperfusion, rats were neurologically tested, euthanized and infarct volumes determined. Solulin significantly reduced mean total (p = 0.001), cortical (p = 0.002), and basal ganglia (p = 0.036) infarct volumes. Hippocampal infarct volumes (p = 0.191) were not significantly affected. Solulin significantly downregulated the expression of IL-1β (79%; p < 0.001), TNF-α (59%; p = 0.001), IL-6 (47%; p = 0.04), and CD11B (49%; p = 0.001) in the infarcted cortex compared to controls.
Conclusions
Solulin reduced mean total, cortical and basal ganglia infarct volumes and regulated a subset of cytokines and proteases after tMCAO suggesting the potency of this compound for therapeutic interventions.
doi:10.1186/1471-2202-12-113
PMCID: PMC3251036  PMID: 22082476
3.  Early cognitive function, recovery and well-being after sevoflurane and xenon anaesthesia in the elderly: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial 
Background
The postoperative cognitive function is impaired in elderly patients after general anaesthesia. The fast recovery after xenon anaesthesia was hypothesized to be advantageous in this scenario. We compared early postoperative cognitive function after xenon and sevoflurane anaesthesia in this study.
Methods
The study was approved by the local ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained from each patient. Patients aged 65-75 years (ASA I-III) scheduled for elective surgery (duration 60-180 min) were enrolled. Investigators performing cognitive testing and patients were blinded towards allocation to either xenon or sevoflurane anaesthesia. Baseline assessment of cognitive function was carried out 12-24 h before the operation. The results were compared to follow-up tests 6-12 and 66-72 h after surgery. Primary outcome parameter was the subtest "Alertness" of the computerized Test of Attentional Performance (TAP). Secondary outcome parameters included further subtests of the TAP, several Paper-Pencil-Tests, emergence times from anaesthesia, modified Aldrete scores and patients' well-being.
Results
40 patients were randomized and equally allocated to both groups. No significant differences were found in the TAP or the Paper-Pencil-Tests at 6-12 and 66-72 h after the operation. All emergence times were faster after xenon anaesthesia. The modified Aldrete scores were significantly higher during the first hour in the xenon group. No difference in well-being could be detected between both groups.
Conclusions
The results show no difference in the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after xenon or sevoflurane anaesthesia. Emergence from general anaesthesia was faster in the xenon group.
doi:10.1186/2045-9912-1-9
PMCID: PMC3231879  PMID: 22146537

Results 1-3 (3)