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1.  Mitochondrial haplogroups modify the effect of black carbon on age-related cognitive impairment 
Environmental Health  2014;13:42.
Background
Traffic-related air pollution has been linked with impaired cognition in older adults, possibly due to effects of oxidative stress on the brain. Mitochondria are the main source of cellular oxidation. Haplogroups in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mark individual differences in oxidative potential and are possible determinants of neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether mtDNA haplogroups determined differential susceptibility to cognitive effects of long-term exposure to black carbon (BC), a marker of traffic-related air pollution.
Methods
We investigated 582 older men (72 ± 7 years) in the VA Normative Aging Study cohort with ≤4 visits per participant (1.8 in average) between 1995–2007. Low (≤25) Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to assess impaired cognition in multiple domains. We fitted repeated-measure logistic regression using validated-LUR BC estimated in the year before their first visit at the participant’s address.
Results
Mitochondrial haplotyping identified nine haplogroups phylogenetically categorized in four clusters. BC showed larger effect on MMSE in Cluster 4 carriers, including I, W and X haplogroups, [OR = 2.7; 95% CI (1.3-5.6)], moderate effect in Cluster 1, including J and T haplogroups [OR = 1.6; 95% CI: (0.9-2.9)], and no effect in Cluster 2 (H and V haplogroups) [OR = 1.1; 95% CI: (0.8-1.5)] or Cluster 3 (K and U haplogroups) [OR = 1.0; 95% CI: (0.6-1.6)]. BC effect varied only moderately across the I, X, and W haplogroups or across the J and T haplogroups.
Conclusions
The association of BC with impaired cognition was worsened in carriers of phylogenetically-related mtDNA haplogroups in Cluster 4. No BC effects were detected in Cluster 2 and 3 carriers. MtDNA haplotypes may modify individual susceptibility to the particle cognitive effects.
doi:10.1186/1476-069X-13-42
PMCID: PMC4049407  PMID: 24884505
mtDNA haplogroups; Air pollution; Black carbon; Cognitive decline; Mini-mental state examination
2.  Exploring the predictive value of the evoked potentials score in MS within an appropriate patient population: a hint for an early identification of benign MS? 
BMC Neurology  2012;12:80.
Background
The prognostic value of evoked potentials (EPs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been fully established. The correlations between the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) at First Neurological Evaluation (FNE) and the duration of the disease, as well as between EDSS and EPs, have influenced the outcome of most previous studies. To overcome this confounding relations, we propose to test the prognostic value of EPs within an appropriate patient population which should be based on patients with low EDSS at FNE and short disease duration.
Methods
We retrospectively selected a sample of 143 early relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients with an EDSS < 3.5 from a larger database spanning 20 years. By means of bivariate logistic regressions, the best predictors of worsening were selected among several demographic and clinical variables. The best multivariate logistic model was statistically validated and prospectively applied to 50 patients examined during 2009–2011.
Results
The Evoked Potentials score (EP score) and the Time to EDSS 2.0 (TT2) were the best predictors of worsening in our sample (Odds Ratio 1.10 and 0.82 respectively, p=0.001). Low EP score (below 15–20 points), short TT2 (lower than 3–5 years) and their interaction resulted to be the most useful for the identification of worsening patterns. Moreover, in patients with an EP score at FNE below 6 points and a TT2 greater than 3 years the probability of worsening was 10% after 4–5 years and rapidly decreased thereafter.
Conclusions
In an appropriate population of early RRMS patients, the EP score at FNE is a good predictor of disability at low values as well as in combination with a rapid buildup of disability. Interestingly, an EP score at FNE under the median together with a clinical stability lasting more than 3 years turned out to be a protective pattern. This finding may contribute to an early identification of benign patients, well before the term required to diagnose Benign MS (BMS).
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-12-80
PMCID: PMC3488473  PMID: 22913733
Multiple Sclerosis; EP score; Disability prediction; Multivariate analysis; ROC analysis; Benign MS; Evoked potentials

Results 1-2 (2)