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author:("Xu, jisheng")
1.  Magnesium prevents β-glycerophosphate-induced calcification in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells 
Biomedical Reports  2015;3(4):593-597.
Vascular calcification (VC), in which high serum phosphate plays a critical role, is one major problem in patients with chronic kidney disease. Clinical studies report that magnesium has a protective effect on VC. However, the studies regarding the impact of high serum magnesium on VC at a cellular level are few and require further investigation. Therefore, the present study explored the effect of magnesium on calcification induced by β-glycerophosphate (BGP) in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (RAVSMCs). In the present study, the addition of magnesium decreased calcium deposition, which was increased by BGP. Higher magnesium levels inhibited BGP-induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and decreased the expression of core-binding factor α-1 (Cbfα1). In conclusion, higher magnesium levels prevented BGP-induced calcification in RAVSMCs and inhibited the expression of Cbfα1 and ALP. Thus, magnesium is influencing the expression of Cbfα1 and ALP associated with VC and may have the potential to serve as a role for VC in clinical situations.
PMCID: PMC4486886  PMID: 26171172
magnesium; phosphate; vascular calcification; vascular smooth muscle cells
2.  Single-nucleotide polymorphism of the UMOD promoter is associated with the outcome of chronic kidney disease patients 
Biomedical Reports  2015;3(4):588-592.
Uromodulin (UMOD) is the most abundant protein secreted in urine and the mutated form of the UMOD gene is associated with UMOD-associated kidney disease (UAKD). Although UMOD accumulates in the kidney of UAKD patients, it is unclear whether this also occurred in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Therefore, the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of UMOD gene with the kidney survival time of CKD was investigated. The promoter region of the UMOD gene was sequenced for 111 CKD patients. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to identify the disease outcome associated with SNPs in the promoter region of the UMOD gene in CKD patients. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify risk factors for the kidney survival time of CKD. SNPs in reference to GenBank accession NG-000016 were detected at 23 sites of the 481-bp in the UMOD promoter region from the CKD patients and the healthy controls. The 6 SNPs with minor allele frequency >5% in the CKD patients or controls were used for disease risk and outcome analysis. The frequent allele rs13333226AA was associated with a shorter period of kidney survival time in CKD patients (P=0.005). The length of kidney survival time in CKD patients with the rs13333226AA genotype was significantly shorter than that of patients with the frequent allele rs13333226AG+GG (relative risk, 0.361; 95% confidence interval, 0.171–0.761; P=0.007). In conclusion, analysis of genetic polymorphisms in UMOD may help to identify the CKD patient subgroups at a high risk for a disease outcome, thereby helping to refine therapeutic decisions in CKD patients.
PMCID: PMC4487055  PMID: 26171171
outcome; chronic kidney disease; single-nucleotide polymorphism; uromodulin
3.  Magnesium modulates the expression levels of calcification-associated factors to inhibit calcification in a time-dependent manner 
Vascular calcification, a common complication in patients with chronic kidney disease, involves a variety of mechanisms associated with the regulation of calcification-associated factors. Previous clinical studies have indicated that magnesium is involved in the reduction of vascular calcification; however, the mechanism underlying this process remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of magnesium on β-glycerophosphate (β-GP)-induced calcification and the underlying mechanisms. Primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were exposed to 10 mM β-GP in medium with or without the addition of 3 mM magnesium or 2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate (2-APB; an inhibitor of magnesium transport), for a 14-day period. Calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured by Alizarin red staining, quantification of calcium and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression levels of core-binding factor α-1 (Cbfα1), matrix Gla protein (MGP) and osteopontin (OPN) were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or western blot analysis, following incubation for 0, 3, 6, 10 and 14 days with the different media. VSMC calcification and ALP activity was reduced significantly in the high-magnesium medium compared with the calcification medium, during the 14-day incubation. The magnesium-induced changes in the VSMCs included a β-GP-induced downregulation of Cbfα1 by day 3 of incubation, an effect that was gradually enhanced over the 14-day period. By contrast, magnesium produced notable increases in MGP and OPN expression levels, with an opposite pattern to that observed in the Cbfα1 expression levels. However, the addition of 2-APB appeared to inhibit the protective effect of magnesium on the VSMCs. Therefore, magnesium was able to effectively reduce β-GP-induced calcification in rat VSMCs by regulating the expression levels of calcification-associated factors in a time-dependent manner.
PMCID: PMC4316900  PMID: 25667672
vascular calcification; magnesium; core-binding factor α-1; matrix Gla protein; osteopontin; time-dependent manner
4.  Fabrication and Evaluation of a Micro(Bio)Sensor Array Chip for Multiple Parallel Measurements of Important Cell Biomarkers 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2014;14(11):20519-20532.
This report describes the design and development of an integrated electrochemical cell culture monitoring system, based on enzyme-biosensors and chemical sensors, for monitoring indicators of mammalian cell metabolic status. MEMS technology was used to fabricate a microwell-format silicon platform including a thermometer, onto which chemical sensors (pH, O2) and screen-printed biosensors (glucose, lactate), were grafted/deposited. Microwells were formed over the fabricated sensors to give 5-well sensor strips which were interfaced with a multipotentiostat via a bespoke connector box interface. The operation of each sensor/biosensor type was examined individually, and examples of operating devices in five microwells in parallel, in either potentiometric (pH sensing) or amperometric (glucose biosensing) mode are shown. The performance characteristics of the sensors/biosensors indicate that the system could readily be applied to cell culture/toxicity studies.
PMCID: PMC4279497  PMID: 25360580
microbiosensor; screen-printing; MEMS; 96-well plate; metabolism; amperometry; cell monitoring; toxicity testing
5.  High EphA2 protein expression in renal cell carcinoma is associated with a poor disease outcome 
Oncology Letters  2014;8(2):687-692.
The receptor tyrosine kinase, ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2), is normally expressed at sites of cell-to-cell contact in adult epithelial tissues, however, recent studies have shown that it is also overexpressed in various types of epithelial carcinomas, with the greatest level of EphA2 expression observed in metastatic lesions. In the present study, the association between the expression of EphA2 and the outcome of RCC patients was assessed. The high expression level of EphA2 was identified by log-rank test for a statistically significant prediction of the RCC outcome. In an overall multivariate analysis, the high expression level of EphA2 was identified as an independent predictor of RCC outcome. The length of survival of the patients with high EphA2 expression was shorter than that of the patients with a low level of expression (relative risk, 2.304; 95% CI, 1.102–4.818; P=0.027). The analysis of the expression levels of EphA2 in tumor tissues may aid in the identification of the patient subgroup that are at a high risk of a poor disease outcome.
PMCID: PMC4081399  PMID: 25013485
renal cell carcinoma; receptor tyrosine kinases; EphA2; outcome
6.  Analysis of a Single Hemodialysis on Phosphate Removal of the Internal Fistula Patients by Mathematical and Statistical Methods 
Chronic kidney disease related mineral and bone disease (CKD-MBD) is a worldwide challenge in hemodialysis patients. In china, the number of dialysis patients is growing but few data are available about their bone disorders. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of clinical factors on the serum phosphorus clearance in the 80 maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Six clinical factors were identified for their association with the serum phosphorus clearance using the analysis of Spearman's single linear correlation, including predialysis serum phosphate level, CRR, membrane surface area of the dialyzer, effective blood flow rate, the blood chamber volume, and hematocrit. In an overall multivariate analysis, pre-P, CRR, membrane SA, and Qb were identified as independent risk factors associated with the serum phosphorus clearance. In conclusion, HD could effectively clear serum phosphorus. The analysis of CRR might help to estimate serum phosphorus reduction ratio.
PMCID: PMC3884625  PMID: 24454542
7.  Potential association of pulmonary tuberculosis with genetic polymorphisms of toll-like receptor 9 and interferon-gamma in a Chinese population 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2013;13:511.
Association studies have been employed to investigate the relationships between host single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and susceptibility to pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB). However, such candidate genetic markers have not been widely studied in Chinese population, especially with respect to the disease development from latent M. tuberculosis infection (LTBI).
In this case–control study, 44 candidate SNPs were examined in a total of 600 participants (PTB patients, LTBI controls and healthy controls without M. tuberculosis infection) from Zhengzhou, China. The two groups of controls were frequency matched on gender and age with PTB patients. Genotyping was carried out by the Illumina Golden Gate assay.
When comparing PTB patients with LTBI controls but not healthy controls without M. tuberculosis infection, significant associations with disease development were observed for TLR9 1174 A/G, TLR9 1635 A/G and IFNG 2109G/A. The two loci in TLR9 were in LD in our study population (r2=0.96, D’=1.00). A combined effect of the genotypes associated with increased risk of PTB (i.e. TLR9 1174G/G and IFNG 2109 A/A) was found when comparing PTB patients with LTBI controls (p=0.004) but not with healthy controls without infection (p=0.433).
Potential associations between TLR9 and IFN-γ genetic polymorphisms and PTB were observed in a Chinese population which supports further study of the roles played by TLR9/IFN-γ pathway during the development of PTB.
PMCID: PMC3819710  PMID: 24176007
Pulmonary tuberculosis; TLR9; IFN-γ; Genetic polymorphisms; Susceptibility; Chinese
8.  Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mitochondrial displacement loop and age-at onset of renal cell carcinoma 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:2408.
The accumulation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the displacement loop (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been described in various types of cancers, and their association with cancer risk and disease outcome has been extensively identified. In the present study, we investigated the association between age-at-onset and SNPs in the mitochondrial D-loop using a population-based series of renal cell carcinoma(RCC). The SNP sites of nucleotides 16293A/G were identified for their association with age-at-onset using the log-rank test. The age-at-onset of patients with the minor allele G genotype was significantly lower than that of patients with the A genotype at the 16293 site (p < 0.001). Genetic polymorphisms in the D-loop are predictive markers of age-at-onset in RCC patients. Accordingly, the analysis of genetic polymorphisms in the mitochondrial D-loop may help identify RCC patient subgroups at high risk of early onset.
PMCID: PMC3740277  PMID: 23934360
9.  Identification of sequence polymorphisms in the displacement loop region of mitochondrial DNA as a risk factor for renal cell carcinoma 
Biomedical Reports  2013;1(4):563-566.
The accumulation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the displacement loop (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may be associated with an increased cancer risk. In this case-control study, the SNPs in the mitochondrial D-loop of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients were identified and their association with cancer risk was evaluated. The minor alleles of nucleotides 16293A/G, 262A/G and 488T/C were associated with an increased risk, whereas the minor alleles of nucleotides 16298T/C and 16319G/A were associated with a decreased risk for RCC. Moreover, the nucleotides 16293, 262, 16298 and 16319 were identified as specifically associated with the risk of clear cell RCC (ccRCC), whereas 262 and 488 were specifically associated with papillary RCC and renal oncocytoma. In conclusion, SNPs in mtDNA are potential modifiers of RCC. The analysis of genetic polymorphisms in the mitochondrial D-loop may help identify the patient subgroups at a high risk of developing RCC.
PMCID: PMC3917727  PMID: 24648987
displacement loop; renal cell carcinoma; single-nucleotide polymorphism; mitochondrial DNA
10.  Association between family members of dialysis patients and chronic kidney disease: a multicenter study in China 
BMC Nephrology  2013;14:19.
Family members of patients with end stage renal disease were reported to have an increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, studies differentiated genetic and non-genetic family members are limited. We sought to investigate the prevalence of CKD among fist-degree relatives and spouses of dialysis patients in China.
Seventeen dialysis facilities from 4 cities of China including 1062 first-degree relatives and 450 spouses of dialysis patients were enrolled. Sex- and age- matched controls were randomly selected from a representative sample of general population in Beijing. CKD was defined as decreased estimated glomerular (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) or albuminuria.
The prevalence of eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, albuminuria and the overall prevalence of CKD in dialysis spouses were compared with their counterpart controls, which was 3.8% vs. 7.8% (P < 0.01), 16.8% vs. 14.6% (P = 0.29) and 18.4% vs. 19.8% (P = 0.61), respectively. The prevalence of eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, albuminuria and the overall prevalence of CKD in dialysis relatives were also compared with their counterpart controls, which was 1.5% vs. 2.4% (P = 0.12), 14.4% vs. 8.4% (P < 0.01) and 14.6% vs. 10.5% (P < 0.01), respectively. Multivariable Logistic regression analysis indicated that being spouses of dialysis patients is negatively associated with presence of low eGFR, and being relatives of dialysis patients is positively associated with presence of albuminuria.
The association between being family members of dialysis patients and presence of CKD is different between first-degree relatives and spouses. The underlying mechanisms deserve further investigation.
PMCID: PMC3565899  PMID: 23331610
Chronic kidney disease; Albuminuria; Renal function; Relatives; Spouses; Screening
11.  A randomized controlled trial of long term effect of BCM guided fluid management in MHD patients (BOCOMO study): rationales and study design 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:120.
Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) has been reported as helpful in identifying hypervolemia. Observation data showed that hypervolemic maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients identified using BIA methods have higher mortality risk. However, it is not known if BIA-guided fluid management can improve MHD patients’ survival. The objectives of the BOCOMO study are to evaluate the outcome of BIA guided fluid management compared with standard care.
This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. More than 1300 participants from 16 clinical sites will be included in the study. The enrolment period will last 6 months, and minimum length of follow-up will be 36 months. MHD patients aged between 18 years and 80 years who have been on MHD for at least 3 months and meet eligibility criteria will be invited to participate in the study. Participants will be randomized to BIA arm or control arm in a 1:1 ratio. A portable whole body bioimpedance spectroscopy device (BCM—Fresenius Medical Care D GmbH) will be used for BIA measurement at baseline for both arms of the study. In the BIA arm, additional BCM measurements will be performed every 2 months. The primary intent-to-treat analysis will compare outcomes for a composite endpoint of death, acute myocardial infarction, stroke or incident peripheral arterial occlusive disease between groups. Secondary endpoints will include left ventricular wall thickness, blood pressure, medications, and incidence and length of hospitalization.
Previous results regarding the benefit of strict fluid control are conflicting due to small sample sizes and unstable dry weight estimating methods. To our knowledge this is the first large-scale, multicentre, prospective, randomized controlled trial to assess whether BIS-guided volume management improves outcomes of MHD patients. The endpoints of the BOCOMO study are of utmost importance to health care providers. In order to obtain that aim, the study was designed with very careful important considerations related to the endpoints, sample size, inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria and so on. For example, annual mortality of Beijing MHD patients was around 10%. To reach statistical significance, the sample size will be very large. By using composite endpoint, the sample size becomes reasonable and feasible. Limiting inclusion to patients with urine volume less than 800 ml/day the day before dialysis session will limit confounding due to residual renal function effects on the measured parameters. Patients who had received BIS measurement within 3 months prior to enrolment are excluded as data from such measurements might lead to protocol violation. Although not all patients enrolled will be incident patients, we will record the vintage of dialysis in the multivariable analysis.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials NCT01509937
PMCID: PMC3489516  PMID: 23006960
Hemodialysis; Bioimpedance; Dry weight; Body composition monitor; Randomized controlled trial

Results 1-11 (11)